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THE  LIBRARY 

OF 

THE  UNIVERSITY 

OF  CALIFORNIA 

LOS  ANGELES 


4 


SOUTH' E 


'iJDS 


'liic  ^iirl3£j)  of  l^oiilion 


LONDON 


CITY 


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PRICE    30/   NET    EACH 

EARLY    LONDON 

H'ith  I  I  8  Illustrations. 

MEDI/EVAL     LONDON 

VOL.  I.     HISTORICAL    AND    SOCIAL 
With  1 08  Illustrations,  mostly  from  contemporary  prints. 

A'OL.  II.     ECCLESIASTICAL 
With  108  Illustrations,  mostly  from  contemporary  prints. 


LONDON 

IN  THE  TIME  OF  THE  TUDORS 

ll'ith  l.f6  Illustrations  and  a  Reproduction  of  Agas^s  Map  of  London 

in  I  5  60. 


LONDON 

IN  THE  TIME  OF  THE  STUARTS 

With  I  16  Illustrations  and  a  Reproduction  of  Ogilby's  Map  of  London 

in  1677. 


LONDON 

IN  THE  EIGHTEENTH  CENTURY 

With  104  Illustrations  and  a  Reproduction  ofRocque's  Map  of  London 

in  1741-5. 


LONDON 

IN  THE  NINETEENTH  CENTURY 

//7//'  123  Illustrations  and  a  Reproduction  ofCruckley's  Map  of  London 

in  1835. 


AGENTS 

America       .     Thf.  Macmii-i.an  Company 

64  &  66  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York 

Australasia     The  Oxford  University  Press 

205  Flinders  Lane,  Melbourne 

Canada   .     .     The  M.acmillan  Company  of  Canada,  Ltd. 

St.  Martin's  House,  70  Bond  Street,  Toronto 

India  .     .     .     Macmillan  &  Company,  Ltd. 

Macmillan  Building,  Bombay 

309  Bow  Bazaar  Street,  Calcutta 


Pictorial  Agency. 


INTERIOR    OF    ROYAL    EXCHANGE.  — (Page  128) 


LONDON 


CITY 


BY 


SIR   WALTER   BESANT 


LONDON 
ADAM    &    CHARLES    BLACK 

I  9  I  o 


PREFACE 

• 

With  this  volume  we  begin  what  may  be  called  the  second  part  of  the  Survey. 
All  that  has  preceded  it  has  dealt  with  the  history  of  London  as  a  whole ;  now  we 
turn  to  London  in  its  topographical  aspect  and  treat  it  street  by  street,  with  all  the 
historical  associations  interwoven  in  a  continuous  narrative  with  a  running  com- 
mentary of  the  aspect  of  the  streets  as  they  were  at  the  end  of  the  nineteenth 
century,  for  the  book  is  strictly  a  Survey  of  London  up  to  the  end  of  the  nine- 
teenth century.  Sir  Walter  Besant  himself  wrote  the  greater  part  of  the  volume  now 
issued,  calling  it  "  The  Antiquities  of  the  City,"  and  it  is  e.xclusively  confined  to  the 
City.  For  the  topographical  side  of  the  great  work,  however,  he  employed  assistants 
to  collect  material  for  him  and  to  help  him  ;  for  though,  as  he  said,  he  had  been 
"walking  about  London  for  the  last  thirty  years  and  found  something  fresh  in  it 
every  day,"  he  could  not  himself  collect  the  mass  of  detail  requisite  for  a  fair 
presentation  of  the  subject.  In  the  present  volume,  therefore,  embedded  in  his 
running  commentary,  will  be  found  detailed  accounts  of  the  City  Companies,  the 
City  churches  and  other  buildings,  which  are  not  by  his  hand.  A  word  as  to  the 
plan  on  which  the  volume  is  made  may  be  helpful.  In  cases  where  the  City  halls 
are  standing,  accounts  of  the  Companies  they  belong  to  are  inserted  there  in  the 
course  of  the  perambulation  ;  but  where  the  Companies  possess  no  halls,  the  matter 
concerning  them  is  relegated  to  an  Appendi.x.  The  churches,  however,  being 
peculiarly  associated  with  the  sites  on  which  they  are  standing,  or  stood,  are  con- 
sidered to  be  an  integral  part  of  the  City  associations,  and  churches,  whether 
vanished  or  standing,  are  noted  in  course  of  perambulation.  A  distinction  which 
shows  at  a  glance  whether  any  particular  church  is  still  e.xisting  or  has  been  de- 
molished  is  made  by  the  type  ;   for  in  the  case  of  an   existing  church   the   name   is 


«  ',• 


/  0  ^  /  1 


vi  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

set  in  large  black  type,  as  a  centre  heading,  whereas  with  a  vanished  church   it  is 
given  in  smaller  black  type  set  in  line. 

The  plan  of  the  book  is  simplicity  itself;  it  follows  the  lines  of  groups  of  streets, 
taken  as  dictated  by  common  sense  and  not  by  the  somewhat  arbitrary  boundaries  of 
wards.  The  outlines  of  these  groujDS  are  clearly  indicated  on  the  large  map  which 
will  be  found  at  the  end  of  the  volume. 


CONTENTS 

THE    ANTIQUITIES   OF    THE    CITY 

GROUP  I 
Streets  North  and  South  of  Cheapside  and  thic  Poultry  . 


I'AGE 

I 


GROUP   II 
Streets  North  of  Gresham  Street  and  West  of  Moorgate  Street  ...  63 

GROUP   III 

Streets  between  Moorgate  and  Bishopsgate  Streets  .  .  .  .  .91 

GROUP   IV 
Streets  between  Fenchurch  and  Bishopsg.ate  Streets  .  .  .  .  .146 

GROUP   V 

Thames  Street  and  the  Streets  North  and  South  of  n    .  .  .  .  .         igo 

The  Tower  of  London    ..........         28S 

GROUP  VI 

Newg.\te  Street  and  the  Streets  North  and  South  of  it  ....         300 

St.  Paul's  ............         327 

GROUP   VII 

Fleet  Street  and  the  adjacent  Courts  (including  the  Temple  and  the  Rolls)  .         362 

The  Temple  ...........         370 

The.  Ancient  Schools  in  the  City  of  London  ......         385 


viii  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

APPENDICES 

I'AGE 

1.  The  City  Companies     ..........  433 

2.  Mayors  and  Lord  Mayors  of  London  from   1189  to   1900            ....  455 

3.  A  Calendar  of  the  Mayors  and  Sheriffs  of  London  from   1189  to   1900        .             .  461 

INDEX         ............  483 


ILLUSTRATIONS 


Interior  of  Royal  Exchange    . 

Cheapside  Cross  (as  it  appeared  on  its 

St.  Mildred,  Poultry  . 

Inside  the  Poultry  Compter    . 

St.  Lawrence,  Jewry  . 

SS.  Anne  and  Agnes 

Blackwell  Hall,  1819 

Mercers'  Hall  :    Interior 

Mercers'  Hall 

City  of  London  School,  Milk  Street 

Church  of  St.  Vedast 

Goldsmiths'  Hall,  1835 

Gerard's  Hall  Crypt  in  1795  . 

The  Armourers'  and  Brasiers'  Almshouses,  B 

St.  Mary,  Aldermanbury,  in  1814 

Porch  of  St.  Alphage,  London  Wall, 

Sion  College,  London  Wall,  1800 

Grub  Street  Hermit   . 

St.  Giles,  Cripplegate 

London  Wall 

The  Pump  in  Cornhill,  1 800  . 

St.  Peter's,  Cornhill   . 

Confectioner's  Shop,  Cornhill 

Garraway's  Coffee-House 

Pope's  House  in  Plough  Court 

St.  Mar>'  Woolnoth    . 

Altar  of  .St.  Mary  Abchurch    . 

Salters'  Hall,  1822     . 

St.  Stephen,  Walljrook 

The  Mansion  House  and  Cheapside 

Stocks  Market 

Bank  of  England  Fountain 

St.  Bcnet  Finck 


erection  in  1606) 


shopsgat 


,e  Without,  185 


PAGE 

Frontispiece 

5 
18 

19 
26 

27 
31 

Facing  32 

35 
39 
43 
45 
57 
65 
70 
72 
11 

n 
81 

83 
93 
96 

98 

99 

103 

Facing  106 
log 

113 

'•"acing  I  1 8 

I  20 

123 
Facing  i  2  6 
129 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


f  St.  Martin  Outwich,  and  the  I 


iew  of  the  Church  of  St 


Hall.      Demolished  1799 


St.  Martin  Outwich    .... 

Gresham  College        .... 

Carpenters'  Hall,  London  Wall,  1830 

Ironmongers'  Hall  in  the  Eighteenth  Century 

A  Remarkable  Old  House  in  Leadenhall  Street 

Leadenhall  Street 

Skin  Market,  Leadenhall,  1S25 

Leadenhall  Chapel  in  18 12     . 

Crypt  in  Leadenhall  Street,  1825 

Aldgate  in  1830 

St.  Andrew  Undershaft 

Bishopsgate  Street,  showing  Church  ( 

St.  Helen,  Bishopsgate,  181  7 

Cornhill  Military  Association,  with  a 

Council  Room,  Crosby  Hall,  18 16 

Principal  Entrance  to  Leathersellers' 

St.  Ethelburga,  Bishopsgate  Street 

St.  Botolph,  Bishopsgate 

Blackfriars  Bridge,   i  796 

Liidgate  Circus  and  Ludgate  Hill 

Stationers'  Hall  in  1830 

Stationers'  Hall  (Interior) 

Fleur-de-lys  Court 

British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society  House 

The  College  of  Arms 

Doctors'  Commons,  i  808 

Queen  Victoria  Street 

A.  Bas-relief  of  a  Gardener,  Gardeners' 

Council  Chambers,  X'intners'  Hall 

Whittington's  House 

Cannon  Street,  looking  West 

Old  Merchant  Taylors'  School,  Suffolk  Lane,  Cannon  Street 

Fishmongers'  Hall,  present  day 

London  Bridge 

Fishmongers'  Hall  in   1  8  l  I 

St.  Magnus    . 

The  Monument  in  1752 

The  Coal  Exchange  . 

Billingsgate  Market  . 

Custom  House 

Cloth  workers'  Hall     . 

Whittington's  House,  Crutched  P'riars,  1796  . 

Pepys'  Church  (St.  Olave,  Hart  Street) 


Lane,  1791 


ump,  1 8 


Helen 


s,  and  Leathersellers'  Hall 


14 


PAGE 

131 

135 

144 

149 

154 

155 

•57 

160 

161 

169 

173 

177 

179 

Facing 

180 

181 

184 

186 

187 

193 

198 

199 

201 

203 

Facing 

206 

209 

2  1 1 

Facing 

214 

2ig 

231 

236 

Facing 

250 

254 

260 

Facing 

260 

261 

262 

265 

271 

Facing 

272 

Facing 

274 

■ 

277 

279 

281 

ILLUSTRATIONS 


XI 


Trinity  House,  Tower  Hill      . 

Remains  of  London  Wall,  Tower  Hill,   i8iS 

Block,  Axe,  and  Sca\enger's  Daughter 

Newgate  Market,  1S56 

Newgate,  1 799 

Christ's  Hospital,  from  the  Cloisters,  1804 

An  Exciting  Game,  Christ's  Hospital 

The  Oxford  Arms,  Warwick  Lane 

The  Post  Office,  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  and  Bull  and  Mouth  Inn,  London 

St.  Paul's  Cathedral   . 

Paternoster  Row  (as  it  was)    . 

Paternoster  Row 

The  City  Boundary,  Aldersgate 

St.  Bartholomew  the  Great 

General  Post  Office    . 

Cloth  Kair 

Old  Coach  and  Horses,  Cloth  Fair 

Long  Lane,  Smithfield,  iSio 

Bartholotnew  Fair,  172  i 

Fleet  Street   . 

Izaak  Walton's  House  in  Fleet  .Street 

St,  Uunstan  in  the  West  (Old  Church). 

Inner  Temple  Gate  House 

Supposed  House  of  Dryden,  Fetter  Lane 

Dr.  Johnson's  House 

Fleet  Ditch,  West  Street,  Smithtiekl,  as  it  was  in  1844 

St.  Paul's  School  (before  its  removal  to  Hammersmith) 


PAGE 

284 

285 
288 
304 

305 
308 

319 
323 
329 
334 
343 
Fachig  346 

349 
353 

Facing  2,  i'^ 
356 
357 
358 
3  59 

Facing  364 
366 
368 

Facing  374 
380 


402 


THE   ANTIQUITIES   OF  THE   CITY 

It  seems  convenient  in  treating  of  the  history  and  archeeology  of  the  City  to 
take  the  streets  in  groups,  each  group  being  in  connection  with  the  main  street 
to  which  it  belongs.  We  may  in  this  fashion  conveniently  arrange  the  streets 
as  follows  : — 

(i)  Those  north  and  south  of  Cheapside  and  the  Poultry. 

(2)  Those  north  of  Gresham  Street  and  west  of  Moorgate  Street. 

(3)  Those  between  Moorgate  and  Bishopsgate  Streets. 

(4)  Those  between  Fenchurch  and  Bishopsgate  Streets. 

(5)  Thames  Street  and  the  streets  north  and  south  of  it. 

(6)  Newgate  Street  and  the  streets  north  and  south  of  it. 

(7)  Fleet  Street  and  the  adjacent  Courts  (including  the  Temple  and  the  Rolls). 

GROUP    I 

Cheapside. — We  begin  with  the  true  heart  of  London,  West  Chepe,  as 
it  was  formerly  called,  and  the  streets  lying  north  and  south  of  this  market- 
place. St.  Paul's  Churchyard  and  Foster  Lane  mark  our  western  boundary ; 
Princes  Street  and  Walbrook,  our  eastern ;  Gresham  Street  (formerly  Cateaton 
Street)  is  on  the  north,  and  Cannon  Street  on  the  south. 

By  the  time  of  Queen  Elizabeth  we  find  the  West  Chepe,  with  its  streets 
north  and  south,  laid  out  with  something  like  the  modern  regularity.  We  must 
therefore  go  back  to  earlier  centuries  to  discover  its  origin. 

West  Chepe,  from  time  immemorial,  has  been  the  most  important  market 
of  the  City.  It  was  formerly,  say  in  the  twelfth  century,  a  large  open  area. 
This  area  contained  no  fewer  than  twenty-five  churches,  of  which  nine  still  exist. 
The  churches  are  dotted  about  in  apparent  disorder,  which  can  be  partly  explained. 
For  the  market  of  Chepe  was  extended  in  fact  from  the  Church  of  St.  Michael 
le  Ouerne  on  the  west,  to  that  of  St.  Christopher  le  Stock  on  the  east,  and  lay 
between  the  modern  Gresham  Street  in  the  north  and  Watling  Street  in  the  south. 

It  is  ordered  in  Liber  Albus  that  all  manner  of  victuals  are  to  be  sold 
between  the  kennels  of  the  streets.  The  so-called  streets  were  narrow  lanes, 
many  of  which  remain  to  the  present  day. 


2  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

There  was,  however,  a  principal  way,  not  a  street  in  our  sense  of  the  word, 
on  either  side  of  which,  on  the  north  and  on  the  south,  as  well  as  along  the 
middle,  were  stalls  and  shops.  These  stalls  were  at  first  mere  wooden  sheds ; 
the  goods  were  exposed  by  day  and  removed  at  night ;  in  course  of  time  they 
became  permanent  shops  with  living,  rooms  at  the  back  and  an  upper  chamber. 
Among  the  sheds  stood  "selds."  The  seld  was  a  building  not  unlike  the  present 
Covent  Garden  Market,  being  roofed  over  and  containing  shops  and  store-houses. 
Several  "  selds  "  are  mentioned  in  the  thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries.  These 
were  the  "  great-seld  "  in  the  Mercery,  called  after  the  Lady  Roisia  de  Coventre. 
This  was  near  the  house  of  St.  Thomas  of  Aeon,  where  now  stands  the  Mercers' 
Hall.  There  was  also  the  "  great  seld  of  London,"  in  the  ancient  parish  of  St. 
Pancras,  therefore  on  the  south  side  of  Cheapside.  There  was  again  the  "  seld  of 
Fryday  Street  serving  for  foreign  tanners,  and  time  out  of  mind  occupied  with  these 
wares  "  ;  and  there  was  a  seld  held  in  1304  by  John  de  Stanes,  mercer. 

In  the  Liber  Albiis  the  seld  is  distinguished  from  the  "shop,  the  cellar  or 
solar."  It  is  also  alluded  to  in  the  same  book  as  the  place  where  w'ool  and 
other  commodities  are  sold.  Bakers  were  forbidden  to  store  their  bread  in  selds 
longer  than  one  night.  The  seld  was  therefore  a  w^arehouse,  a  weighing  place, 
as  well  as  a  shop.  Since  we  hear  nothing  about  selds  in  the  Calendar  of  Wills 
after  the  fourteenth  century,  we  may  infer  that  a  change  had  been  made  in  the 
methods  of  the  market.  The  change  in  fact  was  this.  North  and  south  of 
what  is  now  Cheapside  were  arranged  in  order  the  stalls  of  those  who  sold 
everything ;  these  stalls  were  protected  from  the  weather ;  the  various  branches 
or  departments  of  the  market  were  separated  by  narrow  lanes.  It  is  impossible 
at  this  time  to  assign  all  the  various  trades  accurately  each  to  its  own  place — 
in  fact,  they  always  overlapped  ;  but  we  can  do  so  approximately.  The  names 
of  the  streets  belonging  to  Cheapside  are  a  guide.  For  instance.  Wood  Street, 
Milk  Street,  Honey  Lane,  Ironmonger  Street,  Old  Jewry,  the  Poultry,  Scalding 
Alley,  Soper  Street,  Bread  Street,  Friday  Street,  Old  Change,  explain  a  great  part 
of  the  disposition  of  the  ancient  market. 

When  we  consider  that  twenty-five  churches  stood  in  or  about  the  great 
market,  and  that  they  were  all  presumably  more  ancient  than  the  Conquest, 
we  may  deduce  the  fact  that  the  stalls  very  early  became  closed  shops,  and 
in  many  cases  permanent  houses  of  residence,  and  that  the  market  contained  a 
large  resident  population  by  which  industries  were  carried  on  as  well  as  shops. 
With  certain  wares,  such  as  milk,  honey,  wood,  spices,  mercery,  salt-fish,  poultry, 
meat,  and  herbs,  there  was  no  other  industry  than  that  of  receiving,  packing, 
and  distributing.  We  therefore  find  few  churches  between  Wood  Street  and 
Ironmonger  Lane,  the  chief  seat  of  these  branches ;  while  on  the  south  side, 
for  the  same  reason,  there  are  still  fewer  churches. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  3 

The  South  Chepe  was  occupied  by  money-changers,  salt-fish  dealers,  leather- 
sellers,  bakers,  mercers,  pepperers,  and  herb-sellers.  Soap-makers  were  there  also 
at  one  time,  but  they  were  banished  to  another  part  of  the  City  before  the  time  of 
Edward  the  Second.  "  Melters,"  i.e.  of  lard  and  tallow,  were  also  forbidden  to 
carry  on  their  evil-smelling  trade  in  West  Chepe  so  far  back  as  1203. 

A  brief  study,  therefore,  enables  us  to  understand,  first,  why  the  churches 
stand  thickly  in  one  part  and  thinly  in  another ;  next,  that  West  Chepe  was 
a  vast  open  market  containing  a  resident  population,  crowded  where  industries 
were  carried  on,  and  sparse  where  the  goods  were  simply  exposed  for  sale  ;  and, 
thirdly,  that  the  place  could  be  easily  converted  into  a  tilting  ground,  as  was 
done  on  many  occasions,  by  clearing  away  the  "stationers,"  that  is  to  say,  the 
people  who  held  stalls  or  stations  about  the  crosses  in  Cheapside.  On  one 
occasion,  at  least,  this  was  done,  to  the  great  indignation  of  the  people. 

There  are  certain  places  in  the  country,  and  on  the  Continent,  where  the 
mediaeval  market  is  still  preserved  in  its  most  irnportant  features.  For  instance, 
there  is  the  market-place  of  Peterborough,  which  is  still  divided  by  lanes,  and 
which  has  areas  allotted  to  the  different  trades  ;  and  that  of  Rheims,  where  the 
ancient  usages  are  preserved  and  followed,  even  to  the  appearance  of  Autolycus, 
the  Cheap  Jack,  and  the  Quack,  who  may  be  seen  and  heard  on  every  market  day. 

We  may  take  Stow's  description  of  the  Elizabethan  Chepe  : 

"At  the  West  end  of  this  Poultrie,  and  also  of  Bucklesbury,  beginneth  the 
large  street  of  West  Cheaping,  a  market  place  so  called,  which  street  stretcheth 
west  till  ye  come  to  the  little  conduit  by  Paule's  gate,  but  not  all  of  Cheape  ward. 
In  the  east  part  of  this  street  standeth  the  great  conduit  of  sweet  water,  conveyed 
by  pipes  of  lead  underground  from  Paddington  for  the  service  of  this  city, 
castellated  with  stone,  and  cisterned  in  lead,  about  the  year  1285,  and  again  new 
built  and  enlarged  by  Thomas  Ham,  one  of  the  sheriffs  1479. 

"About  the  midst  of  this  street  is  the  Standard  in  Cheape,  of  what  antiquity 
the  first  foundation  I  have  not  read.  But  Henry  VI.,  by  his  patent  dated  at 
Windsor  the  21st  of  his  reign,  which  patent  was  confirmed  by  parliament  1442, 
granted  license  to  Thomas  Knolles,  John  Chichele,  and  other,  executors  to 
John  Wells,  grocer,  sometime  mayor  of  London,  with  his  goods  to  make  new 
the  highway  which  leadeth  from  the  city  of  London  towards  the  palace  of 
Westminster,  before  and  nigh  the  manor  of  Savoy,  parcel  of  the  Duchy  of 
Lancaster,  a  way  then  very  ruinous,  and  the  pavement  broken,  to  the  hurt  and 
mischief  of  the  subjects,  which  old  pavement  then  remaining  in  that  way  within 
the  length  of  five  hundred  feet,  and  all  the  breadth  of  the  same  before  and  nigh 
the  site  of  the  manor  aforesaid,  they  to  break  up,  and  with  stone,  gravel,  and  other 
stuff,  one  other  good  and  sufficient  way  there  to  make  for  the  commodity  of  the 
subjects. 


4  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

"And  further,  that  the  Standard  in  Cheape,  where  divers  executions  of  the 
law  beforetime  had  been  performed,  which  standard  at  the  present  was  very 
ruinous  with  age,  in  which  there  was  a  conduit,  should  be  taken  down,  and  another 
competent  standard  of  stone,  together  with  a  conduit  in  the  same,  of  new,  strongly 
to  be  built,  for  the  commodity  and  honour  of  the  city,  with  the  goods  of  the  said 
testator,  without  interruption,  etc. 

"Of  executions  at  the  Standard  in  Cheape,  we  read,  that  in  the  year  1293 
three  men  had  their  right  hands  smitten  off  there,  for  rescuing  of  a  prisoner  arrested 
by  an  officer  of  the  city.  In  the  year  1326,  the  burgesses  of  London  caused  Walter 
Stapleton,  Bishop  of  Exceter,  treasurer  to  Edward  II.,  and  other,  to  be  beheaded 
at  the  standard  in  Cheape  (but  this  was  by  Paule's  gate);  in  the  year  1351,  the 
26th  of  Edward  III.,  two  fishmongers  were  beheaded  at  the  standard  in  Cheape, 
but  I  read  not  of  their  offence;  1381,  Wat  Tyler  beheaded  Richard  Lions  and 
other  there.  In  the  year  1399,  Henry  IV.  caused  the  blank  charters  made  by 
Richard  II.  to  be  burnt  there.  In  the  year  1450,  Jack  Cade,  captain  of  the 
Kentish  rebels,  beheaded  the  Lord  Say  there.  In  the  year  1461,  John  Davy  had 
his  hand  stricken  off  there,  because  he  had  stricken  a  man  before  the  judges  at 
Westminster,  etc. 

"  Then  next  is  a  great  cross  in  West  Cheape,  which  cross  was  there  erected 
in  the  year  1290  by  Edward  I.  upon  occasion  thus  :— Queen  Elianor  his  wife  died 
at  Hardeby  (a  town  near  unto  the  city  of  Lincoln),  her  body  was  brought  from 
thence  to  Westminster  ;  and  the  king,  in  memory  of  her,  caused  in  every  place 
where  her  body  rested  by  the  way,  a  stately  cross  of  stone  to  be  erected,  with  the 
queen's  image  and  arms  upon  it,  as  at  Grantham,  Woborne,  Northampton,  Stony 
Stratford,  Dunstable,  St.  Albones,  Waltham,  West  Cheape,  and  at  Charing,  from 
whence  she  was  conveyed  to  Westminster,  and  there  buried. 

"  This  cross  in  West  Cheape  being  like  to  those  other  which  remain  to  this 
day,  and  being  by  length  of  time  decayed,  John  Hatherle,  mayor  of  London, 
procured,  in  the  year  1441,  license  of  King  Henry  VI.  to  re-edify  the  same  in  more 
beautiful  manner  for  the  honour  of  the  city,  and  had  license  also  to  take  up  two 
hundred  fodder  of  lead  for  the  building  thereof  of  certain  conduits,  and  a  common 
granary.  This  cross  was  then  curiously  wrought  at  the  charges  of  divers  citizens  : 
John  Fisher,  mercer,  gave  six  hundred  marks  toward  it ;  the  same  was  begun  to  be 
set  up  1484,  and  finished  i486,  the  2nd  of  Henry  VII. 

"In  the  year  1599,  the  timber  of  the  cross  at  the  top  being  rotted  within  the 
lead,  the  arms  thereof  bending,  were  feared  to  have  fallen  to  the  harming  of  some 
people,  and  therefore  the  whole  body  of  the  cross  was  scaffolded  about,  and  the  top 
thereof  taken  down,  meaning  in  place  thereof  to  have  set  up  a  piramis  ;  but  some 
of  her  majesty's  honourable  councillors  directed  their  letters  to  Sir  Nicholas  Mosley, 
then  mayor,  by  her  highness'  express  commandment  concerning  the  cross,  forthwith 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  5 

to  be  repaired,  and  placed  again  as  it  formerly  stood,  etc.,  notwithstanding  the  said 
cross  stood  headless  more  than  a  year  after.  After  this  (1600)  a  cross  of  timber  was 
framed,  set  up,  covered  with  lead,  and  gilded,  the  body  of  the  cross  downward 
cleansed  of  dust,  the  scaffold  carried  thence.  About  twelve  nights  following,  the 
image  of  Our  Lady  -was  again  defaced,  by  plucking  off  her  crown,  and  almost  her 


CHEArSIDE   CROSS    (AS    IT   AI'I'EARED   ON    US    ERECTION    IN    1606) 
Frum  an  original  Drawing  in  the  Pepysian  Library,  Cambridge. 

head,  taking  from  her  her  naked  child,  and  stabbing  her  in  the  breast,  etc.     Thus 
much  for  the  cross  in  West  Cheape  "  (Stow's  Survey,  1633,  pp.  278-80). 

The  cross  was  the  object  of  much  abuse  by  the  Puritans,  who  at  last  succeeded 
in  getting  it  pulled  down.  "On  May  2nd,  1643,  the  Cross  of-Cheapside  was  pulled 
down.  A  troop  of  horse  and  two  companies  of  foot  waited  to  guard  it ;  and,  at  the 
fall  of  the  top  cross,  drums  beat,  trumpets  blew,  and  multitudes  of  caps  were  thrown 


6  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

into  the  air.  .  .  .  And  the  same  day,  at  night  was  the  leaden  popes  ^  burnt  in  the 
place  where  it  stood,  with  ringing-  of  bells  and  a  great  acclamation  "  (Wilkinson's 
Londina  Illustrata). 

To  continue  Stow's  account : 

"  Then  at  the  west  end  of  West  Cheape  Street,  was  sometime  a  cross  of  stone, 
called  the  Old  Cross.  Ralph  Higden,  in  his  Policronicon,  saith,  that  Walter 
Stapleton,  Bishop  of  Exceter,  treasurer  to  Edward  II.,  was  by  the  burgesses  of 
London  beheaded  at  this  cross  called  the  Standard,  without  the  north  door  of 
St.  Paul's  church  ;  and  so  is  it  noted  in  other  writers  that  then  lived.  This  old 
cross  stood  and  remained  at  the  east  end  of  the  parish  church  called  St.  Michael 
in  the  Corne  by  Paule's  gate,  near  to  the  north  end  of  the  old  Exchange,  till  the 
year  1390,  the  13th  of  Richard  II.,  in  place  of  which  old  cross  then  taken  down, 
the  said  church  of  St.  Michael  was  enlarged,  and  also  a  fair  water  conduit  built 
about  the  9th  of  Henry  VI. 

"  In  the  reign  of  Edward  III.,  divers  joustings  were  made  in  this  street,  betwixt 
Sopers  lane  and  the  great  cross,  namely,  one  in  the  year  1331,  the  21st  of 
September,  as  I  find  noted  by  divers  writers  of  that  time. 

"  In  the  middle  of  the  city  of  London  (say  they),  in  a  street  called  Cheape,  the 
stone  pavement  being  covered  with  sand,  that  the  horses  might  not  slide  when  they 
strongly  set  their  feet  to  the  ground,  the  king  held  a  tournament  three  days  together, 
with  the  nobility,  valiant  men  of  the  realm,  and  other  some  strange  knights.  And 
to  the  end  the  beholders  might  with  the  better  ease  see  the  same,  there  was  a 
wooden  scaffold  erected  across  the  street,  like  unto  a  tower,  wherein  Queen  Philippa, 
and  many  other  ladies,  richly  attired,  and  assembled  from  all  parts  of  the  realm,  did 
stand  to  behold  the  jousts;  but  the  higher  frame,  in  which  the  ladies  were  placed, 
brake  in  sunder,  whereby  they  were  with  some  shame  forced  to  fall  down,  by  reason 
whereof  the  knights  and  such  as  were  underneath,  were  grievously  hurt ;  wherefore 
the  queen  took  great  care  to  save  the  carpenters  from  punishment,  and  through  her 
prayers  (which  she  made  upon  her  knees)  pacified  the  king  and  council,  and  thereby 
purchased  great  love  of  the  people.  After  which  time  the  king  caused  a  shed  to  be 
.strongly  made  of  stone,  for  himself,  the  queen,  and  other  estates  to  stand  on,  and 
there  to  behold  the  joustings,  and  other  shows,  at  their  pleasure,  by  the  church  of 
St.  Mary  Bow,  as  is  showed  in  Cordwainer  street  ward  "  [Ibid.). 

In  1754  Strype  writes: 

"  Cheapside  is  a  very  stately  spacious  street,  adorned  with  lofty  buildings  ;  well 
inhabited  by  Goldsmiths,  Linen-Drapers,  Haberdashers,  and  other  great  dealers. 
The  street,  which  is  throughout  of  an  equal  breadth,  begins  westward  at  Paternoster 
Row,  and,  in  a  straight  line,  runs  to  the  Poultry,  and  from  thence  to  the  Royal 
exchange  in  Cornhill.     And,  as  this  Street  is  yet  esteemed  the  principal  high  street 

'  These  were  the  leaden  fi>;ures  on  the  cross. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  7 

in  the  City,  so  it  was  formerly  graced  with  a  great  Conduit,  a  Standard,  and  a  stately 
Cross  ;  which  last  was  pulled  down  in  the  Civil  Wars.  In  the  last  Part,  almost  over- 
against  Mercers  Chapel,  stood  a  great  Conduit ;  but  this  Conduit,  standing  almost  in 
the  Middle  of  the  street,  being  incommodious  for  Coaches  and  Carts,  was  thought  fit 
by  the  Magistracy,  after  the  great  Fire,  to  be  taken  down,  and  built  no  more." 

The  great  Conduit  of  Chepe,  commenced  in  1285,  brought  the  water  from 
Paddington,  a  distance  of  3^  miles.  It  stood  opposite  Mercers'  Hall  and  Chapel. 
It  was  a  stone  building  long  and  low,  battlemented,  enclosing  a  leaden  cistern.  In 
the  year  1441  at  the  west  end  of  Chepe  and  in  the  east  end  of  the  Church  of 
St.  Michael  le  Querne,  the  smaller  conduit  was  erected.  Both  conduits  were 
destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire — the  larger  one  was  not  rebuilt.  The  Standard  opposite 
Honey  Lane  was  in  later  years  fitted  with  a  water  cock  always  running.  At  the 
Standard  many  public  executions  took  place  (Strype,  vol.  i.  p.  566). 

Hardly  any  street  of  London  is  more  frequently  mentioned  in  annual  documents 
than  Chepe.  There  are  many  ancient  deeds  of  sale  and  conveyances  still  preserved 
at  the  Guildhall,  relating  to  property  in  Chepe.  In  the  Calendar  of  Wills,  houses, 
etc.,  in  Chepe  are  bequeathed  in  more  than  two  hundred  wills  there  quoted  ;  many 
ordinances  concerning  Chepe  are  recorded  in  Riley's  Memorials. 

Stow  has  given  some  of  the  history  of  Chepe.  His  account  may  be  supple- 
mented by  a  few  notes  on  other  events  and  persons  connected  with  the  street. 

The  antiquity  of  the  street  is  proved  by  the  discovery  of  Roman  coins,  Roman 
tesserae,  Romano- British  remains  of  various  kinds,  and  Sa.xon  jewels.  It  is  not, 
however,  until  the  thirteenth  century  that  we  find  historical  events  other  than  the 
conveyance,  etc.,  of  land  and  tenements  in  Cheapside. 

In  the  thirteenth  century  a  part  of  Cheapside,  if  not  the  whole,  was  called  the 
Crown  Field  ;  the  part  so  called  was  probably  confined  to  a  space  on  the  east  of 
Bow  Church. 

In  the  year  1232  we  find  the  citizens  mustering  in  arms  at  Mile  End  and  "well 
arrayed  "  in  Chepe. 

In  1269  it  is  recorded  that  the  pillory  in  Chepe  was  broken,  and  so  remained 
for  a  whole  year  by  the  negligence  of  the  bailiffs,  so  that  nobody  could  be  put  in 
pillory  for  that  time.  The  bakers  seized  the  opportunity  for  selling  loaves  of  short 
weight — even  a  third  part  short.  But  in  1270,  on  the  F"east  of  St.  Michael,  the 
sheriffs  had  a  new  pillory  made  and  erected  on  the  site  of  the  old  one.  Then  the 
hearts  of  the  bakers  failed  them  for  fear,  and  the  weight  of  the  loaves  increased. 

In  1273  the  Mayor  removed  from  Chepe  all  the  stalls  of  the  butchers  and 
fishmongers,  together  with  the  stalls  which  had  been  let  and  granted  by  the 
preceding  sheriffs,  although  the  persons  occupying  them  had  taken  them  for  life  and 
had  paid  large  sums  for  their  leases.  This  was  a  political  move,  the  intention  being 
to  deprive  the  stall-keepers  of  their  votes.     The    Mayor,    however,    defended  the 


8  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

action  on  the  ground  that  the  King  was  about  to  visit  the  City,  and  that  it  behoved 
him  to  clear  the  way  of  refuse  and  encumbrances. 

In  the  year  1326  a  letter  was  sent  by  the  Queen  and  her  son  Edward  calHng 
upon  the  citizens  of  London  to  aid  with  all  their  power  in  destroying  the  enemies 
of  the  land,  and  Hugh  le  Despenser  in  especial.  Wherefore,  when  the  head  of 
Hugh  was  carried  in  triumph  through  Chepe,  with  trumpets  sounding,  the  citizens 
rejoiced. 

In  October  of  the  same  year  when  the  Bishop  of  Exeter,  Walter  de  Stapleton, 
was  on  his  way  to  his  house  in  "  Elde  Dean's  Lane"  to  dine  there,  he  was  met  by 
the  mob,  dragged  into  Chepe  with  one  of  his  esquires,  and  there  beheaded. 
Another  of  the  Bishop's  servants  was  beheaded  in  Chepe  the  same  day. 

On  the  birth  of  Edward  III.  on  November  13,  131 2,  the  people  of  London 
made  great  rejoicings,  holding  carols,  i.e.  dances  and  songs,  in  Chepe  for  a  fortnight, 
while  the  conduits  ran  wine. 

In  1482  a  grocer's  shop  in  Cheapside  with  a  "hall"  over  it — perhaps  a  ware- 
house— was  let  for  the  rental  of  £i\  :  6  :  8  per  annum.  The  owner  of  the  shop  was 
Lord  Howard,  created  Duke  of  Norfolk  in  1483. 

References  to  Cheapside  multiply  as  we  approach  more  modern  times.  In  1522, 
when  Charles  V.  came  to  England,  lodgings  were  appointed  for  his  retinue.  Among 
them  was  a  house  in  Cheapside,  a  goldsmith's.  It  contained  one  parlour,  one 
kitchen,  one  chamber,  and  one  bed.  The  murder  of  Dr.  Lambe  in  1631,  the  exe- 
cution of  William  Hacket  in  1591,  the  burning  of  the  Solemn  Covenant  in  1661, — 
these  are  incidents  in  the  history  of  Cheapside.  Many  other  events  belonging 
either  to  the  history  of  the  City  or  of  the  realm  have  been  mentioned  elsewhere. 

In  the  sixteenth  century  one  of  the  sights  of  London  was  the  Goldsmiths'  Row, 
built  in  1 49 1  on  the  site  of  certain  shops  and  selds.  Stow  calls  the  Row  "a  most 
beautiful  frame  of  faire  houses  and  shops  consisting  of  ten  faire  dwellinghouses  and 
fourteen  shops,  all  in  one  frame,  builded  foure  stories  high,  beautified  towards  the 
street  with  the  Goldsmith's  Arms  and  the  likeness  of  woodmen,  in  memory  of  his 
name,  riding  on  monstrous  beasts  all  richly  painted  and  gilt."  Maitland,  who 
certainly  could  not  remember  it,  says  that  it  was  "  beautiful  to  behold  the  glorious 
appearance  of  the  Goldsmith's  shops  in  the  South  row  of  Cheapside,  which  in  a 
course  reached  from  the  Old  Change  of  Bucklersbury  exclusive  of  four  shops  only, 
of  three  trades,  in  all  that  space." 

Coming  now  to  a  description  of  Cheapside  as  it  is  at  present,  we  find  a  statue  of 
Sir  Robert  Peel  standing  on  a  block  of  granite.  The  whole  is  more  than  20  feet  in 
height.  The  statue  was  put  up  in  1S55,  and  on  the  pedestal  is  the  inscription  of 
Peel's  birth  and  death.  On  the  north  of  Cheapside  is  a  large  stone  block  of  building 
in  one  uniform  style  with  shops  on  the  ground  floor.  This  contains  the  Saddlers' 
Hall,  and  in  the  middle  is  the  great  entrance  way  solidly  carried  out  in  stone. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY   .  9 

THE   SADDLERS   COMPANY 

The  date  of  the  formation  of  the  Company,  and  the  circumstances  under  which  it  was  founded,  are  un- 
known. It  existed  at  a  very  remote  period.  There  is  now  preserved  in  the  archives  of  the  Collegiate  Church 
of  Saint  Martin's-le-Grand  a  parchment  containing  a  letter  from  that  foundation,  in  which  reference  is  made 
to  the  then  ancient  customs  of  the  Guild.  This  document  is  believed  to  have  been  written  about  the  time 
of  Henry  II.,  Richard.  I.,  or  John,  most  probably  in  the  first  of  these  reigns.  In  this  letter  reference  is 
made  to  "  Ernaldus,  the  Alderman  of  the  Guild."  This  Ernaldus  is  stated  by  Mr.  Alfred  John  Kempe, 
in  his  work  Historical  Notices  of  the  Collegiate  Church  of  Saint  Martin's-le-Grand,  to  have  lived  before  the 
Conquest,  by  which  it  may  be  inferred  that  the  Company  is.  of  Anglo-Saxon  origin. 

King  Edward  I.,  a.d.  1272,  granted  a  charter.  King  Edward  III.,  by  his  charter  ist  December,  37 
Edward  III.,  a.d.  1363,  granted  that  as  well  in  the  City  of  London  as  in  every  other  city,  borough,  or  town 
where  the  art  of  Saddlers  is  exercised,  one  or  two  honest  and  faithful  men  of  the  craft  should  be  chosen  and 
appointed  by  the  Saddlers  there  dwelling  to  superintend  and  survey  the  craft.  This  charter  was  exemplified 
and  confirmed  by  Henry  VI.,  Henry  VII.,  and  Henry  VIII. 

Richard  II.,  by  charter  20th  March,  18  Richard  II.,  a.d.  1374,  granted  to  the  men  of  the  mystery 
of  Saddlers  of  the  City  of  London,  that  for  the  good  government  of  the  mystery  they  may  have  one 
commonalty  of  themselves  for  ever,  and  that  the  men  of  the  same  mystery  and  commonalty  may  choose 
and  appoint  every  year  four  keepers  of  the  men  of  the  commonalty  to  survey,  rule,  and  duly  govern  the 
same.  Furthermore,  that  the  keepers  and  commonalty,  and  their  successors,  may  purchase  lands,  to  the 
yearly  value  of  twenty  pounds,  for  the  sustentation  of  the  poor,  old,  weak  and  decayed  persons  of  the 
mystery,  and  this  charter  was  exemplified,  ratified,  and  confirmed  by  Edward  IV. 

Queen  Elizabeth,  by  charter  9th  November,  i  Elizabeth,  a.d.  1558,  exemplifies,  ratifies,  and  confirms 
the  previous  charters,  and  reincorporates  the  Company  by  the  name  of  the  wardens  or  keepers  and 
commonalty  of  the  mystery  or  art  of  Saddlers  of  the  City  of  London.  The  charter  names  and  appoints 
four  wardens  to  hold  office  from  the  date  of  the  charter  until  the  14th  August  then  following,  and 
authorises  them  to  keep  within  their  common  hall  an  assembly  of  the  wardens  or  keepers  or  freemen  of  the 
same  mystery,  or  the  greater  part  of  them,  or  of  the  wardens,  and  of  eight  of  the  most  ancient  and  worthy 
freemen,  being  of  the  assistants  of  the  mystery,  and  that  the  wardens  and  eight  of  the  assistants  at  least 
being  present  shall  have  full  power  to  treat,  consult,  and  agree  upon  the  articles  and  ordinances  touching 
the  mystery  or  art  aforesaid,  and  the  good  rule,  state,  and  government  of  the  same.  Power  is  given  to 
elect  four  wardens  on  the  14th  August  yearly.  Power  of  giving  two  votes  is  given  to  the  master  at  doubtful 
elections.      Powers  are  also  given  for  the  government  and  regulation  of  the  trade. 

This  is  one  of  the  most  ancient,  as  it  is  also  one  of  the  most  interesting,  of  the  City  Companies. 
Their  original  quarter  was  at  St.  Martin's-le-Grand.  The  saddle  played  an  important  part  in  every  man's 
life  at  a  time  when  riding  was  the  only  method  of  travelling. 

The  saddlers  were  connected  with  the  Church  of  St.  Martin's-le-Grand  and  made  some  kind  of 
convention  with  the  Canons,  the  nature  of  which  is  uncertain.  Probably  the  Canons  promised  them  their 
aid  in  support  of  their  rights  and  privileges,  in  return  for  which  their  religious  gifts  and  fees  were  paid  to 
the  Church  of  St.  Martin.  The  mystery  of  saddlery,  like  all  others,  overlapped,  and  encroached  upon, 
other  mysteries  and  crafts.  Then  there  followed  quarrels.  Thus  in  1307  (Riley,  Memorials,  p.  156)  there 
was  an  affray  between  the  saddlers  on  one  side  and  the  loriners,  joiners,  and  painters  on  the  other,  on 
account  of  such  encroachments.  The  quarrel  was  adjusted  by  the  Mayor  and  Aldermen.  Another  trouble 
to  which  so  great  a  trade  was  liable,  was  the  desire  of  the  journeymen  to  break  off  into  fraternities  of  their 
own.     This  pretension  was  seriously  taken  in  hand  in  1796,  and  such  fraternities  were  strictly  forbidden. 

The  Company  has  had  three  halls,  all  on  the  same  site.  The  first  was  burned  in  the  Great  Fire ; 
the  second  in  1822  ;  the  present  hall  was  built  after  the  second  fire,  and  is  at  No.  141  Cheapside. 

At  the  corner  of  Wood  Street  is  what  remains  of  the  churchyard  of  St.  Peter's, 
Westcheap,  the   building  of  which   was  destroyed   in   the  Great    Fire  :    a   railed-in 


lo  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

space,  gravel  covered  and  uninteresting,  except  for  the  magnificent  plane-tree  which 
spreads  its  branches  protectingly  over  the  low  roofs  in  front.  On  the  walls  of  the 
old  houses  near  are  fixed  two  monuments,  and  a  little  stone  tablet  rather  high  up, 
with  the  inscription  : 

"Erected  at  the  sole  cost  and  charges  of  the  Parish  of  St.  Peter's,  Westcheap,  a.d.  1687," 

followed  by  the  names  of  the  churchwardens. 

The  Church  of  St.  Peter,  Westcheap,  was  also  called  SS.  Peter  and  Paul.  After  the  Great 
Fire  its  parish  was  annexed  to  that  of  St.  Matthew,  Friday  Street.  The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent 
is  1302. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Abbot  of  St.  Alban's  before  1302.  Henry  VIII. 
seized  it  and  granted  it  in  1545  to  the  Earl  of  Southampton,  in  whose  successors  it  continued  up  to  1666. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  360. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  at  the  Altar  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary  by  Nicholas  de  Faringdon, 
Mayor  of  London,  1313  and  1320,  for  himself  and  Rose  his  wife,  to  which  Lawrence  Bretham  de 
Faversham  was  admitted  chaplain,  October  24,  1361  ;  the  endowment  fetched  ^29  :  3  :  4  in  1548,  when 
Sir  W.  Alee  was  priest.     There  was  another  at  the  Altar  of  the.  Holy  Cross. 

Sir  John  Munday,  goldsmith.  Mayor,  was  buried  here  in  1527;  also  Sir  Alexander  Avenon,  Mayor 
in  1569;  and  Augustine  Hind,  clothworker,  Alderman,  and  Sheriff  of  London,  who  died  in  1554. 

The  only  charitable  gifts  recorded  by  Stow  are  :  £,2  :  4  :  4,  the  gift  of  Sir  Lionel  Ducket ;  3s.  4d.,  the 
gift  of  Lady  Read;  7s.  5d.,  the  gift  of  Mr.  Walton. 

John  Gwynneth,  Mus.  Doc.  and  author,  was  rector  here  in  1545;  also  Richard  Gwent,  D.D.,  and 
William  Boleyn,  Archdeacon  of  Winchester. 

ST.   MARY-LE-BOW 

But  the  ornament  of  Cheapside  is  St.  Mary-le-Bow,  which  derived  its  additional  name  from  its 
stone  "bows  "  or  arches.  The  date  of  its  foundation  is  not  known,  but  it  appears  to  have  been  during  or 
before  the  reign  of  William  the  Conqueror.  The  court  of  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  was  held  here 
before  the  Great  Fire ;  and  though  the  connection  between  the  church  and  the  ecclesiastical  courts  has 
ceased,  it  is  still  used  for  the  confirmation  of  the  election  of  bishops.  The  "  Court  of  Arches  "  owes  its 
name  to  the  fact  that  it  was  held  in  the  beautiful  Norman  crypt  which  still  survives.  The  church  has 
been  made  famous.  Stow  observes,  as  the  scene  of  various  calamities,  of  which  he  records  details.  In 
1469  the  Common  Council  ordained  the  ringing  of  Bow  Bell  every  evening  at  nine  o'clock,  but  the 
practice  had  existed  for  already  more  than  a  century;  in  15 15  the  largest  of  the  five  bells  w^as  presented  by 
William  Copland.  The  church  was  totally  destroyed  in  1666,  as  well  as  those  of  St.  Pancras,  Soper  Lane 
and  AUhallows,  Honey  Lane ;  the  two  last  were  not  rebuilt,  their  parishes  being  annexed  to  St.  Mary's. 
Wren  began  building  the  present  church  in  1671  and  completed  it  in  1680.  The  cost  was  greater  than  any 
other  of  Wren's  parish  churches  by  ;^3ooo,  ;^2o6o  of  which  was  contributed  by  Dame  Williamson.  The 
steeple  was  repaired  by  Sir  William  Staines  in  the  eighteenth  century,  and  again  in  1820  by  Mr.  George 
Gwilt.  In  1758,  seven  of  the  bells  were  recast,  new  ones  were  added,  and  the  ten  were  first  rung  in 
1762  in  honour  of  George  III.'s  birthday;  the  full  number  now  is  twelve.  In  1786  the  parish  of 
AUhallows,  Bread  Street,  was  united  with  this. 

The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1242. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  has  always  been  in  the  hands  of  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  and  his 
successors,  but  Henry  III.  presented  to  it  in  1242. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  300. 

The  church  measures  65  feet  in  length,  63  feet  in  breadth,  and  38  feet  in  height ;   it  contains  a  nave 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  ii 

and  two  side  aisles.  The  great  feature  of  the  building  is  the  steeple,  which  is  the  most  elaborate  of  all 
Wren's  works  and  only  exceeded  in  height  by  St.  Bride's.  It  rises  at  the  north-west  end  of  the  church 
and  measures  32  square  feet  at  the  base.  The  tower  contains  three  storeys.  The  highest  is  surmounted 
by  a  cornice  and  balustrade  with  finials  and  vases,  and  a  circular  dome  supporting  a  cylinder,  lantern,  and 
spire.  The  weather-vane  is  in  the  form  of  a  dragon,  the  City  emblem.  The  total  height  is  221  feet 
9  inches.  The  Norman  crypt  already  mentioned  still  remains,  consisting  of  three  aisles  formed  by 
massive  columns;  it  probably  formed  part  of  the  building  in  William  I.'s  time. 

Chantries  were  founded  here : 

By  John  Causton,  to  which  John  Steveyns  was  admitted  chaplain,  December  2,  1452;  by  John 
Coventry,  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Nicholas;  by  Henry  Frowycke,  whose  endowment  fetched  .;^i5  :  los.  in 
1548;  by  John  de  Holleghe,  whose  endowment  produced  ^7  in  1548;  by  Dame  Eleanor,  Prioress  of 
Winchester,  whose  endowment  yielded  £4  in  1548. 

The  original  church  does  not  appear  to  have  contained  many  monuments  of  note.  Among  the  civic 
dignitaries  buried  here  was  Nicholas  Alwine,  Lord  Mayor  in  1499,  whose  name  is  familiar  to  readers  of 
TAe  Last  of  the  Barons. 

Sir  John  Coventry,  Mayor  in  1425,  was  also  buried  here. 

There  is  a  tablet  fixed  over  the  vestry-room  door,  commemorating  Dame  Dionis  Williamson,  who 
gave  ;^2ooo  towards  the  building  of  the  church.  On  the  west  wall  a  sarcophagus  commemorates  Bishop 
Newton,  rector,  who  won  celebrity  by  his  edition  of  Milton  first  published  in  1749. 

The  parish  possessed  a  considerable  number  of  charities  and  gifts  : 

George  Palin  was  donor  of  ^100,  to  be  devoted  to  the  maintenance  of  a  weekly  lecture. 

Mr.  Banton,  of  ..^50  for  the  same  purpose.     There  were  others,  to  the  total  amount  of_^6o. 

There  was  one  Charity  School  belonging  to  Cordwainer  and  Bread  Street  Wards  for  fifty  boys  and 
thirty  girls,  who  were  put  to  employments  and  trades  when  fit. 

The  following  are  among  the  notable  rectors  : 

Martin  Fotherby  {d.  1619),  Bishop  of  Salisbury;  Samuel  Bradford  (1652-1731),  Bishop  of 
Gloucester;  Samuel  Lisle  (1683-1749),  Bishop  of  Norwich;  Nicholas  Felton  (1556-1626),  Bishop  of 
Bristol;  Thomas  Newton  (1704-1782),  Bishop  of  Bristol;  and  William  Van  Alildert  (1765-1S36),  Bishop 
of  Llandaff,  and  later  the  last  Prince-Bishop  of  Durham. 

Quaint  sayings  and  traditions  have  gathered  more  thickly  about  St.  Mary's 
than  about  any  of  the  City  churches.  Dick  Whittington's  story  has  made  the 
name  familiar  to  every  British  child  ;  while  to  be  born  "within  sound  of  Bow  Bells" 
is  more  dignified  than  to  own  oneself  a  Cockney.  In  sooth-saying  we  have  the 
prophecy  of  Mother  Shipton  that  when  the  Grasshopper  on  the  Exchange  and  the 
Dragon  on  Bow  Church  should  meet,  the  streets  should  be  deluged  with  blood. 
They  did  so  meet,  being  sent  to  the  same  yard  for  repair  at  the  same  time,  but 
the  prophecy  was  not  fulfilled. 

The  ringing  of  the  Bow  bells  in  the  Middle  Ages  signified  closing-time  for 
shops,  and  the  ringer  incurred  the  wrath  of  the  apprentices  of  Chepe  if  he  failed 
to  be  punctual  to  the  second. 

We  now  proceed  to  the  Poultry. 

Stow  thus  describes  the  place  : 

"  Now  to  begin  again  on  the  bank  of  the  said  Walbrooke,  at  the  east  end  of 
the  high  street  called  the  Poultrie,  on  the  north  side  thereof,  is  the  proper  parish 
church  of  St.    Mildred,   which   church   was  new  built    upon   Walbrooke  in  the   year 


12  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

1457.     John  Saxton  their  parson  gave  thirty-two  pounds  towards  the  building  of 
the  new  choir,  which  now  standeth  upon  the  course  of  Walbrooke." 

Strype  says  of  it  : 

"  The  Poultry,  a  good  large  and  broad  Street,  and  a  very  great  thoroughfare 
for  Coaches,  Carts,  and  foot-passengers,  being  seated  in  the  Heart  of  the  City, 
and  leading  to  and  from  the  Royal  Exchange  ;  and  from  thence  to  Fleet  Street, 
the  Strand,  Westminster,  and  the  western  parts  :  and  therefore  so  well  inhabited 
by  great  tradesmen.  It  begins  in  the  West,  by  the  old  Jewry,  where  Cheapside 
ends,  and  reaches  the  Stocks  market  by  Cornhill.  On  the  North  side  is  Scalding 
Alley  ;  a  large  place,  containing  two  or  three  Alleys,  and  a  square  Court  with  good 
buildings,  and  well  inhabited  ;  but  the  greatest  part  is  in  Bread  Street  Ward,  where 
it  is  mentioned." 

Roman  knives  and  weapons  have  been  found  in  the  Poultry.  The  valley 
of  the  Walbrook,  130  feet  in  width,  began  its  slope  here.  Nearly  opposite  Princes 
Street,  a  modern  street,  there  was  anciently  a  bridge  over  the  stream.  We  find 
in  the  thirteenth  century  an  inquest  held  here  over  the  body  of  one  Agnes 
de  Golden  Lane,  who  was  found  starved  to  death,  a  rare  circumstance  at  that 
time,  and  only  possible,  one  would  think,  considering  the  charity  of  the  monastic 
houses,  in  the  case  of  a  bedridden  person  forgotten  or  deserted  by  her  own  people. 
In  the  fourteenth  century  there  are  various  bequests  of  shops  and  tenements  in 
the  Poultry.  In  the  fifteenth  century  we  find  that  there  was  a  brewery  here, 
near  the  Compter;  how  did  the  brewer  get  his  water?  In  the  same  century  the 
Compter — which  was  one  of  the  two  sheriffs'  prisons — seems  to  belong  to  one 
Walter  Hunt,  a  grocer.  In  the  sixteenth  century  one  of  the  rioters  of  1517  was 
hanged  in  the  Poultry ;  there  was  trouble  about  the  pavements  and  complaints 
were  made  of  obstructions  by  butchers,  poulterers,  and  the  ancestors  of  the  modern 
coster,  who  sold  things  from  barrows,  stopping  up  the  road  and  refusing  to  move 
on.  Before  the  Fire  there  were  many  taverns  in  the  Poultry  ;  some  of  them  had 
the  signs  which  have  been  found  belonging  to  the  Poultry. 

The  later  associations  of  the  place  have  been  detailed  by  Cunningham  : 

"Lubbock's  Banking-house  is  leased  of  the  Goldsmiths,  being  part  of  Sir 
Martin  Bowes's  bequest  to  the  Company  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  time.  The  King's 
Head  Tavern,  No.  25,  was  kept  in  Charles  II.'s  time  by  William  King.  His  wife 
happening  to  be  in  labour  on  the  day  of  the  King's  restoration,  was  anxious  to  see 
the  returning  monarch,  and  Charles,  in  passing  through  Poultry,  was  told  of  her 
inclination,  and  stopped  at  the  tavern  to  salute  her.  No.  22  was  Dilly,  the 
bookseller's.  Here  Dr.  Johnson  met  John  Wilkes  at  dinner  ;  and  here  Boswell's 
life  of  Johnson  was  first  published.  Dilly  sold  his  business  to  Mawman.  No.  31 
was  the  shop  of  Vernor  and  Hood,  booksellers.  Hood  of  this  firm  was  father  of 
the  facetious  Tom  Hood,  and  here  Tom  was  born  in  1798  "  [Hand-book  0/ London). 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  13 

Here  is  a  little  story.  It  happened  in  131 8.  One  John  de  Caxtone,  furbisher 
by  trade,  going  along  the  Poultry — one  charitably  hopes  that  he  was  in  liquor — met 
a  certain  valet  of  the  Dean  of  Arches  who  was  carrying  a  sword  under  his  arm, 
thinking  no  evil.  Thereupon  John  assaulted  him,  apparently  without  provocation, 
and  drawing  out  the  sword,  wounded  the  said  valet  with  his  own  weapon.  This 
done,  he  refused  to  surrender  to  the  Mayor's  sergeant,  nor  would  he  give  himself 
up  till  the  Mayor  himself  appeared  on  the  spot.  We  see  the  crowd — all  the  butchers 
in  the  Poultry  collected  together  :  on  the  ground  lies  the  wounded  valet,  bleeding, 
beside  him  is  the  sword,  the  assailant  blusters  and  swears  that  he  will  not  surrender, 
the  Mayor's  sergeant  remonstrates,  the  crowd  increases,  then  the  Mayor  himself 
appears  followed  by  other  sergeants,  a  lane  is  made,  and  at  sight  of  that  authority 
the  man  gives  in.  The  sergeants  march  him  off  to  Newgate,  the  crowd  disperses, 
the  butchers  go  back  to  their  stalls,  the  women  to  their  baskets,  the  costers  to  their 
barrows.  For  five  days  the  offender  cools  his  heels  at  Newgate.  Then  he  is 
brought  before  the  Mayor.  He  throws  himself  on  the  mercy  of  the  judge,  sureties 
are  found  for  him  that  he  will  keep  the  peace,  and  he  consents  to  compensate 
the  wounded  man. 

For  Stocks  Market,  St.  Mary  Woolchurch  Haw,  on  the  site  of  which  the  Mansion 
House  stands,  and  the  vicinity,  formerly  included  in  the  Poultry,  see  Group  HI. 

At  the  east  end  of  the  Poultry  is  Grocers'  Alley,  formerly  Conyhope  Lane, 
of  which   Stow  says  : 

"Then  is  Conyhope  Lane,  of  old  time  so  called  of  such  a  sign  of  three  conies 
hanging  over  a  poulterer's  stall  at  the  lane's  end.  Within  this  lane  standeth  the 
Grocers'  hall,  which  company  being  of  old  time  called  Pepperers,  were  first 
incorporated  by  the  name  of  Grocers  in  the  year  1345."  The  Grocers'  Hall  really 
opens  into  Princes  Street. 

THE   GROCERS  COMPANY 

The  Company's  records  begin  partly  in  Norman-French,  partly  in  Old  English,  as  follows  :  "  To  the 
honour  of  God,  the  Virgin  Mary,  St.  Anthony  and  All  Saints,  the  9th  day  of  May  1345,  a  Fraternity  was 
founded  of  the  Company  of  Pejjperers  of  Soper's  Lane  for  love  and  unity  to  maintain  and  keep  themselves 
together,  of  which  Fraternity  are  sundry  beginners,  founders,  and  donors  to  preserve  the  said  Fraternity." 

(Here  follow  twenty-two  names.) 

The  same  twenty-two  persons  "accorded  to  be  together  at  a  dinner  in  the  Abbot's  Place  of  Bury 
on  the  1 2th  of  June  following,  and  then  were  chosen  two  the  first  Wardens  that  ever  were  of  our  Fraternity," 
and  certain  ordinances  were  agreed  to  by  assent  among  the  Fraternity,  i)roviding  that  no  person  should  be 
of  the  Fraternity  "  if  not  of  good  condition  and  of  this  craft,  that  is  to  say,  a  Pepperer  of  Soper's  Lane 
or  a  Spicer  in  the  ward  of  Cheap,  or  other  people  of  their  mystery,  wherever  they  reside  "  ;  for  contributions 
among  the  members,  for  the  purposes  of  the  Fraternity,  including  the  maintenance  of  a  priest ;  the 
wearing  of  a  livery ;  arbitration  by  the  Wardens  upon  disputes  between  members ;  attendance  at  Mass 
at  the  Monastery  of  St.  Anthony  on  St.  Anthony's  Day,  and  at  a  feast  on  that  day  or  within  tlie  octave,  at 
which  feast  the  Wardens  should  come  with  chaplets  and  choose  and  crown  two  other  Wardens  for  the 
year  ensuing ;  attendance  at  the  funerals  of  members  ;  the  taking  of  apprentices  ;  assistance  of  unfortunate 


14  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

members  out  of  the  common  stock  ;  and  that  "  any  of  the  Fraternity  may  according  to  his  circumstance  and 
free  will  devise  what  he  chooses  to  the  common  box  for  the  better  supporting  the  Fraternity  and  their  alms." 
From  external  evidence  it  appears  that  for  two  centuries  at  least  before  1345  there  had  existed  a 
Guild  of  Pepperers,  who  had  superseded  the  Soapers  in  Soper's  Lane,  and  probably  absorbed  them.  The 
twenty-two  Pepperers,  who  in  1345  founded  the  social,  benevolent,  and  religious  fraternity  of  St.  Anthony, 
were  of  "good  condition,"  probably  the  most  influential  and  wealthy  men  in  the  Pepperers'  guild;  in 
founding  the  new  brotherhood  "  for  greater  love  and  unity  "  and  "  to  maintain  and  assist  one  another," 
they  did  not  desert  their  old  guild,  but  formed  a  new  fraternity  within  it.  They  did  not  seek,  apparendy, 
to  alter  the  institution  of  the  Guild  of  Pepperers,  nor  did  they  adopt  a  distinctive  title  for  themselves ; 
but  the  movement  was  obviously  an  important  one,  and  attracted  notice  and  jealousy,  which  was  perhaps 
increased  by  the  foreign  connections  of  some  of  the  members.  So  rapidly  did  the  Company  gain  favour 
and  strength  that  in  1383,  not  forty  years  after  its  foundation,  there  were  one  hundred  and  twenty-nine 
liverymen  of  whom  not  less  than  sixteen  were  Aldermen.  At  that  time,  no  doubt,  the  Company  exercised 
a  preponderating  influence  in  the  City  of  London. 

The  new  brotherhood  was  styled  the  Fraternity  of  St.  Anthony  from  1348  to  1357.  After  this  year 
there  is  an  hiatus  in  the  Company's  records,  and  when  these  recommence  in  1373  the  title  is  "company" 
or  "fraternity"  of  "gossers,"  "grosers,"  "groscers,"  or  "grocers." 

The  origin  of  the  term  "  grocer "  and  its  application  to  the  Company  are  involved  in  considerable 
obscurity.  As  far  as  can  be  ascertained,  the  first  use  of  the  word,  officially,  is  against  the  Company  from 
without,  and  in  an  aspect  of  reproach.  It  occurs  in  a  petition  to  the  King  and  Parliament  in  1363, 
against  the  new  fraternity  that  "  les  Marchantz  nomez  Grossers  engrossent  toutes  maneres  de  marchandises 
vendables." 

It  is  by  no  means  improbable  that  the  term,  first  suggested  by  less  successful  rivals  in  trade,  was 
adopted  by  the  leading  dealers  "en  gros "  for  the  name  of  the  company,  which  formed  round  the 
Fraternity  of  St.  Anthony,  and  probably  absorbed  the  whole  Guild  of  Pepperers. 

From  this  time  forward  the  Company  began  to  act  w^ith  energy  in  the  interests  of  trade.  In  1394  we 
find  them,  together  with  some  Italian  merchants,  presenting  a  petition  to  the  Corporation  complaining  of 
the  unjust  mode  of  "garbling,"  i.e.  cleansing  or  purifying  spices  and  other  "  sotill  wares."  The  petition 
was  entertained,  and  the  Company  were  requested  to  recommend  a  member  of  their  own  body  to  fill  the 
office,  and  on  their  nomination  Thomas  Halfmark  was  chosen  and  sworn  garbeller  of  "spices  and 
sotill  ware." 

The  fraternity,  after  holding  their  meetings  for  three  years  at  the  Abbot  of  Bury's,  assembled  in  1348 
at  Fulsham's  house  at  the  Rynged  Hall,  in  St.  Thomas  Apostle,  close  to  St.  Anthony's  Church  in  Budge 
Row,  Watling  Street,  where  they  at  this  time  obtained  permission  to  erect  a  chantry,  etc.,  and  called 
themselves  the  Fraternity  of  St.  Anthony.  They  ultimately  collected  at  Bucklersbury  ("  Bokerellesbury  "), 
at  the  Cornet's  Tower,  which  had  been  used  by  Edward  III.  at  the  beginning  of  his  reign  as  his  exchange 
of  money  and  exchequer.  Here  the  Company  began  to  exercise  the  functions  entrusted  to  them  of 
superintending  the  public  weighing  of  merchandise. 

In  141 1  a  descendant  of  Lord  FitzWalter,  who,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  III.,  had  obtained  possession 
of  the  chapel  of  St.  Edmund  which  adjoined  his  family  mansion,  sold  the  chapel  to  the  Company  for  320 
marks,  and  in  the  next  reign  the  Company  purchased  the  family  mansion  and  built  their  Hall  upon  the 
site.  The  foundation  stone  was  laid  in  1427  and  the  building  was  completed  in  the  following  year. 
The  expenses  were  defrayed  by  the  contributions  of  members.     Five  years  later  the  garden  was  added. 

In  1428  the  Company's  first  charter  of  incorporation  was  granted  by  King  Henry  VI.,  and  they 
became  a  body  politic  by  the  name  of  "  Custodes  et  Communitas  Mysterii  Groceriae  Londini."  Nineteen 
years  later  the  same  king  granted  to  the  Company  the  exclusive  right  of  garbling  throughout  all  places 
in  the  kingdom  of  England,  except  the  City  of  London. 

In  1453  the  Company,  having  the  charge  and  management  of  the  public  scale  or  King's  Beam, 
made  a  regular  tariff  of  charges.  It  appears  that  to  John  Churchman,  grocer,  who  served  the  office  of 
sheriff  in    1385,   the  trade  of   London   is   indebted   for  the  establishment  of  the   first    Custom    House. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  15 

Churchman,  in  the  sixth  year  of  Richard  II.,  built  a  house  on  Woolwharf  Key,  in  'I'ower  Street  Ward, 
for  the  tronage  or  weighing  of  wools  in  the  port  of  London,  and  a  grant  of  the  right  of  tronage  was  made 
by  the  King  to  Churchman  for  life.  It  is  probable  that  Churchman,  being  unable  of  himself  to  manage  so 
considerable  a  concern  as  the  public  scale,  obtained  the  assistance  of  his  Company,  and  thus  the 
management  of  the  weigh-house  and  the  appointment  of  the  officers  belonging  to  it  came  into  the  hands  of 
the  Grocers  Company. 

Henry  VIII.  granted  to  the  City  of  London  the  Beam  with  all  appurtenances,  and  directed  its 
management  to  be  committed  to  some  expert  in  weights.  The  City  thereupon  gave  the  management  to 
the  Company,  only  requiring  one-third  of  the  profits.  The  Company  enjoyed,  uninterruptedly,  these 
privileges  up  to  1625,  when  a  dispute  arose  with  the  City,  and  an  agreement  was  made  whereby  the 
Company  were  to  appoint  four  under-porters,  and  present  four  candidates  for  Master  Porter,  the  Lord 
Mayor  to  choose  one  of  them.  Several  disputes  followed  with  the  Corporation,  who  in  1 700  ejected  the 
officers  appointed  by  the  Company,  and  tried  their  right  at  law.  No  result  is  reported,  but  the  Company 
filled  up  vacancies  after  that  date,  and  up  to  1797,  when  a  Bill  was  passed  for  making  Wet  Docks  at 
Wapping,  and  this  appears  to  have  had  the  effect  of  depriving  the  Company  of  their  privileges. 

The  Company  throughout  this  period  kept,  in  common  with  others,  a  store  of  corn,  according  to 
ancient  custom,  for  the  supply  of  the  poor  at  reasonable  prices  when  bread  was  dear. 

The  Company  was  also  bound  to  maintain  an  armoury  at  their  Hall. 

At  the  time  of  the  Great  Plague  in  1665  the  Company  were  assessed  in  various  sums  of  money  for 
the  relief  of  the  poor,  and  they  also  provided  a  large  quantity  of  coals. 

The  ne.xt  year  the  Great  Fire  of  London  inflicted  losses  on  the  Company  from  which  it  did  not 
recover  for  nearly  a  century.  The  Company's  Hall  and  all  the  adjacent  buildings  (save  the  turret  in  the 
garden,  which  fortunately  contained  the  records  and  muniments  of  the  Company)  and  almost  nil  the 
Company's  houses  were  destroyed.  The  silver  recovered  from  the  ruins  of  the  Hall  was  remelted  and 
produced  nearly  200  lbs.  weight  of  metal ;  this  was  sold  for  the  Company's  urgent  present  necessities.  In 
1668  Sir  John  Cutler  came  forward  and  proposed  to  rebuild  the  parlour  and  dining-room  at  his  own 
charge.  In  the  same  year  ninety-four  members  were  added  to  the  Livery.  The  next  year  a  petition  was 
presented  to  Parliament  praying  for  leave  to  bring  in  a  Bill  to  raise  ^1^20,000  by  an  equal  assessment  upon 
the  members  of  the  Company  of  ability.  The  application  to  Parliament  failed,  and  an  effort  was  then 
made  to  raise  the  ^20,000  among  the  members,  but  only  ^6000  was  subscribed. 

In  January  1671  a  Special  Court  was  summoned  to  consider  a  Bill  exhibited  in  Parliament  by  some 
of  the  Company's  creditors,  praying  for  an  Act  for  the  sale  of  the  Company's  Hall,  lands,  and  estates  to 
satisfy  debts ;  and  to  make  members  of  the  Court  liable  for  debts  incurred.  A  Committee  was  appointed 
and  in  1672  the  Hall  was,  at  the  instance  of  the  Governors  of  Christ's  Hospital,  sequestered,  and  the 
Company  ejected  till  1679,  when,  after  great  difficulties  and  impediments,  money  was  borrowed  to  pay  off 
the  debts  and  get  rid  of  the  intruders.  In  1680  the  Court  of  Assistants  agreed  that  the  most  effectual  way 
of  regaining  public  confidence  was  to  rebuild  the  Hall. 

In  order  to  prevent  a  second  sequestration  an  Inquisition  was  taken  in  1680  before  Commissioners 
for  Charitable  Uses,  and,  pursuant  to  a  decree  made  by  those  Commissioners,  a  period  of  twenty  years 
was  allowed  to  the  Company  to  discharge  their  debts.  The  next  year,  to  secure  an  accession  of  influence 
and  talent  for  the  support  of  the  Company,  sixty-five  members  were  added  to  the  Court,  and  a  number  of 
Freemen  were  summoned,  and  eighty-one  members  added  to  the  Livery. 

In  1683  the  Company  arranged,  by  arbitration,  their  difficulties  with  the  Governors  of  Christ's 
Hospital,  and  their  prospects  appeared  more  hopeful  when  the  celebrated  Writ  of  Quo  Warranto  was 
issued  by  King  Charles  II.  against  the  City  charters  and  lil)erties.  The  Company,  with  the  view  of 
propitiating  the  King,  by  deed  under  seal,  voluntarily  surrendered  the  powers,  franchises,  privileges, 
liberties,  and  authorities  granted  or  to  be  used  or  exercised  by  the  Wardens  and  Commonalty,  and  the 
right  of  electing  and  nominating  to  the  several  offices  of  Wardens,  Assistants,  and  Clerk  of  the  Company, 
and  besought  his  Majesty  to  accept  their  surrender.  Charles  II.  obtained  judgment  upon  the  Quo 
Warranto  against  the  City,  and  all  the  redress  that  the  Company  could  obtain  was  the  grant  of  another 


i6  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

charter  under  such  restrictions  as  the  King  should  think  fit.  His  successor,  Jarnes  II.,  with  a  view  to 
secure  the  goodwill  and  support  of  the  City,  sent  for  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Aldermen,  and  voluntarily 
declared  his  determination  to  restore  the  City  charters  and  liberties  as  they  existed  before  the  issuing  of 
the  Writ  of  Quo  Warranto;  and  subsequently  Judge  Jeffreys  came  to  Guildhall  and  delivered  the  charters 
with  two  grants  of  restoration  to  the  Court  of  Aldermen. 

The  history  of  the  Company  during  the  eighteenth  century  is  an  account  of  pecuniary  difficulties 
and  the  gradual  extrication  by  the  public  spirit  and  foresight  of  the  members. 

As  regards  the  profession  or  trade  of  the  members,  a  return  exists  of  the  whole  numbers  for  the 
year  1795  when  the  Court  contained  32,  the  livery  numbered  81,  and  the  freemen  228.  Of  these, 
40  were  Grocers. 

The  number  of  the  Livery  returned  in  1898  was  183.  The  Corporate  Income  was  ^37,500; 
the  Trust  Income  was  ^^500. 

The  advantages  of  being  a  member  of  the  Company  are  as  follows  : 

(i)  Freemen  are  entitled  to  apply  on  behalf  of  their  children  for  the  Company's  presentations  (six  in 
number)  to  Christ's  Hospital ;  for  the  Company's  Scholarships  for  free  education  at  the  City  of  London 
School.  The  orphan  children  of  freemen  are  alone  eligible  for  the  three  presentations  to  the  London 
Orphan  Asylum. 

Freemen  are  entitled  to  take  apprentices. 

Freemen,  and  widows  and  daughters  of  freemen,  in  needy  circumstances  may  apply  for  relief,  either 
temporary  or  permanent.     Loans  to  freemen  are  practically  abolished. 

(2)  Twelve  months  after  a  liveryman  has  been  elected  he  is  entitled,  provided  he  live  within  twenty- 
five  miles  of  the  polling  place,  Guildhall,  to  be  put  upon  the  Register  of  Voters  for  the  City,  which  entitles 
him  to  a  vote  at  the  election  of  Members  of  Parliament  for  the  City ;  a  liveryman  is  also  entitled  to  vote 
at  the  election  of  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Sheriffs  of  London.  The  livery  receive  invitations  from  the 
Master  and  Wardens  to  the  four  public  dinners  in  the  months  of  November,  February,  May,  and  July,  in 
each  year,  and  at  every  fifth  dinner  an  invitation  for  a  friend  as  well. 

In  some  years  when  the  honorary  freedom  of  the  Company  is  bestowed  on  distinguished  personages, 
there  is  an  extra  public  dinner  to  which  the  livery  are  invited.  At  the  public  dinner  in  May,  called  the 
Restoration  Feast,  a  box  of  sweetmeats  is  presented  to  every  guest.  Liverymen,  and  the  widows  and 
daughters  of  liverymen  in  needy  circumstances  may  apply  for  relief,  either  temporary  or  permanent. 

The  Hall  of  the  Company  has  always  occupied  the  same  site  since  the  first  erection  in  1427,  when 
the  Wardens  bought  part  of  the  demesne  of  Lord  FitzWalter  in  Conyhope  Lane. 

This  building  perished  in  the  Great  Fire  of  1666.  A  new  hall  was  built,  but  in  1798- 1802  this 
building  was  pulled  down  and  rebuilt.  Alterations  and  additions  were  made  in  1827,  when  the  present 
entrance  into  Princes  Street  was  constructed.  There  were  formerly  three  ways  of  access  to  the  hall — one 
from  the  Old  Jewry;  one  by  the  lane  called  Grocers'  Alley;  and  one  by  Scalding  Lane  from  St.  Mildred, 
Poultry,  of  which  a  scrap  of  the  churchyard  still  remains.  The  two  lanes  opened  on  a  small  Place  on  the 
north  side  of  which  was  Grocers'  Hall  and  on  the  south  side  the  Poultry  Compter. 

The  hall  destroyed  in  1666  would  have  become  by  this  time  historical  as  the  place  to  which  the 
Houses  removed  from  Westminster  in  1642  after  the  attempt  to  seize  the  five  members  on  4th  January  of 
that  year.  The  Committee  appointed  by  both  Houses  met  first  at  Guildhall  and  adjourned  to  Grocers' 
Hall  to  "treat  of  the  safety  of  the  Kingdoms  of  England  and  Ireland."  It  was  in  this  hall  that  the  City 
entertained  the  Houses,  June  17,  1645,  in  the  midst  of  the  Civil  War,  and  on  June  7,  1649,  when  the 
Civil  War  was  over.  For  forty  years,  1694-1734,  the  Grocers'  Hall  was  rented  and  occupied  by  the 
Governors  and  Company  of  the  Bank  of  England. 

The  Company  numbered  among  its  members  Charles  II.,  James  II.,  William  III.,  the  Earl  of 
Chatham,  William  Pitt,  George  Canning,  and  many  others. 

In  the  eighteenth  century,  the  "Lane"  was  chiefly  occupied  by  houses  called 
spunging  houses  ;  here    persons  were    confined  by  the  sergeants  belonging  to  the 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  17 

Poultry  Compter,  so  that  they  might  come  to  some  compromise  with  their  creditors, 
and  not  be  taken  into  prison.  Hawkesworth,  essayist  and  man  of  letters,  was 
originally  clerk  to  an  attorney  in  this  court.  Boyse,  the  ragged  poet,  was  confined 
in  one  of  the  spunging  houses.      Here  he  wrote  the  Latin  letter  to  Cave  : 

Inscription  for  St.  Lazarus's  Cave. 

Hodie,  teste  coelo  summo, 
Sine  pane,  sine  nunimo  ; 
Sorte  positus  infeste, 
Scribo  tibi  dolens  moeste. 
Fame,  bile,  tumet  jecur  : 
Urbane,  mitte  opem,  precor, 
Tibi  enim  cor  humanum 
Non  a  malis  alienum  : 
Mihi  mens  nee  male  grato, 
Pro  a  te  favore  dato. — Alceus. 

Ex  gehenna  debitoria, 
Vulgo  domo  spongiatoria. 

The  Alley  led  to  an  open  court.  In  this  open  place  in  1688  a  cart-load  of 
seditious  books  was  burned. 

The  east  side  of  the  Place  is  at  present  occupied  by  one  wall  of  the  Gresham 
Life  Assurance  Society,  a  magnificent  building  facing  Poultry.  It  has  finely 
proportioned  polished  granite  columns  with  Corinthian  capitals  adding  strength  to 
the  frontage,  and  a  balcony  with  parapet  running  horizontally  across  the  front.  This 
was  rebuilt  in  1879.      It  stands  on  the  site  of  St.  Mildred,  Poultry. 

The  Church  of  St.  Mildred,  Poultry,  was  situated  on  the  north  side  of  the  Pouhry.  It  was 
rebuilt  in  1456,  and,  after  being  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire,  again  rebuilt  in  1676,  when  the  parish  of 
St.  Mary  Colechurch  was  annexed.  In  1872  it  was  taken  down,  and  the  parish  joined  to  St.  Olave, 
Jewry.  The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1247.  The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the 
Prior  and  Convent  of  St.  Mary  Overy,  Southwark,  1325  ;  Henry  VIII.,  1541,  and  so  continued  in  the  Crown. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  277. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  Solomon  Lanfare  or  Le  Boteler,  citizen  and  cutler,  at  the  Altar  of 
Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  to  which  Wm.  de  Farnbergh  was  admitted  chaplain,  October  4,  1337  ;  by  Hugh  Game, 
poulterer,  who  endowed  it  with  rents,  which  fetched  ;^io  in  1548,  when  John  Mobe  was  priest;  by 
John  Brown,  for  himself,  his  wife,  Margaret  his  daughter,  and  Giles  Walden,  etc.,  to  which  John  de 
Cotyngham  was  admitted  chaplain,  April  6,  1366.  One  John  Mymmes  had  licence  from  Richard  II.  to 
found  the  Guild  of  Fraternity  of  Corpus  Christi  here;  the  endowment  fetched  .;^io:8;8  in  1548,  when 
John  Wotton  was  priest  thereof.      Here  was  a  "  Little  Chapell  "  valued  at  60s.  in  1548. 

Thomas  Ashehill  was  buried  here;  he  gave  great  help  in  rebuilding  the  church  about  1450;  also 
Thomas  Morstead,  chirurgeon  to  Henry  IV.,  V.,  and  VI.,  and  one  of  the  sheriffs  of  London.  In  more 
recent  times,  Wm.  Cronne  was  commemorated  ;  he  was  a  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Society  and  of  the  College 
of  Physicians,  and  died  in  1706. 

A  great  number  of  benefactors  are  recorded  by  Stow,  of  which  the  most  notable  are :  William 
Watson,  of  ;i{^ioo,  whereof  ;!^65  was  received ;  William  Tudman,  of  ..^247  in  all,  for  various  charities ; 
Sarah  Tudman,  of  .;^8o;  Lady  Elizabeth  Allington,  ^200,  towards  rebuilding. 

One  free  school  is  recorded,  called  Mercers'  School  (Stow). 

2 


i8 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


John  Williams  (d.  1709),  Bishop  of  Chichester,  1696,  was  rector  here  ;  also  Benjamin  Newcome,  D.D., 
Dean  of  Rochester. 

On  the  east  side  of  Grocers'  Hall  Court  stood  the  Poultry  Compter. 
Strype  describes  the  place  and  its  government. 


ST.    MILDRED,    POULTRY 


"  Somewhat  west  to  this  Church  is  the  Poultry  Compter,  being  the  Prison 
belonging  to  one  of  the  Sheriffs  of  London,  for  all  such  as  are  arrested  within  the 
City  and  liberties  thereof  And,  besides  this  Prison,  there  is  another  of  the  same 
Nature  in  Wood  Street  for  the  other  Sheriff;  both  being  of  the  same  nature,  and 
have  the  like  officers  for  the  Execution  of  the  concerns  belonging  thereunto,  as 
shall  be  here  taken  notice  of  So  that  w'hat  is  said  here  for  Poultry  Compter, 
belongs  also  to  Wood  Street  Compter. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE   CITY 


19 


"  The  Charge  of  those  prisons  is  committed  to  the  Sheriffs. 

"  Unto    each   Compter  also  belongs  a  Master   Keeper ;    and    under    him    two 
Turnkeys,  and  other  servitors. 

"  The  poorer  sort  of  prisoners,   as  well  in  this  Compter,  as  in  that   in  Wood 


INSlDli   THE    POULTRY   COMPTER 


Street,  receive  daily  relief  from  the  sheriff's  table,  of  all  the  broken  meat  and  bread. 
And  there  are  divers  gifts  given  by  several  well  disposed  people,  towards  their 
subsistence.  Besides  which,  there  are  other  benevolences  frequently  sent  to  all 
the  prisons  by  charitable  persons  ;  many  of  which  do  conceal  their  names,  doing  it 
only  for  charity  sake.      And  there  are  other  gifts,  some  for  the  releasement  of  such 


20  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

as  "lie  in  only  for  prison  fees  ;  and  others,  for  the  release  of  such,  whose  debts  amount 
not  to  above  such  or  such  a  sum  "  (Strype,  vol.  i.  p.  567). 

This  was  the  only  prison  in  London  with  a  ward  set  apart  for  Jews.  "  Here 
died  Lamb,  the  conjuror  (commonly  called  Dr.  Lamb),  of  the  injuries  he  had  received 
from  the  mob,  who  pelted  him  (June  13,  162S),  from  Moorgate  to  the  Windmill  in  the 
Old  Jewry,  where  he  was  felled  to  the  ground  with  a  stone,  and  was  thence  carried 
to  the  Poultry  Compter,  where  he  died  the  same  night.  The  rabble  believed  that 
the  doctor  dealt  with  the  devil,  and  assisted  the  Duke  of  Buckingham  in  misleading 
the  king.  The  last  slave  imprisoned  in  England  was  confined  (1772)  in  the  Poultry 
Compter.  This  was  Somerset,  a  negro,  the  particulars  of  whose  case  excited  Sharpe 
and  Clarkson  in  their  useful  and  successful  labour  in  the  cause  of  negro  emancipa- 
tion "  (Cunningham's  Hand-book  of  London). 

When  Whitecross  Street  Prison  (1815-1870)  was  erected,  the  prisoners  were 
removed  there  from  the  Poultry,  and  the  site  of  the  Compter  was  built  upon  partly 
by  a  Congregational  Chapel,  the  congregation  of  which  removed  to  the  Holborn 
Viaduct  when  the  City  Temple  was  built. 

The  prison  was  burned  down  in  the  Fire,  whereupon  the  prisoners  were  taken 
to  Aldgate  until  it  was  rebuilt.      It  was  an  ill-kept,  unventilated,  noisome  place. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  earliest  bequest  to  the  Compter  mentioned  in 
the  Calendar  of  Wills  belongs  to  the  fifteenth  century,  and  that  most  of  the 
legacies  to  the  prisoners  were  made  after  the  Reformation  and  in  the  reign  of 
Queen  Elizabeth.  In  some  of  them  we  find  mention  of  the  "  Hole  "  and  of  the 
"Twopenny  Ward.  " 

In  1378  there  was  an  altercation  between  the  Mayor  and  one  of  the  sheriffs. 
Allusion  is  made  to  that  sheriff's  "own  compter"  in  Milk  Street,  which  may  be 
taken  for  that  of  Wood  Street,  as  the  Compter  lay  between  the  two,  though  it  stood 
in  Bread  Street  until  the  year  1555.  In  the  year  1382  a  sumptuary  law  was  issued 
restricting  the  dress  of  women  of  loose  life,  and  those  who  offended  were  to  be 
taken  to  one  of  the  Compters.  In  1388  we  find  the  porter  of  a  Compter  insulting 
Adam  Bamme,  alderman,  for  which  he  was  removed  from  his  office.  We  find 
also  a  householder  taken  to  the  Compter  for  refusing  to  pay  his  rates  and  abusing 
the  collector.  In  1413,  an  old  man  named  John  Arkwythe,  a  scrivener,  was 
summoned  by  Alderman  Sevenoke  for  allowing  the  escape  of  a  certain  priest  caught 
in  adultery  in  St.  Bride's  Church.  John  Arkwythe  lost  his  temper,  clutched  the 
Alderman  by  the  breast  and  threatened  him.  They  sent  him  to  Newgate,  but, 
considering  his  age,  they  let  him  go,  only  depriving  him  of  the  freedom  of  the  City. 
In  141 8,  one  William  Foucher,  for  contempt  of  Court,  was  sent  to  solitary  imprison- 
ment in  the  Compter,  and  prohibited  from  speaking  to  any  one  except  those 
who  should  counsel  him  repentance  and  amendment. 

From    these    cases    it    would    appear  that  the  Compters  were   used   partly    as 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  21 

houses  of  detention  before  trial,  and  that  trial  was  frequently  deferred  in  order 
that  the  offender  might  endure  a  term  of  imprisonment  in  addition  to  the  pillory, 
or  the  release  on  finding  security,  which  would  follow. 

West  of  Grocers'  Alley  is  the  Old  Jewry,  one  of  the  most  interesting  places 
in  the  whole  of  London  on  account  of  its  having  been  the  Ghetto,  though  not 
a  place  of  humiliation,  for  the  Jews  of  London.  When  they  came  to  London 
they  received  this  quarter  for  their  residence  ;  why  this  place,  so  central,  so 
convenient  for  the  despatch  of  business,  was  assigned  to  them,  no  one  has  been 
able  to  discover.  In  the  learned  work  of  Mr.  Joseph  Jacobs  {The  Jews  of  Angevin 
England)  he  shows  that  Jews  were  in  Oxford  and  Cambridge  as  well  as  in  London 
in  the  time  of  the  Normans. 

The  older  name  of  the  street  was  Colechurch  Street.  In  the  Receipts  and 
Perquisites  of  the  Tower  from  the  Jews  of  London  are  found  the  following  : 

For  two  pounds  found  in  the  Jewry  for  forfeit  .....  60s. 

[The  sense  of  this  entry  is  doubtful.  Perhaps  the  two  pounds  were  forfeited 
and  60  is  wrongly  transcribed  for  40  (Lx.  for  xl.).]  (Guildhall  MS.  129,  vol.  ii. 
p.  95«.) 

From  a  certain  Christian  woman  found  in  the  Jewry  for  the   purpose  of 

making  an  exchange.     She  fled  and  threw  away  the  money 
From  a  certain  goldsmith  fighting  in  the  Jewry,  of  a  fine 
From  Nicholas,   the  convert,  goldsmith  of  London,  for  his  boys  fighting 

in  the  Jewry         ......... 

From  a  certain  Christian  found  in  the  Jewry  by  night 

From  a  certain  boy  coming  into  the  Jewry        ..... 

From  John  of  Lincoln  because  he  was  found  in  the  Jewry  by  night 
From  a  certain  Christian  wom.in  in  the  Jewry  by  night 

It  thus  appears  that  the  Jewry  was  walled  in  with  gates.  Had  it  been  a 
simple  street,  a  thoroughfare,  there  could  have  been  no  obj'ection  to  any  one  passing 
through.  As  for  the  teaching  of  the  Church  respecting  Jews,  these  extracts  from 
Mr.  Jacob's  book  will  show  the  hatred  which  was  inculcated  towards  them. 

"If  any  Christian  woman  takes  gifts  from  the  infidel  Jews  or  of  her  own 
will  commits  sin  with  them,  let  her  be  separated  from  the  church  a  whole  year 
and  live  in  much  tribulation,  a'nd  then  let  her  repent  for  nine  years.  But  if  with 
a  pagan  let  her  repent  seven  years. 

"  If  any  Christian  accepts  from  the  infidel  Jews  their  unleavened  cakes  or 
any  other  meat  or  drink  and  share  in  their  impietie?,  he  shall  do  penance  with 
bread  and  water  for  forty  days ;  because  it  is  written  '  to  the  pure  all  things 
are  pure.' 

"  It  is  allowable  to  celebrate  mass  in  a  church  where  faithful  and  pious  ones 
have  been  buried.      But   if  infidels  or  heretics  or  faithless  Jews   be   buried,   it    is 


IOCS.  {Ibid.  p. 

97). 

2 IS.   {Ibid.  p. 

96). 

IOCS.    (//'/(/.    p. 

97)- 

7s.  I  lid.  {Ibid.   p. 

97). 

66s.  8d.  {Ibid.   p. 

97). 

£6  {Ibid.  p. 

97). 

iSs.  {Ibid.  p. 

97). 

22  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

not  allowed  to  sanctify  or  celebrate  mass  ;  but  if  it  seem  suitable  for  consecration, 
tearing  thence  the  bodies  or  scraping  or  washing  the  walls,  let  it  be  consecrated 
if  it  has  not  been  so  previously." 

The  earliest  mention  of  the  Jews  occurs  in  the  Te7'rie7'  of  St.  Paul's,  1 1 15  : 

"In  the  ward  of  Haco  ...  in  the  Jew's  street  (.-*  Old  Jewry)  the  land  of 
Lusbert,  in  the  front  on  the  west  side,  is  32  feet  in  breadth.  Towards  St.  Olave's 
is  fourscore  and  fifteen  feet  ;  again  towards  St.  Olave's  is  65  feet,  and  in  the 
front  13  feet.     The  land  in  the  front  is  73  feet,  and  in  depth  41  feet,  and  pays  los." 

In  1264,  and  again  in  1267,  the  popular  hatred  of  the  Jews  broke  out  with 
unmistakable  violence.  They  fled  to  the  Tower,  while  the  mob  destroyed  and 
sacked  their  buildings. 

In  1290  they  were  banished. 

Their  synagogue,  which  stood  in  the  north-east  corner  of  the  present  street,  was 
given  to  the  Fratres  de  Sacca  (see  Medmval  London,  vol.  ii.  p.  365),  and  on  their 
dissolution  it  was  ceded  to  Robert  FitzWalter  and  converted  into  a  merchant's 
residence.      Here  lived  and  died  Robert  Large  to  whom  Caxton  was  apprenticed. 

The  later  history  of  the  street  may  be  quoted  from  Cunningham  : 

"The  last  turning  but  two  on  the  east  side  (walking  towards  Cateaton  Street) 
was  called  Windmill  Court,  from  the  Windmill  Tavern,  mentioned  in  the  curious 
inventory  of  '  Innes  for  Horses  seen  and  viewed,'  preparatory  to  the  visit  of 
Charles  V.  of  Spain  to  Henry  VIII.,  in  the  year  1522.  'From  the  Windmill,'  in 
the  old  Jewry,  Master  Wellbred  writes  to  Master  Knowell,  in  Ben  Jonson's  play  of 
Every  Man  in  his  Hutnour.  Kitely,  in  the  same  play,  was  a  merchant  in  the  Old 
Jewry.  The  house  or  palace  of  Sir  Robert  Clayton  (of  the  time  of  Charles  II.),  on 
the  east  side,  was  long  a  magnificent  example  of  a  merchant's  residence,  containing 
a  superb  banquetting-room,  wainscotted  with  cedar,  and  adorned  with  battles  of  gods 
and  giants.  Here  the  London  Institution  was  first  lodged;  and  here,  in  the  rooms 
he  occupied  as  librarian,  Professor  Porson  died  (1808).  Dr.  James  Foster,  Pope's 
'modest  Foster' — 

Let  modest  Foster,  if  he  will,  excel 
Ten  Metropolitans  in  preaching  well — 

was  a  preacher  in  the  Old  Jewry  for  more  than  twenty  years.  He  first  became 
popular  from  Lord  Chancellor  Hardwicke  stopping  in  the  porch  of  his  chapel  in  the 
Old  Jewry,  to  escape  from  a  shower  of  rain.  Thinking  he  might  as  well  hear  what 
was  going  on,  he  went  in,  and  was  so  well  pleased  that  he  sent  all  his  great 
acquaintances  to  hear  Foster." 

Alexander  Brown,  the  cavalier  song-writer,  was  an  attorney  in  the  Lord  Mayor's 
Court  in  this  street,  and  Bancroft,  who  built  the  almshouses  of  Mile  End,  was  an 
officer  in  the  court.  Sir  Jeffrey  Bullen,  Lord  Mayor,  1457,  lived  in  this  street,  where 
he  was  a  mercer. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  23 

In  the  fifteenth  century  there  was  standing  in  Old  Jewry,  north  of  St.  Olave's 
Church,  and  extending  to  the  north  end  of  Ironmonger  Lane  and  down  the  lane  as 
far  as  St.  Martin's  Church,  a  large  building  of  stone  "very  ancient,"  the  history  and 
purpose  of  which  were  unknown  e.xcept  that  Henry  VI.  appointed  one  John  Stert, 
keeper  of  the  place,  which  he  called  his  principal  palace  in  the  Old  Jewry.  It  was 
standing  when  Stow  was  a  boy,  but  he  says  the  outward  stone-work  was  little  by 
little  taken  down,  and  houses  built  upon  the  site.  It  was  known  as  the  Old 
Wardrobe.  I  know  of  no  other  reference  to  this  place,  but  one  would  like  to 
learn  more.  The  taking  away  of  the  stone  "  litde  by  little"  accounts  in  like 
manner  for  the  gradual  disappearance  of  the  ruins  of  the  monastic  houses. 

The  modern  street  is  not  of  much  interest.  The  City  Police  Office  is  in  a  court 
of  some  size  near  the  north  end.  The  Old  King's  Head  is  in  an  elaborate  building 
faced  with  red  sandstone,  and  a  grimy  blackened  old  brick  house  close  by  contains 
the  Italian  Consulate. 

In  Frederick  Place  are  two  rows  of  Georgian  houses  in  dull  brick,  varying  only 
slightly  in  detail.  The  iron  link-holders  of  a  past  fashion  still  survive  on  the  railings 
before  some  of  the  houses.  No.  8,  at  the  south-eastern  corner,  contains  some  curious 
and  interesting  mantels.  One  of  these  has  a  central  panel  representing  a  boar  hunt ; 
this  is  in  relief  enclosed  in  a  large  oval.  There  are  fine  details  also  in  other 
fireplaces  in  the  house. 

But  these  are  not  the  only  objects  of  interest  in  Frederick  Place,  for  in  exactly 
the  opposite  corner,  the  north-west,  in  a  house  numbered  4,  are  one  or  two  fireplaces 
which  surpass  these  in  beauty  if  not  in  quaintness.  In  one  of  the  rooms  there  is  a 
very  high  and  well-proportioned  white  marble  mantelpiece,  with  singularly  little 
decoration,  which  is  yet  most  effective.  All  these  houses  are  now  used  as  offices  by 
business  men,  and  the  evidences  of  bygone  domestic  occupation  add  a  human 
interest  to  the  daily  routine. 

St.  Mary  Colechurch  was  situated  in  the  Poultry  at  the  south-west  corner  of  the  Old  Jewry. 
It  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire,  and  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being  annexed  to  that  of  St.  Mildred, 
Poultry.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1252. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  Henry  III.,  who  presented  to  it  one  Roger  de 
Messendene,  April  21,  1252;  then  the  Master  and  Brethren  of  St.  Thomas  de  Aeon;  afterwards 
Henry  VIII.,  who  granted  it  to  the  Mercer's  Company,  April  21,  1542. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  220. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  Thomas  de  Cavendish,  late  citizen  and  mercer,  at  the  Altar  of 
St.  Katherine,  to  which  Roger  de  Elton  was  instituted  chaplain,  March  15,  1362-63;  Agnes  Fenne,  who 
left  by  Will,  dated  March  28,  1541,  ^£^140  to  maintain  a  priest  for  twenty  years;  Henry  I\^  granted  a 
licence  to  William  Marechalcap  and  others  to  found  a  Fraternity  in  honour  of  St.  Katherine,  February  19, 
1399-1400;  a  further  licence  was  granted  by  Henry  VI.,  June  19,  1447,  the  endowment  of  which  fetched 
;^9  in  1548,  when  Robert  Evans  was  Chaplain. 

No  monuments  are  recorded  by  Stow.  In  this  church  St.  Thomas  ;\  Becket  and  St.  Edmund  were 
baptized.     The  parish  had  one  gift-sermon,  but  no  other  gifts  or  legacies  are  recorded. 

Thomas  Horton  (d.  1673),  Vice-Chancellor  of  Cambridge,  1649,  was  a  rector  here. 


24  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

The  Church  of  St.  Olave,  Jewry,  stood  on  the  west  side,  near  the  middle  of  Old  Jewry,  and 
was  sometimes  called  St.  Olave,  Upwell.  It  was  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire  and  rebuilt  in  1673.  It 
was  subsequently  taken  down.  The  tower,  which  alone  was  left,  is  now  part  of  a  dwelling-house.  The 
earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1252. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  who  granted  it 
in  1 171  to  the  Prior  and  Convent  of  Butley,  Suffolk,  when  it  became  a  vicarage.  Henry  VIII.  seized  it, 
and  so  it  continues  in  the  Crown. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  198. 

The  open  space,  belonging  to  the  ancient  graveyard,  abuts  on  Ironmonger  Lane. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  by  John  Brian,  rector,  who  died  in  1322,  and  a  licence  was  granted  by 
the  King,  August  20,  1323  ;  Robert  de  Burton,  chaplain,  exchanged  with  William  de  Aynho,  June  15, 
1327.     In  1548  the  endowment  fetched  ^^13  :  i  :  4. 

Robert  Large,  Mayor  in  1440,  and -donor  of  ^200  to  the  church,  was  buried  here.  Among  the 
later  monuments  is  one  in  memory  of  Sir  Nathaniel  Heme,  Governor  of  the  East  India  Company ;  he 
died  1679. 

The  church  was  not  rich  in  charitable  gifts  and  legacies.  Among  the  benefactors,  Sir  Thomas  Hewet 
gave  ^5  :4s.  yearly;  Henry  Lo  gave  ^10  for  ever;  Gervase  Vaughan  gave  a  house,  rented  at  ^^14  per 
annum,  to  provide  bread  for  the  poor  every  Sunday. 

On  the  west  side  of  Old  Jewry  there  was  a  free  school,  said  to  be  founded  by  Thomas  a  Becket  in 
1 160,  for  25  scholars.  There  were  two  almshouses  for  9  poor  widows  of  armourers,  each  of  whom  received 
6s.  per  quarter,  and  9  bushels  of  coal  a  year ;  those  past  labour  received  £,\  a  quarter.  These  were  the 
gift  of  Mr.  Tindal,  citizen  and  armourer  of  London. 

Anthony  EUys,  D.D.  (1690-1761),  Bishop  of  St.  David's,  was  rector,  also  Joseph  Holden  Pott 
(1759-1847),  Archdeacon  of  London. 

Old  Jewry  runs  through  into  Gresham  Street,  which  is  roughly  parallel  with 
Cheapside. 

Gresham  Street,  formerly  called  Catte,  Cateaton,  or  Ketton  Street,  or  Cattling 
Street,  when  changed  to  its  present  name  also  swallowed  up  Lad  Lane  and  Maiden 
Lane. 

Catte  Street  is  mentioned  in  a  deed  dated  the  Saturday  after  Ascension  1294, 
in  which  Hugh  de  Vyenne,  Canon  of  St.  Martin's-le-Grand,  grants  to  the  master  and 
scholars  of  Balliol,  inter  alia,  four  shillings  of  yearly  rent  from  the  tenement  held  by 
Martin  the  arbitrator,  in  Catte  Street,  opposite  the  church  of  St.  Lawrence,  also  the 
same  amount  from  the  tenement  of  Adam  de  Horsham  opposite  the  church. 

On  the  Feast  of  Ascension  in  the  year  1360  a  case  of  great  interest  was  heard 
at  the  Hustings  of  common  pleas. 

In  this  case,  John  de  Wyclif,  Master  of  Balliol,  Oxford,  was  attached  to  make 
answer  to  Nicholas  Marchant  in  a  plea  of  distresses  taken.  Wyclif  is  accused  of 
having  made  an  unlawful  seizure  upon  the  freehold  of  Nicholas  in  the  parish  of  St. 
Lawrence,  Jewry,  on  Wednesday  after  the  Feast  of  St.  Gregory  that  year.  From 
the  pleading  it  appears  that  the  house  was  once  the  property  of  "  one  Thippe,  wife  of 
Isaac  of  Suthwerk,  a  Jewess"  ;  after  her  exit  from  England  it  came  to  King  Edward, 
grandfather  of  Edward  III.  Their  tenement  in  Catte  Street  was  given  (so  the 
pleadings    show)  by  that    king  to   Adam  de    Horsham,  mercer,  uncle   of   Nicholas 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  25 

above  named,  at  a  rent  of  one  penny  per  annum  to  the  King.  Wyclif  joins  the  suit. 
Nicholas  has  to  pay  arrears  and  is  amerced  [hitherto  WycHf's  mastership  of  Balliol 
was  ascribed  to  date  from  1361,  hence  the  importance  of  this  MS.]  (Historical  MS. 
Commission,  Report  IV.,  p.  448). 

There  is  another  ancient  mention  of  Catte  Street,  belonging  to  the  year  1281, 
in  which  one  Aaron,  a  wealthy  Jew  and  a  money-lender,  contracts  with  Rudolph  the 
mason  for  the  building  of  a  house  in  Catte  Street. 

From  Aldermanbury  westward  to  Wood  Street,  Gresham  Street  was  formerly 
called  Lad  Lane.  The  name  occurs  certainly  as  early  as  1 301,  as  containing  a  house 
belonging  to  Coke  Bateman,  a  Jew.  It  is  first  found  in  the  Calendar  of  Wills  in 
1362,  after  which  we  hear  no  more  of  it  till  141 9.  Here  a  Roman  pavement  was 
found. 

One  of  the  most  important  of  the  old  coaching  inns,  the  Swan  with  two  Necks, 
stood  in  Lad  Lane.  From  this  place  an  amazing  number  of  coaches  and  wagons 
set  out  every  day.  The  sign  is  still  to  be  seen  over  the  entrance  to  the  London 
and  South  Western  Railway  Company's  yard. 

The  street  was  widened  in  1845.  It  has  a  picturesque  appearance,  for  the 
houses  project  irregularly  at  the  corners  of  the  cross  streets.  The  Church  of  St. 
Lawrence  occupies  part  of  the  north  side. 

ST.   LAWRENCE,    JEWRY 

The  date  of  the  foundation  of  St.  Laurence  or  Lawrence,  Jewry,  is  not  known,  but  the  church  was 
burnt  down  by  the  Great  Fire,  and  rebuilt  by  Wren  1671-76,  when  the  parish  of  St.  Mary  Magdalene 
was  annexed.  The  new  building  was  erected  at  the  expense  of  the  parishioners,  assisted  by  a  liberal 
subscription  from  Sir  John  Langhani.  The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1321.  The  patronage  of  the 
church  was  in  the  hands  of  Henry  de  Wickenbroke,  who,  May  30,  1294,  gave  the  Rectory  to  Balliol 
College,  Oxford,  when  a  Vicarage  was  here  ordained,  and  in  this  college  it  still  continues. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  148. 

The  church  measures  82  feet  in  length,  71  feet  in  breadth,  and  39  feet  in  height.  It  contains 
only  one  aisle,  on  the  north  side,  separated  from  the  rest  of  the  building  by  Corinthian  columns. 
Above  the  columns  is  a  richly  worked  entablature,  which  is  continued  all  round  the  church.  The  east 
front  has  a  fai^ade  formed  by  four  Corinthian  columns  with  entablature,  supporting  the  pediment.  The 
tower,  which  is  three  storied,  is  surmounted  by  a  square  turrtt,  supporting  a  square  pedestal,  and  above 
this  by  an  octagonal  spirelet  with  a  ball  and  vane;  the  vane  is  in  the  form  of  St.  Laurence's  emblem, 
the  gridiron.     The  total  height  is  160  feet. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  :  For  William  de  Kancia  at  the  Altar  of  St.  John,  July  10,  1321  ;  by 
Thomas  Wytton  at  the  Altar  of  Virgin  Mary,  the  endowment  of  which  fetched  £ii  :  4  :  8  in  1548,  when 
Thomas  Sandlord  was  chaplain  ;  by  William  Myldreth  at  the  Altar  of  St.  Michael  the  Archangel,  the 
endowment  of  which  yielded  ^7:6:8  in  1548,  when  Rowland  Robynsonne  was  chaplain;  by  Simon 
Bonyngton,  whose  endowment  fetched  .^£^22:13:4  in  1548  when  Thomas  Sylvester  was  chaplain;  by 
Simon  Bartlett,  whose  endowment  yielded  ^5:4:8  in  1548,  when  Thomas  Ballard  was  chaplain;  by 
Simon  Gosseham,  for  two  chaplains,  whose  endowment  fetched  ^1^14:  6  :8  in  1548,  when  Thomas  Begley 
and  Henry  Whorleston  were  the  priests. 

The  old  church  was  the  burying-place  of  a  considerable  number  of  eminent  citizens.     Among  them 


26 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


were  :  Richard  Rich,  ancestor  of  the  Earls  of  Warwick  and  Holland,  who  died  in  1469  ;  Sir  Gefifney  Bullen, 
Lord  Mayor  in  1459  and  great-great-grandfather  to  Queen  Elizabeth  ;  Sir  Richard  Gresham,  Lord  Mayor 
in  1537  and  father  of  Sir  Thomas  Gresham  ;  Sir  Michael  Dormer,  Lord  Mayor  in  1541  ;  Roger  Thorney, 
who  founded  a  Fellowship  at  Jesus  College,  Cambridge  ;  Dame  Alice  Avenon,  a  benefactress  to  the  parish. 
Against  the  west  wall  there  is  a  monument  displaying  three  busts,  in  memory  of  Alderman  Sir  William 
Halliday,  sheriff  in  1617  ;  this  was  erected  in  1687  by  Dame  Margaret  Hungerford  in  place  of  that  destroyed 


ST.    LAWRENCE,   JEWRY 


by  the  Fire.  Dr.  John  Wilkins,  Master  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  and  vicar  here  in  1662,  was  buried 
under  the  north  wall  of  the  chancel.  There  are  monuments  also  to  John  Tillotson,  lecturer  here  for  some 
years,  and  to  Dr.  Benjamin  Whichcote,  the  celebrated  preacher,  who  succeeded  Wilkins  as  vicar.  On 
the  western  part  of  the  south  wall  a  large  monument  commemorates  Mrs.  Sarah  Scott,  who  died  in  1750, 
leaving  ^700  for  parish  purposes.  Sir  John  Langham  was  a  donor  of  ^250  for  the  purpose  of  church 
repairing,  etc.,  and  no  gifts  or  bequests  belonging  to  the  parish  are  recorded  by  Stow,  except  two  weekly 
lectures  each  at  £^0  per  annum,  the  donors  of  which  are  not  stated  by  him.     There  was  one  Grammar 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


27 


School,  kept  over  the  vestry.  William  Bell,  Master  of  Balliol  College,  Oxford,  in  1494  was  a  rector  here  ; 
also  William  White,  Master  of  Balliol  College,  Oxford  1125-39;  Edward  Reynolds  (1629-1698),  Bishop 
of  Norwich;  Seth  Ward  (1617-1689),  Bishop  of  Exeter;  John  Mapletoft  (1631-1721),  President  of  Zion 
CdBege  ;  and  Benjamin  Morgan  Cowie  (18 16- 1900),  Dean  of  Exeter. 

Gresham  College  stands  at  the  end  of  a  row  of  uniform  plaster-faced  houses. 
The  College  itself  is  a  great  yellow-plastered  building  with  disproportionately  heavy 
cornice  and  rigid  balconies. 

In  Guildhall  Yard  is  a  fine  view  of  the  ornamental  gateway  of  the  Guildhall. 
On  the  east  is  the  Guildhall  Tavern,  and  on  the  west,  beyond  the  church,  is  an  open 


!'y  y,  Cottty, 


SS.    ANNE    AND   AGNES 


space,  formerly  the  churchyard,  with  a  few  plane-trees  dotted  about,  and  a  fountain 
of  Gothic  design,  erected  in  1866,  with  statues  upon  it  representing  St.  Lawrence 
and  the  Magdalene. 

St.  Martin's  House,  on  the  north  side,  is  a  modern  red  sandstone  building. 

St.  Anne's  Churchyard,  with  one  or  two  plane-trees  of  good  size,  makes  a  break 
in  the  line  of  modern  houses  beyond. 

SS.  ANNE  AND  AGNES.   ALDERSGATE 

This  church  stands  on  the  north  side  of  Gresham  Street,  towards  the  west  end.  The  date  of  the 
foundation  of  the  original  church  is  uncertain,  but  mention  is  made  of  it  in  a  deed  dating  between 


28  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

1193-1212,  in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral.  It  was  damaged  by  fire  in  1548,  reconstructed  and  again  destroyed 
by  the  Great  Fire  of  1666.  The  present  building  was  completed  by  Wren  in  1681.  The  earliest  date  of 
an  incumbent  is  1322. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of : 

The  Dean  and  Canons  of  St.  Martin's-le-Grand,  1322  ;  the  Abbot  and  Convent  of  Westminster, 
1510;  the  Bishop  of  Westminster  by  grant  of  Henry  VIII.,  January  11,  1540-41;  the  Bishop  of 
London  and   his   successors  by  grant  of  Edward  VI.,  July  4,    1550;  confirmed  by  Queen  Mary,  March 

3.  1553-54- 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  300. 

The  present  building  is  of  brick,  and  measures  53  feet  square,  and  35  feet  in  height.  Within  this 
area  four  Corinthian  columns  form  another  square.  The  tower,  rising  at  the  west,  measures  14  feet  at  the 
base  and  culminates  in  a  vane ;  the  total  height  is  95  feet. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  by  Thomas  Juvenal  and  Alice  his  wife  at  the  Altar  of  St.  Nicholas  ; 
to  which  Richard  Grant  was  instituted  chaplain,  April  10,  1363. 

The  church  formerly  contained  monuments  to  Stephen  Brackynbury,  gentleman.  Usher  to  Henry 
VIII.,  Edward  VI.,  Queen  Mary,  and  Queen  Elizabeth.  William  Gregory,  Mayor  of  London,  1461,  was 
buried  here,  but  no  monument  remained  in  1598. 

The  principal  benefactors  were  William  Gregory,  alderman  and  skinner,  and  John  Werke,  goldsmith, 
both  of  whom  bequeathed  a  number  of  houses  to  the  parish  in  the  fifteenth  century. 

Some  of  the  most  notable  rectors  were  :  John  Hopton  (d.  1558),  Bishop  of  Norwich  ;  Samuel  Freeman, 
Dean  of  Peterborough,  1691  ;  and  Fifield  Allen,  Archdeacon  of  Middlesex. 

At  the  corner  of  Noble  Street  is  the  churchyard  of  St.  John  Zachary,  which 
parish  is  now  incorporated  with  St.  Anne  and  St.  Agnes.  This  is  a  fairly  large 
piece  of  ground  surrounded  by  brick  houses.  There  are  many  upright  tombstones 
among  the  blackened  shrubs  within.  Beyond  there  is  a  large  building  of  red  brick 
finished  with  piers  of  polished  granite. 

The  Church  of  St.  John  Zachary,  which  was  situated  in  Maiden  Lane,  was  burnt  down 
in  the  Great  Fire  and  its  parish  annexed  to  that  of  St.  Anne,  Aldersgate.  It  was  built  or  founded 
by  a  monk  named  Zachary.  The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  some  year  between  1 2 1 7 
and  1243. 

The  church  has  always  been  in  the  gift  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  from  the  earliest 
record  up  to  1666,  when  the  parish  was  annexed  to  that  of  St.  Anne  and  St.  Agnes. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  240. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  Thomas  Lichfield  in  1320;  for  Roger  Beynyn  and  Isabel  his 
wife  before  1322. 

Stow  records  that  the  monuments  in  this  church  were  well  preserved  in  his  time.  Some  of  the 
most  notable  persons  commemorated  were  :  Sir  James  Pemberton,  who  founded  a  free  school  in  Lancashire, 
and  was  donor  of  many  other  charitable  gifts  (died  16 13);  Philip  Strelley  (d.  1603),  benefactor  to  the 
parish,  and  Henry  de  Spondon,  rector  here  in  1366. 

There  were  some  small  legacies  belonging  to  the  parish,  but  few  names  are  recorded  by  Stow. 
Colonel  Henry  Drax  was  donor  of  ^^20,  and  his  wife  of  ^30.     Philip  Strelley,  of  40s.  a  year. 

By  the  subscribers  of  the  united  parishes  thirty  boys  and  twenty  girls  were  taught,  clothed,  and 
put  out  as  apprentices. 

William  Byngham,  founder  of  Christ  Church  College,  Cambridge,  was  rector  here. 

In  Gresham  Street  are  also  the  halls  of  two  City  Companies. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  29 


THE  HABERDASHERS  COMPANY 

It  has  been  surmised  that  the  haberdashers  were  originally  a  branch  of  the  mercers,  and  formed 
a  trade  association  for  the  protection  and  general  supervision  of  the  trade  carried  on  by  the  haberdashers 
and  milliners.  They  are  supposed  to  have  existed  as  early  as  the  year  1372,  being  mentioned  in  the 
City  records  as  having  then  promulgated  their  first  ordinances.  By  the  Company's  earlier  minute  books 
they  seem  to  have  been  at  one  time  associated  with  the  felt-makers. 

The  first  charter  granted  to  the  Haberdashers  Company  was  by  Henry  VI.  (June  3,  1448) ; 
it  authorised  and  empowered  the  liegemen  of  the  mystery  of  haberdashers  to  erect  and  found  a  guild 
or  fraternity  in  honour  of  St.  Katherine.  The  charter  grants  that  the  fraternity  shall  be  a  perpetual 
and  incorporate  fraternity  of  haberdashers  of  St.  Katherine  of  London,  to  hold  lands  to  themselves 
and  their  successors  and  with  a  common  seal. 

Henry  VII.  by  charter  united  the  crafts  of  hurriers  and  hatter  merchants  into  one  craft,  and 
by  another  charter,  17th  Henry  VII.,  he  united  the  hurriers  and  hatter  merchants  with  the  craft  of 
haberdashers,  and  declared  they  should  be  one  craft  and  perpetual  commonalty  by  the  name  of  Merchant 
Haberdashers. 

Henry  VIII. — November  15 u — by  charter  of  this  date  confirmed  previous  charters,  and,  on 
the  application  of  the  Merchant  Haberdashers,  altered  and  translated  the  style  of  the  said  guild  into 
the  name  of  the  Master  and  Four  Wardens  of  the  Guild  of  Fraternity  of  St.  Katherine,  of  the  Craft 
of  Haberdashers,  in  the  City  of  London.  It  enacted  that  no  foreigner  or  stranger  in  London  should 
make  any  caps  or  hats  for  the  use  of  any  stranger,  unless  admitted  by  the  master  and  wardens,  under 
pain  or  forfeiture  of  the  thing  made,  one  half  to  go  to  the  Mayor  and  Commonalty  of  the  City,  and  the 
other  to  the  use  of  the  mystery  or  craft  aforesaid. 

Philip  and  Mary — 1557 — by  charter  of  this  date  confirmed  all  previous  charters. 

Elizabeth — June  19,  1578 — by  charter  confirmed  all  previous  charters,  and  it  is  under  this  charter 
that  the  Company  is  now  governed. 

It  is  thought  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  the  Haberdashers  Company  was  originally  established 
for  trade  purposes,  and  was  in  former  times  associated  with  other  trades,  as  the  felt  -  makers  and 
hatters.  The  beforementioned  charters  of  incorporation  gave  the  Company  considerable  powers  for 
regulating  the  trade  in  haberdashery,  and  for  enforcing  its  orders  in  reference  thereto,  and  these  powers 
were  no  doubt  exercised  for  many  years.  In  course  of  time,  however,  the  business  or  trade  of  haberdashery 
became  so  interwoven  with  other  trades,  such  as  drapers,  milliners,  mercers,  hosiers,  etc.,  that  there 
is  no  longer  any  distinct  business  of  haberdashery.  The  Company,  however,  being  anxious  to  help  those 
who  are  engaged  in  it  have  for  the  last  eight  or  nine  years  advertised  that  the  sum  of  .;£^ioo  will  be  annually 
awarded  as  prizes  to  the  actual  inventors  of  new  patterns,  designs,  or  specimens  of  articles  of  haberdashery 
proper,  provided  such  inventors  were  not  manufacturers  or  dealers.  No  control  is  now  exercised  by 
the  Company  in  reference  to  the  trade  of  haberdashery. 

Freemen  are  eligible  for  pensions  and  gifts  if  in  needy  circumstances.  The  children  of  freemen 
have  the  privilege  of  competing  for  certain  exhibitions  in  the  gift  of  the  Company. 

Liverymen  are  also  eligible  for  the  pensions  and  gifts  under  similar  circumstances,  and  their 
children  have  like  privileges  for  competing  in  exhibitions.  They  are  also  eligible  (provided  their  fathers 
or  grandfathers  are  not  inembers  of  the  governing  body)  for  educational  grants  which  are  made  voluntarily 
by  the  Company  annually  towards  defraying  the  cost  of  education,  and  liverymen's  children  who  have 
distinguished  themselves  in  their  studies  are  also  eligible  for  four  exhibitions  of  ^40  each,  also  voluntarily 
given  by  the  Company  and  tenable  for  three  years,  for  the  purpose  of  pursuing  their  studies  in  the  higher 
branches  of  learning.  The  children  of  liverymen  and  freemen  have  also  a  priority  of  claim  over  outsiders 
for  admission  to  the  Company's  Aske's  Schools  at  Hatcham  and  West  Hampstead  and  Acton. 

The  members  of  the  governing  body,  on  attending  courts  and  committees  (but  not  otherwise),  receive 
fees  for  their  attendance. 


30  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

The  present  number  of  pensioners  is  152,  and  the  amount  paid  to  them  ^62999  :  los. 

The  present  number  of  recipients  of  annual  gifts  is  40,  and  the  amount  paid  to  them  ^^215  :  2s. 

It  is  beheved  that  few,  if  any,  of  the  recipients  of  the  above  pensions  and  gifts  carry  on  or  have 
carried  on  the  trade  the  name  of  which  is  borne  by  the  Company.  Considerable  grants  are  made  every 
year  to  poor  clergy  and  poor  hatters. 

In  addition  to  the  above  yearly  gifts  various  sums  are  from  time  to  time  voluntarily  granted  to  poor 
members  of  the  Company,  their  widows  and  families,  amounting  in  1879  to  £,2-}(i  :  los. 

The  Hall  is  at  77  Gresham  Street.     It  was  built  by  Wren  but  burned  down  in  1864. 

The  Trust  Income  of  the  Company  is  expended  in  schools  and  almshouses,  the  most  important 
schools  being  Aske's,  referred  to  above.  There  are  other  almshouses  at  Monmouth,  at  Newland  in 
Gloucestershire,  and  at  Newport,  Salop.  There  are  also  schools  at  Monmouth,  Pontypool,  Newport, 
Salop,  and  Bunbury  connected  with  the  Company.  They  give  several  exhibitions,  and  they  grant  pensions 
and  give  large  subscriptions  to  philanthropic  objects. 


THE   WAX  CHANDLERS  COMPANY 

There  is  no  documentary  evidence  in  the  possession  of  the  Wax  Chandlers'  Company  of  an  earlier 
date  than  45th  Edward  III.,  a.d.  137 i,  which  is  a  petition  to  the  Court  of  Aldermen  of  the  City  of 
London  for  leave  to  choose  searchers  for  bad  wares,  and  for  approval  of  byelaws  then  submitted  for  the 
regulation  of  the  craft.  The  prayer  of  this  petition  seems  to  have  been  acceded  to,  for  Walter  Rede  and 
John  Pope  were  in  the  same  year  chosen  and  sworn  to  oversee  the  said  craft,  and  the  defaults  from  time 
to  time  found  to  present  to  the  mayor  and  aldermen,  etc.  These  documents  are  set  out  (p.  104)  in 
the  Report  of  the  Commissioners  on  Municipal  Corporations  in  England  and  Wales  dated  1837.  That 
the  craft  of  wax  chandlers  had  an  association  previous  to  this  date  there  are  no  documents  to  show, 
although  from  the  petition  it  would  appear  that  it  had,  but  without  power  to  enforce  obedience  to  its  orders. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  charters,  etc.,  granted  at  various  times  to  the  Company  : 

I.  Charter  of  i  Richard  III.,  1484.  2.  Grant  of  arms,  2  Richard  III.,  1485.  3.  Further  grant 
of  arms,  28  Henry  VIII.,  1536.  4.  Exemplification  and  confirmation  of  said  charter  of  Richard  III.  by 
Philip  and  Mary,  7th  June,  4  and  5  Philip  and  Mary.  5.  Letters  Patent  of  confirmation  of  said  charter 
t)y  Queen  Elizabeth,  2  Elizabeth,  1560.  6.  Ditto,  ditto.  King  James  I.,  2  James  I.,  1604.  7.  Charter 
of  15  Charles  II.,  1663.  8.  Byelaws  pursuant  to  last-mentioned  charter,  and  the  statute  19  Henry  VIL, 
approved  and  signed  and  sealed  by  the  Lord  Chancellor  and  two  Chief  Justices  of  the  King's  Bench  and 
Common  Pleas,  dated  June  28,  1664,  referred  to  at  p.  100  of  the  above-mentioned  report.  9.  Charter 
of  I  James  II.,  1685  (this  charter  was  avoided  under  the  General  Statute). 

At  present  they  have  a  livery  of  twenty-seven,  a  Corporate  Income  of  ^1370,  a  Trust  Income  of 
^230,  and  a  hall  in  Gresham  Street. 

The  use  of  wax  tapers  and  candles  not  only  in  the  churches,  but  also  in  the  houses  of  the  wealthy 
sort,  caused  the  material  to  be  valuable  and  the  mystery  of  preparing  it  prosperous.  The  Company  was  in 
fact  in  great  credit  until  the  Reformation,  when  the  greater  part  of  its  work — that  of  providing  lights  for 
the  churches — vanished. 

In  ancient  documents  the  Guildhall  Yard  is  mentioned  frequently,  as  might  be 
expected.  In  Agas's  map  the  yard  is  enclosed,  and  entered  by  a  gateway.  Some 
of  the  land  belonged  to  Balliol  College,  Oxford.  It  was  widened  by  taking  off  part 
of  the  churchyard  of  St.  Lawrence,  Jewry.  Here  were  the  taverns  of  the  Three 
Tuns  and  the  White  Lyon.  Sir  Erasmus  de  la  Fountaine  had  property  here  and 
gave  his  name  to  Fountain  Court. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


31 


A  passage  out  of  Guildhall  Yard  and  others  out  of  Basinghall  Street  and 
Cateaton  Street  led  to  the  two  courts  of  Blackwell  or  Bakewell  Hall. 

Of  this  historic  mansion  Stow  speaks  at  some  length.  He  says  that  it  was 
built  upon  vaults  of  stone  brought  from  Caen  in  Normandy,  and  that  it  was  covered 
over  in  painting  and  carved  stone  with  the  arms  of  the  Basings  or  Bassings,  viz. 
"a  gyronny  of  twelve  points  gold  and  azure."  This  family  when  Stow  writes  was 
"worn  out."  In  the  36th  year  of  Edward  III.,  one  Thomas  Bakewell  was  living  in 
this  house.      In   the   20th  of  Richard    II.,   for  a  sum   of  ^^50,   licence  was  given  to 


^: 


BLACKWELI,  IIAI-I.,     1819 

transfer  this  hall  with  certain  messuages  appertaining  to  the  mayor  and  commonalty 
of  the  City.  Here  was  established  the  year  after,  by  Whittington,  thrice  Mayor,  a 
weekly  market  for  cloth,  no  foreigners  being  allowed  to  sell  cloth  anywhere  e.xcept 
in  Blackwell  Hall  and  in  the  courts  thereof.  In  the  year  1588  the  house,  being 
decayed,  was  taken  down  and  rebuilt.  In  the  Great  Fire  the  Hall  was  destroyed, 
together  with  a  great  quantity  of  cloth  stored  by  country  manufacturers  in  its 
warehouses.  "What,"  says  Lord  Clarendon,  "have  we  lost  in  clothe  if  the  little 
Company  [the  stationers]  lost  ;^200,ooo  in  books  ?  " 

"The  late  edifice  of  Blackwell   Hall  appears  to  have  been  erected  about  the 
year  1672,  and  it  exhibited  the  dull  and  prison-like  appearance  of  the  older  store- 


32  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

houses  of  London,  in  the  unglazed  transom-windows  with  iron  bars,  contained  in  the 
front.  The  attic  was  ornamented  with  a  cornice  and  pediment,  and  in  the  centre 
was  a  heavy  stately  stone  gateway  between  two  Doric  columns,  surmounted  by  the 
royal  arms,  carved  in  a  panel  above  ;  and  the  city  arms,  impaling  those  of  Christ's 
Hospital,  supported  by  winged  boys,  were  sculptured  in  the  head  of  the  arch.  The 
disposition  of  the  interior  consisted  of  two  quadrangular  open  courts,  one  beyond  the 
other,  surrounded  by  buildings  of  freestone.  Within  the  Hall  were  several  large 
rooms  or  warehouses,  both  above  and  on  the  ground  floor,  in  which  the  factors 
employed  by  the  clothiers  exposed  their  cloths  on  the  established  market  days, 
Thursday,  Friday,  and  Saturday,  the  first  being  the  principal.  These  apartments 
formed  the  Devonshire,  Gloucester,  Worcester,  Kentish,  Medley,  Spanish,  and 
Blanket  Halls,  etc.,  in  which  one  penny  was  charged  for  the  pitching  of  each  piece 
of  cloth,  and  one  halfpenny  per  week  each  for  resting  there.  The  profits  paid  to 
Christ's  Hospital  arising  from  those  charges  are  said  to  have  produced  ^looo 
yearly "  (Wilkinson's  Londina  Illustrata,  vol.  ii.  p.  36). 

The  changes  gradually  made  in  the  cloth  trade  caused  the  decay  of  the  market. 
In  1 81 5  an  Act  was  passed  enabling  the  Mayor  and  Corporation  to  pull  down  the 
hall  of  St.  Mary  Magdalene  Chapel,  which  w'as  stated  to  be  in  a  ruinous  condition, 
and  to  replace  it  by  buildings  for  courts. 

The  present  Art  Gallery,  the  Museum,  the  Library,  Guildhall  Buildings,  the 
Courts,  etc.,  stand  upon  the  site  of  the  Hall,  the  Chapel,  and  the  adjacent  ground. 
The   Hall  was  taken  down  in    1819. 

The  Guildhall,  like  the  Mansion  House,  Royal  E.xchange,  etc.,  is  so  woven  in 
with  the  history  of  the  City  that  an  account  of  it  must  be  sought  in  the  historical 
volumes  preceding  this. 

We  may  return  to  the  Poultry  by  the  next  north  and  south  thoroughfare, 
namely  : 

Ironmonger  Lane,  which  is  frequently  mentioned  in  early  deeds  and  documents. 
As  early  as  the  middle  of  the  twelfth  century  documents  are  spoken  of  in  "  Ismongers' 
Lane,"  in  the  parish  of  St.  Mary  Colechurch.  In  1245  there  are  shops,  solars,  and 
cellars  in  the  street.  Riley  [Mem.  128.  15)  presents  two  most  interesting  inquests 
connected  with  two  murders  in  this  street.  The  lane  is  called  variously  Ismongers', 
Iremongers',  and  Ironmongers'. 

On  the  east  side  of  this  street,  near  Cheapside,  was  the  Church  of  St.  Martin 
Pomeroy. 

St.  Martin  Pomeroy  is  supposed  by  Stow  to  have  gained  its  second  name  from  an  apple  garden 
there,  but  it  was  more  probably  from  a  family  named  Pomeroy.  In  1629  the  church  was  repaired,  but 
it  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being  united  to  that  of  St.  Olave,  Jewry. 
The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1361. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  before  1253  was  in  the  hands  of  Ralph  Tricket,  who  gave  it  in  1253  to 


MKRCKKS'    IIAI.L 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  33 

the  Prior  and  Canons  of  St.  Bartholomew,  Smithfield ;  after  the  Reformation  it  continued  in  the  Crown 
up  to  1666,  when  it  was  annexed  to  St.  Olave. 

HouseUng  people  in  1548  were  120. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  :  For  Henry  atte  Roth,  chandeler,  to  which  Richard  Scot  was  admitted, 
February  7,  1391-92  ;  for  William  Love,  to  which  Stephen  Benet  was  collated,  January  24,  1391-92.  Only 
two  monuments  are  recorded  by  Strype,  neither  of  which  commemorate  persons  of  eminence.  There  was 
a  free  school,  said  to  have  been  founded  by  Thomas  a  Becket,  in  the  Old  Jewry,  for  twenty-five  scholars. 
There  were  also  two  almshouses  for  nine  widows  of  Armourers  or  Braziers,  the  gift  of  Mr.  Tindal,  citizen 
and  armourer  of  London. 

John  Kingscote,  Bishop  of  Carlisle,  1462,  was  rector  here. 

In  Ironmonger  Lane  is  the  Mercers'  Hall. 

THE    MERCERS    COMPANY 

The  Mercers,  although  not  incorporated  until  the  year  1393  (17th  Richard  IL),  were  in  very  early 
times  associated  voluntarily  for  the  purposes  of  mutual  aid  and  comfort.  They  come  to  light  as  a 
fraternity  first  in  the  time  of  Henry  II.,  for  Gilbert  a  Becket,  the  father  of  St.  Thomas  of  Canterbury,  is 
said  to  have  been  a  mercer ;  and  in  the  year  1 192,  Agnes  de  Helles,  sister  of  St.  Thomas,  and  her  husband, 
Thomas  Fitztheobald  de  Helles,  in  founding  the  hospital  of  St.  Thomas  of  Aeon,  which  is  distinctly  stated 
to  have  been  built  on  the  spot  where  the  future  archbishop  was  born,  constituted  the  fraternity  of  mercers 
patrons  of  the  hospital.  The  hospital  and  the  Company  were  intimately  connected  until  the  Reformation, 
and  afford  a  good  example  of  the  connection  of  secular  guilds  and  ecclesiastical  foundations  in  the  Middle 
Ages,  secular  guilds  being  established  for  the  promotion  of  trade  and  almsdeeds,  and  ecclesiastical  founda- 
tions for  devotion  and  almsdeeds. 

It  is  probable  that  a  guild  could  not  be  carried  on  without  the  King's  licence  at  this  early  date  ;  and  it 
would  seem  a  necessary  interference  that  the  mercers  had  a  licence  at  the  time  of  Henry  H.,  from  their  not 
appearing  among  the  "adulterine"  guilds,  or  guilds  set  up  without  the  King's  licence,  which  were  fined  in 
1 180  for  being  established  without  such  licence. 

The  Merchant  Adventurers  Company  gradually  became  detached  from  the  Mercers  Company  in 
the  course  of  the  fifteenth  century,  especially  by  the  opening  of  the  trade  with  Flanders  in  the  year  1497  ; 
and  yet  more  so  in  1564,  when  Queen  Elizabeth,  by  charter,  constituted  the  Merchant  Adventurers  a 
distinct  body  politic  or  corporation  in  England;  but  the  Mercers  Company  still  kept  up  an  intimate 
connection  with  the  "Brotherhood  beyond  the  Sea,"  the  last  link  connecting  the  two  companies  being  only 
severed  by  the  Great  Fire  of  London  in  1666,  which  destroyed  the  office  which  the  Merchant  Adventurers 
held  of  the  mercers  under  Mercers'  Hall. 

It  is  probable,  however,  that  trade  in  former  times  was  separated  into  main  divisions,  the  staple  and 
the  miscellaneous,  now  known  as  mercery.  Silk,  when  first  imported,  fell  in  England  into  the  latter 
division,  hence  the  combined  appellation  "  silk  mercers  " ;  but  on  the  Continent  the  word  was  applied  to 
the  vendors  of  all  goods  carried  about  for  sale.  Cervantes,  speaking  of  the  original  history  in  Arabic  of 
Don  Quixote,  says  he  purchased  it  of  a  book  mercer ;  and  Guicciardini,  in  his  description  of  the  Nether- 
lands, speaks  of  merceries  as  well  of  silk  as  of  other  materials,  and  in  another  place  says  that  mercery 
comprehends  all  things  sold  by  retail  or  by  the  little  balance  or  scales.  Skinner,  in  his  Etymologkon, 
published  in  1671,  says  "  that  a  mercer  was  mercator peripatcticus"  or  an  itinerant  merchant. 

The  master  and  wardens  superintended  the  taking  of  apprentices  by  their  members,  searching  the 
weights  and  measures  of  shopkeepers  belonging  to  the  Company,  and  otherwise  regulating  their  commercial 
dealings.  The  Company  appointed  brokers  of  mercery  wares,  under  the  first  charter  to  the  City  by  Edward 
II.,  by  which  it  was  declared  that  there  should  be  no  brokers  in  the  City  but  those  chosen  by  the  merchants 
in  the  mysteries  in  which  they  exercised  their  office,  and  under  the  charter  of  Edward  III.,  which  declared 
that  none  should  exercise  the  office  of  broker  in  foreign  merchandise  in  London  unless  chosen  by  the 

3 


34  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

merchants  of  the  mysteries  in  which  they  should  act.  The  Company  also  appointed  a  common  meter  of 
linen  cloth  and  silk,  a  common  weigher  of  raw  silk,  and  tackle  porters  to  do  their  work  at  the  waterside. 
The  Company  no  longer  appoint  to  any  of  these  offices,  because  of  the  different  methods  of  carrying  on 
business  which  have  obtained  in  modern  times. 

In  the  13th  year  of  Edward  II.  the  Companies  had  advanced  towards  the  phase  of  "Livery 
Companies."     '■'■  Moultz  des  gens  de  Mesiers  en  Loundres  ftirent  vestus  de  suite.'' 

The  Company  seem  to  have  exercised  some  supervision  over  the  retailers  of  silk  and  other  mercery 
wares  previous  to  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth  ;  but  such  supervision  was  probably  not  founded  on  any 
legal  basis,  as  a  petition  to  the  privy  council  at  the  commencement  of  that  queen's  reign,  praying  that  these 
rights  should  be  recognised,  was  unsuccessful. 

The  numbers  of  the  Company  have  been  recruited  by  the  admission  of  apprentices,  and  from  the 
sons  of  mercers,  who  have  from  very  early  times  been  always  entitled  to  the  freedom ;  and  one  reason  for 
the  smallness  of  the  Company  may  probably  have  been  the  old  custom,  established  so  long  ago  as  1347, 
that  no  strangers  should  be  admitted  to  the  freedom  without  the  consent  of  the  generality.  The  Company 
has  never  been  very  numerous.  In  1347,  when  it  was  refounded,  103  persons  paid  their  entrance  fees; 
in  1527  the  Company  numbered  144;  in  1707,  when  most  numerous,  331;  and  on  December  31, 
1880,  166. 

The  earliest  date  of  which  there  is  a  record  in  the  Company's  books  is  the  year  1347,  when  it  was 
reorganised,  if  not  refounded. 

The  statement  that  no  one  should  take  as  an  apprentice  one  who  had  carried  packs  through  the 
country,  called  pedlars,  seems  to  show  that  a  mercer  at  this  time  had  ceased  to  be,  if  he  had  ever  been, 
a  pedlar. 

Previous  to  the  charter  granted  by  Richard  II.,  the  mercers  did  not  pretend  to  be  a  corporation,  but 
simply  a  member  of  the  City.  In  their  petition  to  Parliament  in  loth  Richard  II.,  against  Nicholas 
Brembre,  then  mayor,  they  call  themselves  "  the  folk  of  the  mercerie,  a  member  of  the  city."  The 
Company,  having  at  this  time  no  hall  of  their  own,  assembled  either  in  the  house  of  one  of  the  wardens, 
or  in  the  hall  or  church  of  the  hospital  of  St.  Thomas  of  Aeon,  the  site  of  which  is  now  occupied  by  their 
chapel  and  hall,  and  subsequently  occasionally  at  the  Prince's  Wardrobe  in  the  Old  Jewry.  They  had 
then  no  landed  property,  and  their  income  was  derived  from  subscriptions,  apprentice  fees,  and  fines,  and 
amounted  to  about  ;^20  a  year. 

The  Company's  first  charter,  enrolled  at  the  Record  Office  (the  original  of  which  has  been  lost),  is 
dated  at  Westminster  the  13th  January,  17th  Richard  II.  (1393). 

The  most  important  event  in  the  early  history  of  the  Mercers  Company  was  the  appointment  of  the 
Company  as  trustees  of  the  charities  of  Sir  Richard  Whittington,  several  times  master  or  principal  warden 
of  the  Company,  and  four  times  Lord  Mayor  of  London.  He  died  in  the  year  1422-23.  It  is  not  necessary 
to  enumerate  precisely  the  munificent  works  of  charity  which  were  carried  out  by  Sir  Richard  Whittington' 
in  his  lifetime,  or  by  his  executors  after  his  death ;  suffice  it  to  say  that  he,  or  they  by  his  direction,  rebuilt 
the  parish  church  of  St.  Michael  Royal,  rebuilt  the  prison  of  Newgate,  built  or  repaired  the  City  conduits, 
contributed  very  largely  to  the  building  of  St.  Bartholomew's  Hospital  and  of  the  Guildhall,  to  the  library 
of  the  Corporation  of  London,  and  the  library  of  the  Greyfriars,  and  established  a  chaplain  at  St.  Paul's. 
Whittington  appointed  John  Coventry,  John  White,  John  Carpenter,  and  William  Grove  to  be  executors  of 
his  will,  which  was  proved  in  March  1422-23.  On  the  12th  November,  3rd  Henry  \T.  (1424),  his  executors 
obtained  a  charter  from  the  King  to  found  Whittington  college  and  almshouses.  Of  both  these  founda- 
tions the  Mercers  Company  were  made  trustees. 

The  Company's  second  charter  was  granted  by  Henry  VI.  at  the  prayer  of  the  executors  of 
Whittington. 

On  the  accession  of  Edward  IV.  it  became  necessary  for  the  quieting  of  men's  titles  that  the  grants 
made  by  the  Lancastrian  kings  "should  be  confirmed,  and  accordingly  the  statute  ist  Edward  IV.  cap.  i 
was  passed,  by  which  it  was  enacted  that  all  liberties  and  franchises  granted  by  Henry  IV.,  Henry  V.,  and 
Henry  VI.,  to  counties  or  corporations,  and  among  others  to  the  wardens  and  commonalty  of  the  Mystery 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


35 


of  Mercers  of  the  City  of  London,  should  be  of  the  same  force  and  virtue  as  if  they  had  been  granted  by 
kings  reigning  de  jure.  The  Mercers  Company  is  the  only  company  named  in  the  Act,  the  others  being 
included  in  general  words. 

1463.     This  year  is  a  most  important  one  in  the  Company's  annals,  as  in  it  the  court  of  assistants 
was  first  established.     The  business  of  the  Company  having  very  much  increased,  both  on  account  of  their 


MERCERS     HALL 


connection  with  the  Merchant  Adventurers  Company  and  also  from  the  management  of  the  trusts  of 
Whittington,  Abbot,  and  Estfield,  it  was  felt  that  the  whole  burden  of  the  Company's  affairs  should  not  be 
cast  upon  the  wardens,  and  that  it  was  not  desirable  that  the  generality  should  be  constantly  called 
together.  For  many  years  previous  to  this  date  it  had  been  the  practice  that  the  wardens,  and  the 
aldermen  free  of  the  Company,  and  their  peers,  should  hold  assemblies  for  the  devising  of  ordinances  or 
other  matters,  their  deliberations  being  afterwards  submitted  to  a  general  court  for  approval.  On  the 
23rd  of  July  1463,  at  a  general  court  of  the  Company,  the  following  resolution  was  passed  :  "  It  is  accorded 


J 


6  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


that  for  the  holding  of  many  courts  and  congregations  of  the  fellowship  it.  is  tedious  and  grievous  to  the 
body  of  the  fellowship,  and  specially  for  matters  of  no  great  effect,  that  hereafter  yearly  shall  be  chosen 
and  associate  to  the  custoses  for  the  time  being,  12  other  sufficient  persons  to  be  assistants  to  the  said 
custoses,  and  all  matters  by  them,  or  most  part  of  them,  finished,  to  be  holden  firm  and  stable,  and  the 
fellowship  to  abide  by  them." 

The  rest  of  the  history  of  the  Mercers  Company  is  mainly  occupied  by  a  recital  of  charities  which 
were  placed  in  their  hands  to  administer.  It  is  sufficient  to  call  attention  to  the  many  and  splendid 
endowments  which  have  been  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  Company. 

The  general  court  appoint  three  trustees  of  the  Prisons'  Charities  Trust,  decide  when  the  corporate 
seal  shall  be  affixed,  and  determine  the  amount  of  fees  which  shall  be  paid  for  attendance  at  general  courts, 
courts  of  assistants,  and  committees.  The  fee  paid  to  a  member  for  his  attendance  at  general  courts  and 
courts  of  assistants  is  ^4  :  4s.,  and  to  a  member  attending  a  committee,  £,2  :  2s. 

(i)  A  freeman  is  entitled  from  Lady  Campden's  legacy  for  loans,  and  from  the  money  legacies  for 
loans,  to  have  the  loan  of  not  more  than  ;^5oo  without  interest  for  not  more  than  five  years,  giving 
approved  security. 

He  is  entitled,  if  his  circumstances  warrant  it,  and  within  the  limits  of  the  Company's  nominations, 
to  have  his  sons  placed  in  Christ's  Hospital  under  Daniel  Westall's  gift,  and  clothed,  boarded,  and 
educated  there  from  eight  years  old  to  fifteen,  and  perhaps  to  nineteen  ;  and  his  daughters  educated 
out  of  the  Company's  funds  at  an  expense  not  exceeding  .;^5o  per  annum,  from  nine  years  of  age  to 
fifteen,  and  if  they  show  reasonable  proficiency  and  ability  to  seventeen,  under  regulations  approved  by 
the  general  court. 

He  is  also  entitled  in  case  of  old  age,  misfortune,  or  infirmity  to  receive  relief  proportioned  to  his 
circumstances  out  of  the  Company's  or  out  of  Sir  Richard  Whittington's  estate,  which  was  left  to  the 
Company  specially  for  that  purpose ;  and  his  widow  and  daughters  are  entitled  to  relief  under  similar 
circumstances. 

(2)  Liveryman. — A  liveryman  is  entitled  to  the  same  advantages  as  a  freeman,  and  in  addition  is 
invited  to  three  dinners  in  the  course  of  the  year.  He  has  the  right  to  attend  common  hall,  and  to  vote 
at  elections  of  lord  mayors  and  sheriffs  and  of  such  other  officers  of  the  Corporation  of  London  as  are 
elected  by  the  livery ;  and  if  resident  within  a  radius  of  twenty-five  miles  from  the  City,  to  vote  at  elections 
of  members  of  Parliament  for  the  City  of  London. 

He  is  eligible,  and  if  of  sufficient  position  and  standing  he  is  generally  called  in  rotation  by  the  court 
of  assistants,  to  be  a  member  of  their  body. 

(3)  Master,  Warden,  or  otherwise  a  member  of  the  governing  body. — A  member  of  the  court  of 
assistants  is  summoned  to  general  courts  as  well  as  to  meetings  of  the  court  of  assistants  (which  are  held 
weekly,  except  during  Christmas  and  Easter  weeks  and  six  weeks  in  August  and  September).  He  is  also 
eligible  to  be  placed  on  committees  appointed  by  the  court  and  on  the  Gresham  committee. 

He  is  invited  to  dine  at  all  dinners  in  the  Company's  hall. 

He  recommends  in  rotation  to  appointments  to  Mercers'  School,  and  to  out -pensions  on  the 
Whittington  estate,  and  to  the  Whittington  almshouses. 

The  court  of  assistants  appoint  nine  governors  of  St.  Paul's  School  under  the  provisions  of  the 
scheme,  and  also  governors  and  members  of  the  council  and  of  the  executive  committee  of  the  City  and 
Guilds  of  London  Institute  for  the  Advancement  of  Technical  Education. 

The  master  and  wardens  are  members  of  every  committee  appointed  by  the  Company.  They 
distribute  Alderman  Walthall's  and  Lady  Hungerford's  gifts,  appoint  preachers  in  Mercers'  Chapel  under 
various  gifts,  and  are  ex  officio  governors  of  St.  Paul's  School. 

They  also  receive  under  various  wills  of  benefactors  to  the  Company  certain  small  annuities,  and  are 
entitled  to  the  surplus  of  Blundell's  estate,  which  surplus  amounted  in  1 880  to  ;£205  19:9. 

A  member  of  the  Company  will  probably  come  on  to  the  court  of  assistants  \vhen  he  is  about 
forty-five  years  of  age,  and  he  remains  a  member  for  life. 

The  Company  does  not  carry  on  any  trade  or  occupation  whatever. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  37 

The  Mercers'  Hall  is  interesting  as  standing  on  the  site  of  the  ancient  House  of  St.  Thomas  Aeon. 
On  the  dissolution  the  Mercers  purchased  the  buildings  of  the  House. 

The  Mercers  had  occupied  a  house  adjoining  for  more  than  a  hundred  years  before  this  acquisition. 
The  Religious  House  itself  was  undoubtedly  on  the  site  of  the  house  where  Thomas  was  born.  The 
buildings  were  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire.  The  second  hall  was  built  on  the  same  site  with  another 
chapel  in  which  service  is  held  every  Sunday  evening.  Fragments  of  the  ancient  buildings  can  still  be 
seen.  The  present  hall  is  said  to  have  been  designed  by  Wren.  The  entrance  in  Cheapside  was 
built  in  1S79. 

Among  the  more  distinguished  members  of  this  great  Company  have  been  Whittington,  Caxton,  and 
Sir  Thomas  Gresham,  Sir  Henry  Colet,  Sir  Baptist  Hicks.  The  present  number  of  the  livery  is  returned 
in  Whitakcr  as  187  ;  the  Corporate  Income  as  ;^48,ooo  ;  the  Trust  Income  as  ^35,000. 

For  an  account  of  the  Hospital  of  St.  Thomas  of  Aeon,  which  at  first  extended 
from  Ironmonger  Lane  to  Old  Jewry,  see  Mediceval  London,  vol.  ii.  p.  262. 

King  Street  was  constructed  after  the  Fire,  in  order  to  give  a  nobler  approach 
to  the  Guildhall.  Pepys  refers  to  the  ground  having  been  already  bought  in 
December  1667.  Strype  says  that  "it  is  well  inhabited  by  Norwich  Factors  and 
other  wholesale  dealers  of  wealth  and  reputation."     He  calls  it  New  King  Street. 

Trump  Street  or  Trump  Alley  is  not  named  in  Agas,  Stow,  or  Ogilvy;  Strype 
calls  it  Duke  Street. 

The  mention  of  John  Carsyl,  Tromppour,  Trumper  or  Trumpet-maker  (1308), 
also  of  William  Trompeor  (1321)  and  William  le  Trompour,  gives  Riley  occasion 
for  the  followinor  notes  : 

o 

"The  persons  who  followed  this  trade  mostly  lived,  in  all  probability,  in  Trump 
Street,  formerly  Trump  Alley  (a  much  longer  street  then  than  it  is  now),  near  the 
Guildhall  ;  their  principal  customers  not  improbably  being  the  City  waits,  or 
watchmen  ;  each  of  whom  was  provided  with  a  trumpet,  also  known  as  a  "wait,"  for 
soundinof  the  hours  of  the  watch,  and  griving-  the  alarm.  In  reference  to  this  trade  it 
deserves  the  remark,  that  the  only  memorial  that  has  come  down  to  us  of  the 
Chapel  of  St.  Mary  the  Virgin,  and  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen  and  all  Saints,  formerly 
adjoining  the  Guildhall,  is  a  massive  stone  coffin  (now  in  the  Library  at  Guildhall) 
with  its  lid,  whereon  is  sculptured  a  cross  between  two  trumpets,  and  around  its 
margin  the  following  inscription  :  Godefrey  le  Trompour :  gist :  ci  :  Deu  :  del : 
ealme :  eit :  merci.  'Godefrey  the  Trompour  lies  here,  God  on  the  soul  have 
mercy.'  In  Trump  Alley,  close  adjoining,  he  probably  lived,  sold  trumpets,  and 
died — if  we  may  judge  from  the  character  of  the  writing,  in  the  latter  half  of  the 
fourteenth  century"  (Riley's  Memorials,  p.  xxi). 

St.  Lawrence  Lane. — "  Antiquities  in  this  lane  I  find  none  other,  than  that 
among  many  fair  houses,  there  is  one  large  inn  for  receipt  of  Travellers  called 
Blossoms  inn,  but  corruptly  Bosoms  inn,  and  hath  to  sign  St.  Laurence  the  Deacon, 
in  a  border  of  blossoms  or  flowers"  (Stow's  Survey). 

Cunningham  adds  as  follows  : 

"When  Charles  V.  came  over  to  this  country  in   1522,  certain  houses  and  inns 

48319 


38  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

were  set  apart  for  the  reception  of  his  retinue,  and  in  St.  Lawrence  Lane,  at  'the 
signe  of  Saint  Lawrence,  otherwise  called  Bosoms  yn,  xx  beddes  and  a  stable  for  Ix 
horses'  were  directed  to  be  got  ready.  The  curious  old  tract  about  Bankes  and  his 
bay  horse  [Maroccus  Extaticus)  is  said  to  be  by  'John  Dando,  the  wier-drawer  of 
Hadley,  and  Harrie  Runt,  head  ostler  of  Besomes  Inne.'" 

The  inn  was  also  called  "  Bossamez  "  Inn  and  Boscham's  Inn. 

Honey  Lane  Market  was  established  soon  after  the  Fire.  Strype  thus 
speaks  of  it  (vol.  i.  p.  566)  : 

"Adjoining  to  this  street,  on  the  north  side,  is  Honey  Lane,  being  now,  as  it 
were,  an  alley  with  a  Freestone  pavement,  serving  as  a  passage  to  Honey  Lane 
Market ;  the  former  Lane,  and  other  buildings,  being  since  the  fire  of  London 
converted  into  this  market.  Among  which  buildings,  was  the  Parish  Church  of 
St.  AUhallow's,  Honey  Lane  ;  and,  because  it  was  thought  fit  not  to  rebuild  it,  the 
parish  is  united  to  St.  Mary-le-Bow.  This  Market  is  well  served,  every  Week, 
on  Mondays,  Wednesdays,  Fridays  and  Saturdays,  with  Provisions.  The  Place 
taken  up  by  this  Market  is  spacious.  In  the  middle  is  a  large  and  square  Market- 
house,  standing  on  pillars,  with  rooms  over  it,  and  a  bell-tower  in  the  midst.  There 
are  in  the  market  one  hundred  and  thirty-five  standing  stalls  for  butchers,  with 
racks,  blocks,  and  others  necessaries,  all  covered  over,  to  shelter  them  from  the 
injury  of  the  weather ;  and  also  several  stalls  for  fruiterers.  The  west  end  of  the 
market  lieth  open  to  Milk  Street,  where  there  is  a  cock  of  conduit  water  for  the  use 
of  the  market.  There  are  two  other  passages  into  it,  that  is,  one  out  of 
St.  Lawrence's  Lane,  besides  that  which  comes  out  of  Cheapside  ;  which  passages 
are  inhabited  by  grocers.  Fishmongers,  Poulterers,  Victuallers,  and  Cheesemongers." 

Complaints  are  found  in  the  wardmote  book  of  people  making  fires  in  the 
market  ;  of  butchers  killing  sheep  and  lambs  there  ;  and  of  the  annoyance  caused  by 
the  farmers  letting  soil  and  refuse  lie  about  the  place.  Honey  Lane,  which  led  to  it, 
is  said  by  Stow  to  be  so  called,  being  a  dark  and  narrow  place,  on  account  of  the 
constant  washing  required  to  keep  it  clean — a  far-fetched  derivation.  The  name  is 
indeed  very  ancient.  In  a  grant,  dated  1203-15,  made  by  the  Dean  and  Chapter 
of  St.  Paul's  to  one  Richard  de  Corilis  mention  is  made  of"Huni"  Lane,  and  in 
another  grant  of  the  same  period  the  house  in  question,  "a  stone  built  house,"  is 
mentioned  in  between  Milk  Street  and  "Huni"  Lane.  There  was  one  Elias  de 
Honey  Lane  in  1274. 

The  market  was  closed  in  1835  and  the  City  of  London  School  built  on  its 
site.  The  school  has  now  been  removed  to  the  Embankment  and  the  place  is  let 
out  in  offices. 

The  Church  of  AllhallOWS,  Honey  Lane,  stood  on  the  north  side  of  Cheapside  in  Honey  Lane. 
It  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire  and  the  parish  was  then  annexed  to  St.  Mary-le-Bow.  Honey  Lane 
Market  was  on  the  site  of  the  church.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1327. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


39 


The  patronage  was  in  the  hands  of:  Simon  de  Creppyng,  citizen,  who  presented  in  1327;  several 
private  persons,  among  whom  was  Thomas  Knoles,  Mayor  of  London,  1399;  the  Grocers  Company, 
1471-1666,  when  it  was  annexed  to  St.  Mary-le-Bow. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  150. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  for  John  Fourneys,  citizen,  and  Katherine  his  wife,  ^t  the  Altar  of 
Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  August  22,  1396  (Pat.   20  Rd.  II.  p.  i.  m.   2i),and  by  Alexander  Speat,  Thomas 


CITY   OF    LONDON    SCHOOI,,    MII.K    STREET 


Trompington,  John  Downe,  and  Henry  Edelmeton.     Sir  John   Norman,   Mayor  of  London,    1453,  was 
buried  in  this  church.     No  bequests  or  charitable  gifts  are  recorded  in  Parish  Clerk's  Summary  of  1732. 

Among  the  notable  rectors  were  Thomas  Garrard,  who  was  burnt  at  Smithfiekl,  and  John  Young, 
Bishop  of  Gallipoli. 

Milk   Street   is  one  of  the  streets  of  Cheapside  which  peculiarly  recalls   the 
site  of  the  old  market  by  its  name.      There  is  not  much   recorded   of  this  street. 


40  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Sir  Thomas  More  was  born  here,  "the  brightest  star,"  says  Fuller,  "that  ever 
shone  in  that  via  Lactea."  In  the  Calendar  of  Wills  the  street  is  repeatedly 
mentioned  as  containing  shops.  The  earliest  date  on  which  it  occurs  is  127S.  In 
Riley's  Memorials  we  find  a  cook  living  here  in  1351  ;  in  1377  the  sheriff  has  "his 
own  Compter  "  in  this  street ;  in  1390  one  Salamon  Salaman,  a  mercer  of  Milk  Street, 
gets  into  trouble  for  having  putrid  fish  in  his  possession  ;  and  in  1391  one  William  of 
Milk  Street,  no  name  or  trade  given,  is  falsely  imprisoned  by  means  of  a  conspiracy. 
Milk  Street  in  the  thirteenth  century  was  the  residence  of  certain  Jews.  Thus 
in  1247  Peter  the  Jew  had  a  house  there;  and  in  1250  leave  was  granted  to 
John  Brewer  to  build  a  chapel  in  his  house,  formerly  that  of  Benedict  the  Jew  ;  and 
in  1285  Cresse  the  Jew  had  a  house  there.  In  1294  Martin  the  Arbalestin  lived  in 
Milk  Street;  and  in  12S5  the  mayor  had  his  residence  there,  his  house  being  rented 
of  the  Prior  of  Lewes. 

The  Church  of  St.  Mary  Magdalene,  Milk  Street,  formerly  stood  on  the  east  side,  towards  the 
south  end  of  Milk  Street,  Cheapside.  It  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being 
annexed  to  that  of  St.  Lawrence,  Jewry.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1162. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's  continuously 
from  1 162,  until  it  was  burnt  down,  when  the  parish  was  annexed;  the  Dean  and  Chapter  now  share  the 
alternate  patronage  of  the  amalgamated  parish  (see  Hist.  INISS.  Rept.  ix.  p.  iS'"'  19"''  as  to  a  lawsuit 
concerning  the  patronage). 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  220. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by:  Robert  de  Kelsey,  about  1334,  for  himself,  Julian  his  wife.  Hen.  de 
Galeys,  and  Sara  de  Eldham,  to  which  Hen.  de  Kelsey  was  admitted  chaplain,  September  5,  1336;  the 
above  Robert  de  Kelsey  endowed  it  with  the  "  Caufare  "  in  Westcheap,  which  fetched  ^2) :  14  :  8  in  1548 ; 
John  Offam,  whose  endowment  fetched  ;^i4:9:6  in  1548,  when  William  Baker  was  priest;  Thomas 
Kelsey,  whose  endowment  fetched  .1^12  :  13  : 4  in  1548. 

A  great  number  of  the  monuments  in  this  church  had  been  defaced  by  Stow's  time.  He  records  the 
interment  of  Thomas  Knesworth,  mayor  in  1505  ;  Sir  John  Langley,  mayor  in  1576.  No  names  of 
benefactors  are  recorded  by  him. 

Lawrence  Bothe,  Bishop  of  Durham  1457,  of  York  1476,  was  rector  here;  also  John  Bullingham 
(d.  1598),  Bishop  of  Gloucester. 

Wood  Street  or  Lane  is  the  ne.xt  important  thoroughfare  westward.  It  is 
supposed  by  Stow  to  have  been  so  called  because  it  was  built  wholly  of  wood  ;  but 
Stow  suggests  also  an  alternative  derivation,  that  it  may  have  been  named  after  one 
Thomas  Wood,  sheriff  in  1491.  The  latter  suggestion  must  be  ruled  out,  because  in 
1394  a  testator  bequeathed  his  "mansion"  in  Wood  Street.  It  is  worthy  of  note 
that  the  first  mention  of  the  street  is  of  houses,  rents,  and  tenements,  and  so  it 
continues  until  the  end  of  the  thirteenth  century,  when  we  begin  to  hear  of  shops  ; 
in  1349  a  brewery  is  spoken  of — the  water,  as  in  the  case  of  Mugwell  Street,  must 
have  been  furnished  by  one  of  the  numerous  City  wells.  There  were  many  inns  in 
Wood  Street :  the  Bell,  the  Coach  and  Horses,  the  Castle,  and  the  Cross  Keys. 
The  Castle  is  still  commemorated  in  a  stone  slab. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  41 

The  Church  of  St.  Michael,  Wood  Street,  was  sometimes  called  St.  Michael  Hogge  or  Huggen 
from  onaof  that  name  who  lived  in  the  lane  which  runs  down  by  the  church.  It  was  destroyed  by  the 
Great  Fire  (with  the  exception  of  the  steeple)  and  rebuilt  by  Wren,  who  completed  it  in  1675,  when  the 
parish  of  St.  Mary  Staining  was  annexed.  It  was  repaired  in  1888,  and  taken  down  at  the  end  of  the  nine- 
teenth century.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  11 50. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Abbot  of  St.  Albans  before  1 150  ;  Henry  ^■III., 
who  seized  it  in  1540  and  sold  it  in  1543  to  ^Villiam  Burwell ;  John  Marsh  and  others  in  trust  for  the 
parish — it  so  continued  up  to  1666,  when  St.  Mary  Staining  was  annexed  and  the  patronage  was  alternately 
in  the  Crown  and  parishioners. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  317. 

The  latest  church  was  very  plain  and  measured  63  feet  in  length,  42  feet  in  breadth,  and  31  feet  in 
height.  The  east  front  had  four  Ionic  pilasters  supporting  a  pediment,  and  in  the  spaces  between  the 
columns  there  were  three  circular-headed  windows.  The  tower,  which  was  connected  with  the  church  by 
a  porch,  contained  three  stories,  terminated  by  a  parapet  which  was  surmounted  by  a  narrow  spire  with  a 
vane;  the  total  height  was  130  feet. 

Richard  de  Basingstoke  founded  a  chantry  here  before  1359,  probably  at  the  Altar  of  St.  John 
Baptist.  Amongst  those  buried  in  the  old  church  was  Alderman  John  Lambarde,  sheriff,  1551,  who  was 
father  to  Stow's  great  friend  William  Lambard,  the  antiquary;  he  died  in  1554.  The  church  contained  a 
monument  to  Queen  Elizabeth. 

The  legacies  of  charity  left  to  the  parish  were  :  8s.  per  annum,  of  which  Lady  Read  was  donor ; 
5s.  per  annum,  of  which  Mr.  Hill  was  donor;  £,2  for  20  years,  of  which  Mr.  Longworth  Cross  w^as  donor; 
£,\  per  annum,  of  which  Mr.  Bowman  was  donor.  There  were  also  ground-rents  amounting  to  ^^36 :  4s. 
leased  for  61  years. 

Anthony  Ellis  or  EUys  (1690-1761),  Bishop  of  St.  David's,  was  a  rector  here;  also  Thomas  Birch 
(1705-66),  Secretary  to  the  Royal  Society,  1752-65. 

The  modern  Wood  Street,  for  a  considerable  distance  after  Gresham  Street, 
is  one  series  of  immensely  high  warehouses,  on  which  the  vertical  lines  of  bricks 
between  the  plate-glass  windows  are  the  most  prominent  feature.  The  effect  of 
these  lines  is  rather  neat  and  workmanlike  ;  horizontally  beneath  the  windows  are 
carved  stone  designs  of  flowers  and  fruit  in  very  heavy  relief.  On  the  other  side  of 
the  street  are  the  entries  into  Pickford's  Yard  under  an  old  eighteenth-century  house 
of  the  plainer  sort. 

The  Church  of  St.  Alban,  Wood  Street,  is  too  far  north  to  fall  within  our 
present  section  ;  but  as  it  belongs  to  this  street  it  must  find  a  place  here. 

ST.   ALBAN,    WOOD    STREET 

The  Church  of  St.  Alban,  the  only  one  remaining  in  this  street,  is  on  the  west  side,  in  the  Cripplegate 
Ward.  In  1632  it  was  pulled  down,  but  was  rebuilt  in  1634,  probably  by  Inigo  Jones,  but  was  destroyed 
by  the  Great  Fire,  and  the  present  building  is  the  work  of  Wren,  who  completed  it  in  1685.  The  earliest 
date  of  an  incumbent  is  1 244. 

The  patronage  of  the  church,  as  far  as  can  be  traced,  was  in  the  hands  of:  St.  Alban's  Abbey, 
who  exchanged  it  in  1077  to  Westminster  Abbey;  St.  James'  Hospital,  Westminster,  presented  before 
1244;  Provost  and  Fellows  of  Eton,  1477,  with  whom  it  remained  up  to  1666,  when  the  parish  of 
St.  Olave,  Silver  Street,  was  annexed  and  the  patronage  shared  alternately  with  the  Dean  and  Chapter 
of  St.  Paul's. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  300. 


42  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

The  church  is  in  a  quasi-Gothic  style  and  somewhat  after  the  model  of  the  church  destroyed  by  the 
Fire.  It  measured  33  feet  in  height,  66  feet  in  length,  and  59  feet  in  breadth,  and  has  two  side  aisles 
divided  from  the  central  portion  by  clustered  columns  and  flat  pointed  arches.  The  church  terminates  at 
the  east  in  an  apse,  containing  three  stained-glass  windows.  It  has  been  greatly  altered  and  modernised, 
the  most  striking  alteration  being  the  formation  of  the  apse  and  the  substitution  of  three  smaller  windows 
for  the  original  large  east  window.  The  tower  attains  a  height  of  85  feet  and  terminates  in  an  open 
parapet ;  it  is  surmounted  by  eight  pinnacles  of  7  feet  each,  giving  a  total  altitude  of  92  feet.  On  the 
north  side  there  is  a  small  churchyard,  separating  the  church  from  Little  Love  Lane. 

There  was  a  chantry  founded  here  by  Roger  Poynel  before  1366.  The  church  formerly  contained 
monuments  to  Sir  John  Cheke  (1514-57),  tutor  of  Edward  VI.  and  others. 

The  donors  of  charitable  gifts  were :  William  Peel,  of  St.  Mary  Savoy,  who  bequeathed  an  annuity  of 
;£io  in  1623  for  the  use  of  the  poor;  Gilbert  Keat ;  Susan  Ibel,  ^40  for  providing  coals  for  the  poor  ; 
Richard  Wynne,  ^20  to  be  distributed  among  eight  poor  people,  at  2S.  6d.  apiece ;  Thomas  Savage, 
citizen  and  goldsmith,  donor  of  premises  in  Holborn  Bridge;  Mr.  Londson,  ;£i  :6s.  per  annum  for  bread 
for  the  poor,  through  the  Company  of  Embroiderers. 

There  was  a  charity  school  for  fifty  boys  and  twenty-five  girls,  supported  by  voluntary  contributions 
from  the  Church  of  St.  Alban  and  others,  from  which  the  boys  were  apprenticed  and  the  girls  placed  out 
to  service.     The  parish  had  in  1732  a  workhouse  hired  in  the  parish  of  St.  Giles,  Cripplegate. 

The  following  are  some  of  the  notable  vicars  of  the  church:  William  Watts  (d.  1649),  chaplain  to 
Charles  I.  ;  John  Adams  (1662-1720),  chaplain  to  William  III.  and  Queen  Anne. 

Foster  Lane  was  originally  St.  Vedast's.  It  is  mentioned  in  a  document  of 
I  28 1  as  St.  Pauster's,  which  was  actually  a  corruption  of  St.  Vedast's.  It  was,  before 
the  Fire,  a  neighbourhood  much  frequented  by  goldsmiths  and  jewellers  ;  William 
Fleetwood,  Recorder  of  London  in  157  i,  dated  some  of  his  letters  to  Lord  Burleigh 
from   Foster  Lane. 

St.  Vedast's  Church,  commonly  known  as  St.  Fauster's  or  Foster's.  It  was  severely  damaged 
by  the  Fire,  and  rebuilt  by  Wren  ;  the  steeple  was  erected  in  1697,  the  old  one  having  been  retained 
until  then.  The  parish  was  united  after  the  Fire  with  St.  Michael-le-Querne,  and  St.  Matthew,  Friday 
Street,  to  which  St.  Peter,  Westcheap,  had  been  annexed.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1291. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of :  The  Prior  and  Convent  of  Christ  Church, 
Canterbury;  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  before  1396,  in  whose  successors  it  continued  up  to  1666, 
when  the  parish  of  St.  Michael-le-Querne  was  annexed  and  the  patronage  was  alternately  shared  with  the 
Uean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's  up  to  1882,  when  St.  Matthew,  Friday  Street,  with  St.  Peter,  West- 
cheap,  were  annexed;  the  patronage  is  now  in  the  hands  of  the  Bishop  of  London  for  two  turns,  the 
Duke  of  Buccleugh  for  one  turn. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  460. 

The  church  measures  69  feet  in  length,  5 1  feet  in  breadth,  and  36  feet  in  height,  and  consists  of 
a  nave  and  south  aisle  separated  by  arches  supported  on  four  Tuscan  columns.  The  steeple,  which 
rises  at  the  south-west,  consists  of  a  tower,  surmounted  by  three  stages,  the  lowest  of  which  is  concave,  the 
second  convex,  and  the  third  an  obelisk-shaped  spire;  the  total  height  is  about  160  feet. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  :  By  Galfridus  atte  gate  for  himself  and  his  wives  Joan  and  Alice,  about 
1447,  when  Edmund  Brennyng  was  admitted  chaplain — the  lands  fetched  ^8  : 6  :  8,  which  was  augmented 
by  Christopher  Tury  and  yielded  in  all  ^14:  los.  in  1548,  when  John  Markehame  was  priest,  "of  the 
age  of  59  years,  of  mean  qualities  and  learning";  by  \Villiam  de  Wyndesore  for  himself  and  Tolonia  his 
wife;  by  John  de  Wyndesore,  brother  of  the  above  William;  by  Mr.  Cote  in  1530,  who  gave  ^160  to 
purchase  lands  for  the  endowing  of  it,  which  were  not  purchased,  but  one  Mr.  Hayton,  in  1548,  finds  a 
priest;    by  William    Tryston,    who   endowed   it  ;^6:i4:4,  which  was  augmented  by    Simon  Atwoll   to 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


43 


^18:5:2  in   1548,  when  Albert  Copeman  was  priest,  "of  the  age  of  39  years,  of  mean  qualities  and 
mean  learning." 

John  Longson,  Master  of  the  Mint,  was  buried  in  this  church  in  1583.  Among  the  later  interments 
Stow  records  those  of:  William  Fuller,  D. D.,  Dean  of  Durham,  who  suffered  imprisonment  for  his  loyalty 
in  the  times  of  the  rebellion;  Sir  John  Johnson,  Alderman  of  the  City,  who  died  in  1698;  and  William 
Hall,  deputy  of  this  ward,  who  died  in  1680  ;  Robert  Herrick  was  baptized  here  in  1591.  No  legacies  or 
gifts  are  recorded  by  Stow. 


'm^iriitf  ir  rfiM 


Dra^tit  /'vt'.  Shi'/'herd. 


LMl'KMI     til'     >r.     VEDAST 


Thomas  Rotherham  (1423-1500),  afterwards  Archbishop  of  York,  was  rector  here;  also  Isaac 
Maddox  (1697-1759),  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph  and  of  Worcester;  Adam  Moleynes  (or  Molyncux,  d.  145°)' 
LL.D.,  Bishop  of  Chichester,  who  was  slain  by  the  marines  at  Portsmouth,  incited  by  Richard,  Duke 
of  York;  Thomas  Blage  (d.  161 1),  Dean  of  Rochester;  Nathaniel  Marshall  (d.  1730),  Canon  of 
Windsor. 

In  Gresham  Street,  between  Foster  Lane  and  Gutter  Lane  corners,  is  the 
Goldsmiths'  Hall. 


44  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

THE    GOLDSMITHS   COMPANY 

The  Goldsmiths  Company  is  mentioned  in  the  year  iiSo,  when  it  appears  to  have  been  a  voluntary 
association.  It  doubtless  had  its  origin  in  a  combination  of  goldsmiths,  for  their  mutual  protection,  and 
to  guard  the  trade  against  fraudulent  workers.  In  the  year  1300  the  existence  of  the  Company  is  recognised 
by  a  statute,  viz.,  the  28th  Edward  I.,  cap.  80,  which  provides  for  the  standards  of  gold  and  silver,  and 
enacts  that  all  articles  of  those  metals  shall  be  assayed  by  the  wardens  of  the  craft,  to  whom  certain  powers 
of  search  are  also  given. 

The  first  of  the  Company's  charters  was  granted  to  them  by  Edward  III.,  in  the  first  year  of  his 
reign  (1327). 

It  states  that  it  had  been  theretofore  ordained  that  all  those  who  were  of  the  goldsmiths'  trade 
should  sit  in  their  shops  in  the  High  Street  of  Cheap  (Cheapside),  and  that  no  silver  or  plate,  nor  vessel 
of  gold  or  silver,  ought  to  be  sold  in  the  City  of  London,  except  at  the  King's  Exchange,  or  in  the  said 
street  of  Cheap  amongst  the  goldsmiths,  and  that  publicly,  to  the  end  the  persons  of  the  said  trade  might 
inform  themselves  whether  the  sellers  came  lawfully  by  such  vessel  or  not ;  that  no  gold  or  silver  shall  be 
manufactured  to  be  sent  abroad  but  what  shall  be  sold  at  the  King's  Exchange,  or  openly  amongst  the 
goldsmiths,  and  that  none  pretending  to  be  goldsmiths  shall  keep  any  shops  but  in  Cheap. 

By  two  subsequent  charters  Edward  III.  confirmed  and  extended  the  privileges  before  granted,  and 
he  gave  the  Company  licence  to  purchase  and  hold  tenements  and  rents  to  the  value  of  ^20  per  annum, 
for  the  relief  of  infirm  members. 

Richard  II.,  by  letters  patent  of  the  sixteenth  of  his  reign,  after  reciting  that  Edward  III.  had  allowed 
the  Company  of  the  said  craft  to  accept  charitable  donations,  and  to  purchase  estates  as  aforesaid,  and  that 
they  might  retain  a  chaplain  to  celebrate  Mass  amongst  them  every  day,  confirmed  the  liberties  granted  by 
Edward  III.  and  granted  and  licensed  the  men  of  the  craft  that  thenceforth  they  may  be  a  perpetual 
community  or  society  amongst  themselves. 

Henry  IV.,  by  letters  patent  of  his  fifth  year,  recited  and  confirmed  the  preceding  charters  of 
Edward  III.  and  Richard  II. 

Henry  VI.,  by  letters  patent  of  his  first  year,  also  recited  and  confirmed  the  charter  of 
Henry  IV. 

Edward  IV.,  by  letters  patent  of  his  second  year,  recited  and  confirmed  the  charters  of  his 
predecessors. 

Moreover,  he  granted  that  the  said  then  wardens  and  their  successors  may  be  a  corporation  or  body 
corporate  to  consist  of  and  be  called  the  Wardens  and  Commonalty  of  the  Mystery  of  Goldsmiths  of 
the  City  of  London.  That  they  may  be  capable  in  law  to  purchase,  take,  and  hold  in  fee  and  perpetuity 
lands,  tenements,  rents,  and  other  possessions  whatsoever  of  any  persons  whomsoever  that  shall  be 
willing  to  give,  devise,  and  assign  the  same  to  them.  That  they  may  have  perpetual  succession  and 
a  common  seal. 

Henry  VII.,  by  letters  patent  of  the  twentieth  year  of  his  reign,  confirmed  the  whole  of  the  preceding 
charters,  and  on  account  of  the  Company  being  opposed  in  their  trade  search  and  assay,  granted  by  Edward 
IV.,  gave  them  the  additional  power  to  imprison  or  fine  defaulters  in  the  tiade  at  their  discretion  ;  to 
seize  and  break  unlawful  work ;  to  compel  the  trade,  within  three  miles  of  the  City,  to  bring  their  work 
to  the  Company's  common  hall,  to  be  assayed  and  stamped ;  and  gave  them  power  for  ever,  when  it  was 
not  standard,  to  utterly  condemn  the  same,  without  rendering  account  to  the  Crown. 

The  whole  of  the  liberties  and  franchises  granted  to  the  Company  by  the  preceding  charters  are  set 
forth  and  confirmed  by  inspeximus  charters  of  ist  of  Henry  VIII.,  ist  of  Edward  VI.,  ist  of  Mary, 
3rd  of  Elizabeth,  2nd  of  James  I.,  and  iSth  of  Charles  11. 

The  Company  also  received  a  charter  from  James  II.  dated  4th  of  May  in  the  first  year  of  his  reign, 
whereby,  amongst  other  things,  that  monarch  reserved  to  the  Crown  a  right  of  control  over  the  appoint- 
ment of  the  wardens  and  clerk.  The  statute  was  made  void  by  the  Act  of  Parliament  2nd  William  and 
Mary,  cap.  8. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


45 


The  Company  have  also  a  copy  of  that  part  of  the  following  patent  which  relates  to  their  property, 
viz.  4th  of  Edward  VI.     The  King  to  Augustine  Hynde,  and  others. 

The  Company  have  also  an  exemplification  under  the  great  seal  of  letters  patent  granted  to  them  by 
James  I.,  in  the  seventeenth  year  of  his  reign  (July  24,  161 9),  confirming  to  them  the  possession  of  a 
large  quantity  of  property  in  the  City  of  London. 

The  powers  of  the  Company  are  exercised  at  the  present  time  chiefly  under  the  Acts  of  12th  George 
II.,  cap.  26,  and  7th  and  8th  Victoria,  cap.  22. 

As  before  stated,  it  appears  that  the  Company  was  at  first  a  voluntary  association,  and  had  for  its 
chief  objects  the  protection  of  the  mystery  or  craft  of  goldsmiths  ;  but  it  was  evidently  also  formed  for 
religious  and  social  purposes,  and  for  the  relief  of  the  poor  members. 

The  powers  exercised  by  this  voluntary  association  over  the  craft  were  subsequendy  confirmed  to 
them  by  their  charters.  The  wardens  fined  workmen  for  making  wares  worse  than  standard,  entered  their 
shops  and  searched  for  and  seized   false  wares,  settled  disputes  between  masters  and  apprentices,  and 


/■>(>;«  a  drawing  by  1  hos.  If.  iifttptierti. 


goldsmiths'  hall,   1S35 


frequently  punished  rebellious  apprentices  by  flogging,  levied  heavy  fines  upon  members  for  slander  and 
disobedience  of  the  wardens,  and  for  reviling  members  of  the  livery ;  and  generally  exercised  a  very 
powerful  and  absolute  control,  not  only  over  the  members  of  the  fellowship,  but  also  over  all  other  persons 
exercising  the  goldsmiths'  trade. 

For  the  purpose  of  the  assay  they  had  an  assay  oflSce  in  the  early  part  of  the  fourteenth  century. 
The  statute  of  28th  Edward  I.  enacts  that  no  vessel  of  gold  or  silver  shall  depart  out  of  the  hands  of  the 
workman  until  it  is  assayed  by  tlie  wardens  of  the  craft,  and  stamped  with  the  leojjard's  head  ;  the  leopard 
being  at  that  time  part  of  the  royal  arms  of  England. 

The  Company  and  its  members,  even  at  this  early  period,  appear  to  have  acted  as  bankers  and 
pawnbrokers.  They  received  pledges,  not  only  of  plate,  but  of  other  articles,  such  as  cloth  of  gold  and 
pieces  of  napery. 

The  London  goldsmiths  were  divided  into  two  classes,  natives  and  foreigners.  They  inhabited 
chiefly  Cheapside,  Old  Change,  Lombard  -Street,  Foster  Lane,  St.  Martin's -le-Ckand,  Silver  Street, 
Goldsmiths'  Street,  Wood  Street,  and  the  lanes  about  Goldsmiths'  Hall.  Cheapside  was  their  principal 
place  of  residence ;  the  part  of  it  on  the  south  side,  extending  from  Bread  Street  to  the  Cross,  was  called 
"  the  Goldsmiths'  Row."     The  shops  here  were  occupied  by  goldsmiths,  and  here  the  Company  possess 


46  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

many  houses  at  the  present  time.  The  Exchange  for  the  King's  coin  was  close  by,  in  what  is  now  called 
Old  Change. 

The  native  and  foreign  goldsmiths  appear  to  have  been  divided  into  classes,  and  to  have  enjoyed 
different  privileges.  First,  there  were  the  members  of  the  Company,  who  were  chiefly,  but  not  exclusively. 
Englishmen  ;  their  shops  were  subject  to  the  control  of  the  Company  ;  they  had  the  advantages  conferred 
by  the  Company  on  its  members,  and  they  made  certain  payments  for  the  support  of  the  fellowship.  The 
second  division  comprised  the  non-freemen,  who  were  called  "  Allowes,"  that  is  to  say,  allowed  or  licensed. 
There  were  the  "Allowes  Englis,"  "Allowes  Alicant,"  "Alicant  Strangers,"  "Dutchmen,"  "  Men  of  the 
Fraternity  of  St.  Loys,"  etc.  All  these  paid  tribute  to  the  Company,  and  were  also  subject  to  their  control. 
The  quarterage  paid  by  the  members,  and  the  tribute  so  paid  by  the  "  Allowes,"  constituted  the  Company's 
original  income.  We  find  frequent  mention  of  efforts  made  by  the  English  goldsmiths  to  prevent  foreign 
goldsmiths  from  settling  in  London,  but  they  did  not  succeed.  The  wise  men  of  the  craft  probably  knew 
that  the  best  artists  were  foreigners,  and  were  willing  to  profit  by  observation  of  their  works  and  mode  of 
working.  In  1445,  thirty-four  persons,  who  were  strangers,  were  sworn,  and  paid  2S.  a  head.  In  1447 
Carlos  Spaen  paid  ;^8  : 6  : 8  to  the  alms  of  St.  Dunstan,  to  be  admitted  a  freeman,  and  in  151 1  John 
de  Loren  paid  ;^20  for  the  same  object. 

The  wardens  also  frequently  obliged  foreigners  applying  for  the  freedom  to  produce  testimonials  from 
the  authorities  of  the  towns  abroad  where  they  had  resided. 

The  government  of  the  trade  under  the  Company's  charters  continued  up  to  the  reign  of  Charles 
the  Second.  But  some  time  before  this  period,  and  in  the  interval  between  it  and  the  passing 
of  the  Act  of  the  12th  George  II.,  cap.  26,  the  powers  which  had  been  granted  to  the  Company  began 
to  be  questioned,  and  the  Company  experienced  difficulty  in  putting  them  into  force.  In  173S  the 
Company  considered  it  expedient  to  obtain  an  Act  of  Parliament. 

And  the  12th  George  II.,  cap.  26,  passed  in  1739,  was  prepared  by  the  officers  of  the  Company, 
brought  into  Parliament  by  them,  with  the  assent  of  the  government  of  the  time,  and  all  the  cost  of 
soliciting  it  and  getting  it  passed  was  paid  for  by  the  Company,  although  it  is  a  public  Act. 

Under  this  Act  the  Assay  Office  is  regulated.  The  Company  are  empowered  thereby  to  make 
charges  for  the  assaying  and  marking  plate  sufficient  only  to  defray  the  expenses  of  the  office,  and 
are  prohibited  from  making  any  profit  thereby  or  deriving  any  pecuniary  advantage  therefrom. 

It  may  here  be  mentioned  that  at  a  very  early  period  we  find  members  of  the  governing  body  of 
the  Company,  both  wardens  and  assistants,  who  were  not  of  the  craft.  Amongst  others,  the  leading 
bankers,  themselves  the  descendants  in  trade  of  the  old  goldsmiths,  from  the  time  of  the  Stuarts  to 
the  present  time,  have  been  some  of  the  most  conspicuous  members  of  the  body.  Amongst  them  we  find 
the  names  of  Sir  Martin  Bowes,  who  was  Master  of  the  Mint  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth  ;  Sir  Hugh  Myddelton, 
the  enterprising  founder  of  the  New  River ;  Sir  Francis  Child,  of  Temple  Bar ;  Sir  Charles  Buncombe, 
Sir  James  Pemberton,  Sir  Robert  Vyner ;  and  in  the  19th  century,  Robert  Williams  and  Thomas  Halifax, 
Henry  Sykes  Thornton,  William  Banbury,  John  Charles  Salt,  Herbert  Barnard,  William  Newmarch, 
William  Cunliffe  Brooks,  Robert  Ruthven  Pym,  Arthur  B.  Twining,  Charles  Hoare,  and  Robert 
Williams,  jun. 

It  remains  to  mention  the  connection  of  the  Company  with  the  coinage  of  the  realm  in  what  is 
called  the  trial  of  the  Py.x,  an  office  which  has  been  performed  by  the  Company  ever  since  the  reign 
of  Edward  I.  Its  object  is  to  ascertain  that  the  metal  of  which  the  gold  and  silver  money  coined  by 
the  Mint  is  composed  is  standard,  and  that  the  coins  themselves  are  of  the  prescribed  weight. 

This  duty  was  performed  in  ancient  times  at  uncertain  intervals,  and  usually  had  for  its  immediate 
object  the  giving  an  acquittance  to  the  Mint  Master,  who  was  bound  to  the  Crown  by  indentures  to 
coin  money  of  the  prescribed  fineness  and  weight.  But  the  Coinage  Act  of  1870  provides  for  and 
establishes  an  annual  trial,  and  since  that  date  the  Pyx  has  been  brought  to  Goldsmiths'  Hall  and 
tried  annually. 

In  1900,  for  the  first  time,  at  the  request  of  H.M.'s  Treasury,  a  Pyx  from  each  of  the  Colonial  Mints 
coining  Imperial  Coinage  was  tried. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  47 

Formerly  a  jury  of  competent  freemen,  summoned  by  the  wardens,  was  charged  by  the  Lord 
Chancellor,  who  subsequently  received  their  verdict. 

The  jury  is  sworn  by  the  Crown  Remembrancer,  who,  the  trial  having  been  made  and  the  verdict 
of  the  jury  reduced  to  writing,  attends  at  the  Hall  and  receives  them  ;  after  which  their  names  are 
published  in  the  Gazette. 

The  number  of  the  livery  is  150.     The  Hall  is  in  Foster  Lane. 

Privileges  of  membership  : 

A  freeman  of  the  Company  has  no  advantages  as  such,  except  that  if  he  be  a  deserving  man 
and  in  need  of  pecuniary  assistance  he  is  eligible  to  receive,  and  would  certainly  receive,  aid  from  the 
Company,  either  by  pension  or  donation. 

When  the  Guild  first  had  a  Hall  we  know  not,  but  the  Hall  has  stood  on  its  present  site  for  upwards 
of  550  years. 

About  1340,  land  and  a  house  at  St.  Vedast  Lane  and  Ing  Lane'  corner,  formerly  belonging 
to  Sir  Nicholas  de  Segrave,  was  bought.  This  land  still  underlies  part  of  the  present  Hall,  and  was 
in  the  midst  of  the  gold-  and  silver-smiths'  quarter.  In  1407,  Sir  Dru  Barentine  built  the  Goldsmiths  a 
second  Hall,  wherefrom  a  gallery  led  to  his  house.  Within  the  great  hall  were  arras  hangings,  streamers, 
banners,  tapestried  benches,  worked  cushions,  and  a  screen  bearing  their  patron's  (St.  Dunstan's)  silver- 
gilt  statue  bejewelled.  There  were  chambers,  parlour,  'say-house,  chapel  with  coloured  hangings,  great 
kitchen,  vaults,  granary,  armoury,  clerk's  house,  beadle's  house,  assayer's  house.  This  Hall  decayed. 
Borrowing  money,  they  built  a  third  and  larger,  1635-40,  Stone  being  surveyor. 

After  the  Great  Fire  they  repaired  and  partly  rebuilt  their  Hall,  1666-69,  raising  money  slowly. 
Jarman  was  architect.  The  buildings,  brick  and  stone,  surrounded  a  paved  quadrangle  entered  through 
the  Doric  archway  in  Foster  Lane. 

The  great  hall  was  "  magnificent "  with  marbled  floor,  moulded  ceiling,  pillared  screen,  high 
wainscot,  painted  banners,  costly  plate.  Within  140  years  they  found  this  Hall  decaying.  They 
pulled  it  down  and  built  the  present  (fourth)  Hall  in  1830-35,  Philip  Hardwick  being  architect. 

Like  the  Drapers,  the  Goldsmiths  Company  has  taken  up  the  cause  of  Technical  Higher  Education. 

On  the  west  side  of  Foster  Lane  stood  also  St.  Leonard's  Church,  which  was  the  parish  church 
for  St.  Martin's-le-Grand.  It  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire  and  its  parish  annexed  to  that  of 
Christ  Church,  Newgate  Street.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1291. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  the  Dean  and  Canons  of  St.  Martin's-le-Grand, 
1291 ;  the  Abbot  and  Convent  of  Westminster,  1509  ;  Henry  VIII.,  who  seized  it  in  1540;  the  Dean  and 
Chapter  of  Westminster,  1553-54,  in  whose  successors  it  continues,  they  being  the  alternate  patrons  of 
Christ  Church,  Newgate  Street. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  452. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  by  and  for  William  de  Wyndesore,  at  the  Altar  of  Virgin  Mary, 
before  1368,  when  his  endowment  fetched  ^3  :  13:4.      There  are  few  charities  recorded  by  Stow. 

The  church  of  St.  Mary  Staining  was  situated  on  the  north  side  of  Oat  Lane,  Foster  Lane, 
and  derived  its  name  Staining  from  Painter  Stainers  dwelling  there;  or,  according  to  some  from  stein, 
the  Saxon  for  stone,  other  churches  being  built  of  wood.  It  was  repaired  and  redecorated  in  1630, 
and  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire,  but  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being  annexed  to  that  of  St.  Michael, 
Wood  Street ;  the  site  of  this  church  was  made  a  burying-ground.  The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent 
is  1270. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Prioress  and  Convent  of  St.  Mary, 
Clerkenwell;  Henry  VIII.,  and  so  continued  in  the  Crown  till  the  Great  Fire,  when  the  parish  was 
annexed  to  St.  Michael,  Wood  Street. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  98. 

1  Now  Foster  Lane  and  Gresham  Street  respectively. 


48  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Two  monuments  only  are  recorded  by  Stow,  one  in  memory  of  George  Smithes,  goldsmith 
and  alderman,  who  died  in  1615,  and  the  other  of  Sir  Arthur  Savage,  knighted  at  Cadiz  in  1596,  who 
was  General  of  Queen  Elizabeth's  forces  in  France  at  the  siege  of  Amiens  ;  he  died  in  1632. 

The  parish  received  three  legacies,  payable  yearly,  namely:  15s.  6d.  from  Lady  Read  and  Mr.  Hill; 
;£i  :  4s.  from  Mr.  Lawne ;  and  is.  bd.  from  Mr.  Dean. 

What  Gresham  Street  is  on  the  north  of  our  present  section,  so  Watling 
Street  is  on  the  south.  It  runs  roughly  parallel  with  Cheapside  and  Poultry. 
Stow  says  of  it : 

"Then  for  Watheling  Street,  which  Leland  called  Atheling,  or  Noble  Street; 
but  since  he  showeth  no  reason  why,  I  rather  take  it  to  be  so  named  of  that 
great  highway  of  the  same  calling.  True  it  is  that  at  the  present  the  inhabitants 
thereof  are  wealthy  drapers,  retaillers  of  woollen  cloths,  both  broad  and  narrow, 
of  all  sorts,  more  than  in  any  one  street  of  this  city." 

How  came  Watling  Street,  the  old  country  road,  into  the  City?  The  old 
Roman  road,  as  it  approached  the  Thames,  passed  down  the  Edgware  Road. 
Where  is  now  the  Marble  Arch  it  divided  into  two,  of  which  the  older  part 
crossed  the  marsh,  and  so  over  Thorney  Island  ?  The  other  ran  along  what  is 
now  Oxford  Street  and  Holborn. 

It  then  crossed  the  valley  of  the  Fleet  and  entered  the  City  at  the  New 
Gate.  If  now  we  draw  a  line  from  Newgate  to  London  Stone,  just  south  of  its 
present  position,  we  shall  find  that  it  passes  the  north-east  course  of  St.  Paul's 
precinct,  cutting  it  off,  so  to  speak,  and  meets  the  present  Watling  Street  where  it 
bends  to  the  south  of  Bow  Lane ;  it  then  follows  the  old  Budge  Row  as  far  as  the 
Stone.  That  was  the  original  Watling  Lane  of  the  City.  The  Saxons,  however, 
who  found  the  streets  a  mass  of  confused  ruins,  built  over  part  of  the  old  Watling, 
and  continued  it  as  far  as  the  south-east  course  of  St.  Paul's.  The  street  has  few 
antiquities  apart  from  its  churches. 

There  is  no  mention  of  Watling  Street  in  Riley's  Memorials. 

In  the  Calendar  of  Wills  we  find  shops  in  this  street  in  1307,  a  brewery  in 
1341,  a  widow's  mansion  in  1349,  and  shops  in  1361,  "lands,  tenements,  and  rents  " 
in  1373,  a  house  called  "  le  Strelpas "  in  1397.  The  other  references  to  Watling 
Street  are  those  of  "  tenements  "  only. 

The  yearly  procession  of  the  City  rectors  with  the  mayor  and  aldermen 
started  from  St.  Peter's,  Cornhill,  marched  along  Chepe  as  far  as  St.  Paul's 
Churchyard,  turning  to  the  south  and  so  to  "  Watling  Street  Close,"  which  was 
the  eastern  entrance  to  the  churchyard. 

After  the  Fire,  while  the  rubbish  was  being  cleared  away,  on  the  east  of  the 
street  were  discovered  nine  wells  in  a  row.  They  were  supposed  to  have  belonged 
to  a  street  of  houses  from  Watling  Street  to  Cheapside.  But  one  hardly  expects 
to  find  a  well  in  every  house. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


49 


In  Watling  Street  and  its  continuation,  Budge  Row,  were  the  following 
churches,  beginning  at  the  west  end  :  St.  Augustine's  ;  Allhallows,  Bread  Street ; 
St.  Mary  Aldermary  ;  St.  Anthony's.  For  St.  Augustine's  see  p.  62,  and  for  All- 
hallows  see  p.  58. 


ST.    MARY    ALDERMARY 

The  Church  of  St.  Mary  Aldermary  stands  in  a  triangle  formed  by  Bow  Lane,  Queen  Victoria  Street, 
and  Watling  Street.  It  is  called  Alder,  Older,  or  Elder,  Mary,  from  its  being  the  oldest  church  in  the  City 
having  that  dedication.  Sir  Henry  Keble,  Lord  Mayor  in  15 10,  began  to  rebuild  it,  and  left  at  his  death 
;!^iooo  towards  its  completion;  this  was  augmented  by  William  Rodoway  and  Richard  Pierson  in  1626. 
The  building  was  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire,  but  rebuilt  by  Wren  in  1681-82.  For  this  purpose  the 
legacy  of  .^{^5000  was  applied,  which  had  been  left  by  Henry  Rogers  for  the  rebuilding  of  a  church  ; 
stipulation,  however,  was  made  that  the  new  church  should  be  an  exact  imitation  of  Keble's,  so  that  Wren 
was  forced  to  adopt  methods  very  different  from  his  own.  The  building  was  greatly  restored  in  1876-77. 
The  church  now  serves  for  four  parishes — its  original  one,  that  of  St.  Thomas  the  Apostle,  of  St.  Antholin, 
and  of  St.  John  the  Baptist.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1233. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  Henry  UL,  1233  ;  the  Prior  and  Chapter  of  Christ 
Church,  Canterbury,  1288,  who  exchanged  it  with  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  1401,  in  whose  successors 
it  continued  up  to  1666,  when  the  parish  of  St.  Thomas  was  annexed;  and  thus  the  Archbishop  shared 
the  patronage  alternately  with  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  400. 

The  church  is  in  the  Tudor  style  of  architecture,  and  consists  of  a  nave,  chancel,  and  two  side  aisles, 
separated  from  the  central  part  by  clustered  columns  and  slightly  pointed  arches.  It  is  100  feet  long, 
63  feet  broad,  and  about  45  feet  high.  The  north  side  of  the  chancel  is  longer  than  the  south,  which 
gives  the  church  a  somewhat  curious  appearance.  The  tower,  the  upper  portion  of  which  was  rebuilt 
about  1 701,  contains  four  storeys,  with  an  open  parapet,  and  is  surmounted  by  four  pinnacles.  The 
total  height  is  135  feet. 

Sir  Henry  Keble,  the  founder  of  the  original  church,  was  buried  here,  and  a  monument  erected 
to  him  in  1534  ;  also  Sir  William  Laxton,  mayor,  1556,  and  Henry  Gold,  one  of  the  rectors  here,  who 
was  executed  at  Tyburn  in  1534.  "The  Holy  Maid  of  Kent  "  was  also  buried  here.  The  monuments 
in  the  present  church  are  of  little  interest.  Over  the  west  door  there  is  a  Latin  inscription  recording  the 
munificence  of  Henry  Rogers.  Mr  Garret  gave  ^100  to  the  lecturer  of  this  church,  to  endure  as 
long  as  the  Gospel  was  preached.  The  particulars  of  the  numerous  other  gifts  and  charities  did  not 
come  into  the  possession  of  Stow.  There  were  two  almshouses  for  the  poor  of  the  Salters  Company,  who 
are  four  in  number,  each  of  whom  has  an  allowance  of  is.  per  week. 

Thomas  Browne  (d.  1673),  chaplain  to  Charles  I.,  was  rector  here;  also  Robert  Gell  (1595-1665), 
Fellow  of  Christ's  College,  Cambridge;  Offspring  Blackall  (1654-1716),  Bishop  of  E.\eter  ;  White 
Kennett  (1660-1728),  Bishop  of  Peterborough  ;  Henry  Ware,  Bishop  of  Chichester  ;  Henry  Gold,  who  was 
executed  at  Tyburn,  1534;  George  Lavington,  D.l).  (1684-1762),  Bishop  of  Exeter. 

Budge  Row,  northward,  was  spelt  Begerow  in  1376.  Of  it  Stow  says:  "So 
called  of  Budge  fur  and  the  Skinners  dwelling  there." 

At  the  south-western  corner  of  Sise  Lane,  in  Budge  Row,  there  is  a  rectangular 
railed-in  space  about  a  dozen  feet  by  si.\,  sheltered  by  the  corner  of  the  adjoining 
house.  Against  the  wall,  facing  eastward,  is  a  monument  in  stone  of  considerable 
size.     Two  columns  with  Corinthian  capitals  support  an  architrave,  and  enclose  a 


50  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

view    in    slight    relief  of  St.    Antholin's    as    it  was.     Beneath    the   view  are    the 
words  : 

Here  stood  the  parish  church  of  St.  Antholin,  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire,  a.d.  1666,  rebuilt  1677 
by  Sir  Christopher  Wren,  architect. 

On  the  bases  of  the  columns  are  inscribed  the  names  of  the  churchwardens  of 
St.  Antholin's  and  St.  John  Baptist's,  Walbrook,  respectively.  While  the  following 
inscription  is  beneath  : 

The  change  of  population  in  the  City  during  two  centuries  rendering  the  church  no  longer  necessary, 
it  was  taken  down  a.d.  1875,  under  the  Act  of  Parliament  for  uniting  City  Benefices;  the  funds  derived 
from  the  sale  of  the  site  were  devoted  in  part  to  the  Restoration  of  the  neighbouring  church  of  St.  Mary 
Aldermary,  where  are  also  erected  the  monumental  tablets  removed  from  St.  Antholin,  and  the  erection 
at  Nunhead  of  another  church  dedicated  to  St.  Antholin  greatly  needed  in  that  thickly  populated  district. 

And  again,  right  across  the  bases  of  the  pillars  and  the  stone,  run  the  words  : 

In  a  vault  beneath  are  deposited  the  greater  part  of  the  human  remains  removed  from  the  Old 
church.  The  remainder  are  laid  in  a  vault  in  the  City  of  London  Cemetery  at  Ilford,  where  also  a 
monument  marks  the  place  of  interment. 

The  Church  of  St.  Anthony  or  Antholin  stood  on  the  north  side  of  Budge  Row,  at  the  corner 
of  Shoe  Lane,  in  Cordwainer  Street  Ward.  It  derived  its  name  from  being  dedicated  to  St.  Anthony 
of  Vienna,  who  had  a  cell  here  founded  by  Henry  II.,  but  it  is  not  known  when  the  church  was  first  built. 
About  1399  it  was  rebuilt,  and  again  in  1513,  but  the  Great  Fire  of  1666  destroyed  it.  From  Wren's 
design  it  was  rebuilt,  and  completed  in  1682  ;  it  was  remarkable  for  its  tower,  with  a  spire  all  of  freestone. 
In  1874  the  building  (except  the  steeple)  was  taken  down,  and  in  1S76  the  steeple  was  also  demolished, 
the  materials  of  which  were  sold  for  ^5.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  i  iSi. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  always  in  the  hands  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's, 
who  granted  one  part  to  John,  son  of  Wizo  the  goldsmith,  about  1 141. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  240. 

In  1623  a  very  beautiful  gallery  was  added  to  the  church,  every  division  of  which  (52  in  number) 
was  filled  with  the  arms  of  kings,  queens,  and  princes  of  the  kingdom,  from  Edward  the  Confessor  to 
Frederick,  Count  Palatine  of  the  Rhine. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  :  Nicholas  Bole,  citizen  and  skinner,  at  the  Altar  of  St.  Katherine, 
to  which  William  Pykon  was  admitted  chaplain,  1390,  on  the  resignation  of  Richard  Hale — the  endowment 
fetched  p£^6;  13:4  in  154S,  when  Robert  Smythe  was  chaplain;  John  Grantham,  whose  endowment 
fetched  ^£4  in  1548. 

In  this  church  Thomas  Hind  and  Hugh  Acton,  benefactors  to  the  parish,  were  buried.  There  was 
also  a  monument  to  William  Daunsey,  mercer  and  alderman  of  the  City. 

Some  of  the  donors  of  gifts  and  charities  were  :  the  Mercers  and  Drapers,  of  ^6  respectively  ;  Sir 
William  Craven  and  William  Parker,  ;^ioo,  to  which  ^i  18  were  added  by  the  parishioners,  for  establishing 
a  daily  lecture.     There  were  a  considerable  number  of  charities  in  this  parish. 

Among  the  rectors  of  this  church  were  William  Colwyn,  who  made  a  recantation  at  St.  Paul's 
Cross,  Advent  1541,  and  Thomas  Lamplugh  (1615-91),  Archbishop  of  York. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  street  extends  for  some  way  a  really  old  brick 
building,  evidently  built  immediately  after  the  Fire.  Over  a  centre  window  is  a 
curved  pediment  of  brickwork.  Beneath,  an  opening  leads  into  a  yard,  and  the 
building  is  used  by  Stationers.     The  west  side  of  the  lane  is  modern. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE   CITY  51 

St.  PancraS  Lane  was  formerly  Needlers'  Lane.  The  church,  the  parish, 
the  chantries  and  endowments,  and  the  parishioners  are  mentioned  frequently  in  the 
Calendar  of  Wills.  The  earliest  entry  there  is  of  a.d.  1273,  where  John  Hervy 
bequeaths  to  Juliana  his  daughter  his  mansion  in  the  parish  of  St.  Pancras,  and  to 
his  daughter  Johanna  his  shop  in  the  parish  of  Colechurch.  The  Lane,  except  that 
it  contained  two  parish  churches,  was  of  little  importance. 

Pancras  Lane  is  an  open  space,  once  the  graveyard  of  St.  Pancras,  Soper  Lane. 
The  houses  are  dull  brick  and  stucco.  The  graveyard  bears  a  great  similarity  to  all 
that  is  left  of  the  others  ;  it  is  covered  with  dingy  gravel  and  decorated  by  blackened 
evergreens.  The  iron  gate  bears  a  little  shield  telling  that  it  was  erected  in  1886. 
There  are  one  or  two  tombs  still  left. 

The  Church  of  St.  Pancras,  Soper  Lane,  stood  near  a  street  called  Soper  Lane,  but  since  the  Fire 
called  Queen  Street.  It  was  repaired  1621,  and  in  1624  Thomas  Chapman  the  younger  built  a  porch  to 
it.  The  building  was  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire,  when  its  parish  was  annexed  to  that  of  St.  Mary-le-Bow. 
The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  131 2. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Prior  and  Convent  of  Christ  Church, 
Canterbury,  who  granted  it,  April  25,  1365,  to  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  in  whose  successors  it 
continued  up  to  1666,  when  the  church  was  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire  and  the  parish  annexed  to 
St.  Mary-le-Bow. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  146. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  :  John  Causton  at  the  Altar  of  St.  Anne,  which  was  augmented  by 
Simon  Rice  and  Lettice  his  wife,  before  1356,  to  which  William  de  la  Temple  was  presented  by  the  King, 
January  10,  1374-75  —  the  endowment  was  valued  at  ;^i3  in  1548,  when  Adam  Arnolde  was  priest; 
Margaret  Reynolds,  who  bequeathed  .£^233  : 6  : 8,  which  the  Mercers  had,  and  guaranteed  a  rent  charge  of 
.;^8  :  13  : 4  for  the  same  to  find  a  priest. 

The  church  originally  contained  monuments  to  John  Stockton,  mercer  and  mayor,  1470;  Richard 
Gardener,  mercer  and  mayor,  1478  ;  and  Thomas  Knowles,  twice  Lord  Mayor. 

Two  charitable  gifts  are  recorded  by  Stow,  the  donors  of  which  were  Thomas  Chapman,  whose 
benefaction  was  lost  by  Stow's  time,  and  Thomas  Chapman  his  son,  to  the  amount  of  ;^i  i  ;  3  : 8. 

Only  a  few  steps  farther  on  is  another  melancholy  little  spot,  with  a  stone  slab 
on  the  wall  near  with  inscription  as  follows:  "  Before  the  dreadful  Fire,  Anno  1666, 
stood  the  church  of  St.  Benet  Sherehog."  The  railing  and  low  wall  were  put  up  in 
1842.  Within  the  enclosure  stands  a  tomb  over  the  "Family  Vault  of  Michael 
Davison,  1676." 

The  church  was  called  St.  Benet  Sherehog",  from  one  Benedict  Shorne,  or  Shrog,  or  Shorehog, 
who  was  connected  with  it  in  the  reign  of  Edward  IL  It  was  repaired  in  1628,  but  destroyed  by  the 
Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being  annexed  to  St.  Stephen,  Walbrook,  and  its  site  made  into  a 
burying-ground.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1285. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Prior  and  Convent  of  St.  Mary  Overy,  of 
Southwark,  1324;  then  the  Crown,  since  Henry  VHI.  seized  it  in  1542. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  300. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  :  For  Ralph  le  Fever  and  Lucy  his  wife— the  endowment  fetched 
£z:\\:Z  in  1548,  when  Anthony  Gyplyn,  lately  deceased,  had  been  priest;  for  Thomas  Romayn  and 
Julia  his  wife,  to  which  John  de  Loughebourgh  was  admitted,  August  12,  1326. 


52  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Edward  Hall,  who  wrote  the  large  chronicle  from  Richard  II.  to  Henry  ^^III.,  was  buried  here. 
The  church  formerly  contained  a  monument  to  Sir  Ralph  Warren,  twice  Lord  Mayor  of  London,  who  died 
in  1553.     Mrs.  Katherine  Philips  of  Cardigan,  the  poetess,  who  died  in  1664,  was  also  buried  here. 

Only  one  charitable  gift  is  recorded  by  Stow  in  this  parish,  that  of  ;^5  per  annum  left  by  Mr.  Davison 
for  keeping  his  family  vault  in  repair.     Some  of  this  was  used  for  charitable  purposes. 

John  Wakering  (d.  1425),  Bishop  of  Norwich,  was  rector  here. 

Queen  Street  was  constructed  in  part  after  the  Fire,  and  covers  the  old 
Soper  Lane,  so  called  from  the  soap-makers  who  formerly  lived  here  (though  Stow 
wants  to  derive  the  name  from  an  ancient  resident).  The  south  end,  leading  to  the 
river,  seems  to  have  been  the  later  part. 

Soper  Lane  is  mentioned  in  the  Calendar  of  U'i//s  as  early  as  1259,  when 
Nicholas  Bat,  a  member  of. the  old  City  family  of  that  name,  bequeathed  to  his  wife 
rents  in  Sopers'  Lane. 

Here,  in  1297,  there  sprang  up  an  evening  market — "Eve  Chepynge  " — called 
the  New  Fair.  It  was  established  against  the  knowledge  of  the  mayor  by 
"strangers,  foreigners,  and  beggars,"  and  was  the  cause  of  many  deeds  made 
possible  by  selling  in  the  dark,  and  of  much  strife  and  violence.  Therefore  it  was 
abolished. 

In  the  reign  of  Edward  II.  Soper  Lane  was  the  market-place  of  the 
Pepperers  ;  seventy  years  later  of  the  Curriers  and  Cordwainers.  In  the  reign  of 
Queen  Mary  there  were  many  shops  here  for  the  sale  of  pies. 

In  the  year  1316  the  "good  folks  in  Soper  Lane,  of  the  trade  of  Pepperers," 
agreed  upon  certain  regulations  for  the  observance  of  the  trade  and  the  prevention 
of  dishonesty. 

In  1375  we  find  cordwainers  between  Soper  Lane  and  the  Conduit. 

The  name  of  Size  Lane  is  derived  from  St.  Osyth. 

For  Bucklersbury  we  will  first  let  Stow  speak  : 

"  Bucklersbury,  so  called  of  a  manor  and  tenements  pertaining  to  one  Buckle, 
who  there  dwelt  and  kept  his  courts.  This  manor  is  supposed  to  be  the  great  stone 
building,  yet  in  part  remaining  on  the  south  side  of  the  street,  which  of  late  time 
hath  been  called  the  Old  Barge,  of  such  a  sign  hanged  out  near  the  gate  thereof. 
This  manor  or  great  house  hath  of  long  time  been  divided  and  letten  out  into  many 
tenements  ;  and  it  hath  been  a  common  speech,  that  when  Walbrooke  did  lie  open, 
barges  were  rowed  out  of  the  Thames,  or  towed  up  so  far,  and  therefore  the  place 
hath  ever  since  been  called  the  Old  Barge. 

"  Also  on  the  north  side  of  this  street,  directly  over  against  the  said  Bucklersbury, 
was  one  ancient  and  strong  tower  of  stone,  the  which  tower  King  Edward  III.,  in 
the  1 8th  of  his  reign,  by  the  name  of  the  king's  house,  called  Cornet  stoure  in 
London,  did  appoint  to  be  his  Exchange  of  money  there  to  be  kept.  In  the  29th  he 
granted   it   to   Frydus  Guynysane   and    Landus    Bardoile,   merchants  of  Luke,    for 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  53 

twenty  pounds  the  year.  And  in  the  32nd  he  gave  the  same  tower  to  his  college  or 
free  chapel  of  St.  Stephen  at  Westminster,  by  the  name  of  Cornet  Stoure  at 
Bucklersbury  in  London.  This  tower  of  late  years  was  taken  down  by  one  Buckle, 
a  grocer,  meaning  in  place  thereof  to  have  set  up  and  built  a  goodly  frame  of  timber  ; 
but  the  said  Buckle  greedily  labouring  to  pull  down  the  old  tower,  a  part  thereof  fell 
upon  him,  which  so  sore  bruised  him  that  his  life  was  thereby  shortened,  and 
another  that  married  his  widow  set  up  the  new  prepared  frame  of  timber,  and 
finished  the  work. 

"  This  whole  street  called  Bucklersbury  on  both  the  sides  throughout  is  possessed 
of  grocers  and  apothecaries  towards  the  west  end  thereof:  on  the  south  side 
breaketh  out  one  other  short  lane  called  in  records  Peneritch  street ;  it  reacheth  but 
to  St.  Sythe's  Lane,  and  St.  Sythe's  church  is  the  farthest  part  thereof,  for  by  the  west 
end  of  the  said  church  beginneth  Needler's  Lane,  which  reacheth  to  Soper  Lane,  as 
is  aforesaid"  (Stow's  Szirvey,  p.  276). 

The  origin  of  the  name  of  Bucklersbury  is  Bukerel,  and  not  Buckle  ;  Bukerel 
was  the  name  of  an  old  City  family.     Andrew  Bukerel  was  mayor  from  1 231  to  1236. 

Many  Roman  antiquities,  pavements,  bronzes,  Samian  ware,  spoons,  etc.,  have 
been  found  in  Bucklersbury.  A  bronze  armlet  also  found  there  may  belong  to 
pre-Roman  times.  The  street  is  mentioned  in  many  ancient  documents,  beginning 
with  the  thirteenth  century.  In  the  fifteenth  century  there  were  tenements  here 
known  as  "  Sylvestre  tour"  assigned  by  the  Dean  of  St.  Stephen,  Westminster,  to 
the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul. 

In  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries,  druggists,  furriers,  herbalists, 
and  tobacconists  had  shops  in  Bucklersbury. 

In  1688  there  was  a  Roman  Catholic  chapel  in  Bucklersbury,  which  was  one  of 
those  destroyed  or  burned  by  the  mob,  chiefly  consisting  of  London  apprentices, 
during  the  riots  pending  the  arrival  of  the  Prince  of  Orange. 

An  argument  between  the  Dean  and  Canons  of  St.  Paul's  and  a  carpenter  of 
Bucklersbury  shows  that  the  parish  of  St.  Benet  Sherehog  was  called  in  1406  the 
parish  of  St.  Osyth,  in  which  part  of  Bucklersbury  stood.  In  1455  the  former  name 
is  given  to  the  parish. 

Bucklersbury  was  cut  in  two  when  Queen  Victoria  Street  was  made.  The 
upper  portion  consists  chiefly  of  large  modern  many-windowed  business  houses. 
Near  the  north-east  corner  there  is  an  old  brick  house  containing  part  of  Pimm's 
restaurant.  In  the  southern  half  Barge  Yard  is  modern.  The  Bourse  Buildings, 
occupied  by  a  great  number  of  engineers,  accountants,  and  business  men  of  all  sorts, 
take  up  a  large  part  of  the  street. 

Passing  westward  we  come  to  Bow  Lane,  which  was  formerly  called  in  the 
lower  part  Hosier  Lane,  from  the  trade  of  those  who  occupied  it,  and  in  the  upper 
part,  for  a  similar  reason,  Cordwainers'  Street. 


54  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

The  street  spoken  of  in  the  Calendar  of  li'i/Is  by  the  name  of  Hosier  Lane 
belonged  to  the  parish  of  St.  Sepulchre  without  the  wall.  The  same  street  is 
mentioned  in  Riley's  Me}}iorials. 

For  the  Church  of  St.  Mary-le-Bow  see  p.  lo. 

In  its  modern  aspect  Bow  Lane  is  not  uninteresting. 

A  covered  entry,  inappropriately  named  New  Court,  leads  into  a  fascinating 
corner.  There  is  a  gateway  really  and  ruinously  old  ;  it  is  said  to  have  survived  the 
Fire.  The  ironwork  pattern  is  lost  now  in  meaningless  and  broken  twists,  though 
there  is  a  semblance  of  what  might  have  been  a  monogram  over  the  centre  gate. 
The  houses  all  round  the  court  evidently  date  from  the  period  directly  after  the  Fire. 
That  facing  the  street  is  of  red  brick  toned  by  age,  and  is  said  to  have  been  the 
residence  of  a  Lord  Mayor.  The  others  are  of  dark  brick,  picked  out  in  red. 
No.  5  contains  the  offices  of  the  Financial  World. 

Beyond  it  a  narrow  passage  leads  at  an  angle  round  to  the  churchyard.  A 
more  spacious  way  runs  beside  the  church  itself  At  the  corner  of  this  is  a  polished 
granite  drinking  fountain,  erected  in  1859,  supporting  green  painted  dolphins. 

In  the  churchyard  a  scene  of  confusion  and  turmoil  daily  takes  place  on  the 
pavement  which  lies  over  the  bones  of  the  "ancient  dead."  Great  wooden  crates 
and  packing-cases  are  littered  about.  They  are  from  that  large  modern  building  on 
the  west,  facing  the  church,  belonging  to  warehousemen  and  manufacturers.  But 
one  old  seventeenth-century  house,  of  a  date  immediately  succeeding  the  Fire, 
remains,  on  the  south  side  of  the  churchyard,  facing  Cheapside.  Its  quiet  blackened 
bricks  and  flat  windows  have  beheld  many  a  change  of  scene  on  the  stage  before  it. 
The  ground-floor  windows  and  doorway  are  connected  by  an  ornamental  cornice. 
The  red  bricks  of  the  church  in  Bow  Lane  contrast  with  a  long  narrow  building  of 
the  eighteenth  century  which  is  squeezed  against  them.  These  contrast  with  the 
gaping  cellars  and  basements  of  the  more  modern  buildings. 

Of  Bread  Street  there  is  very  early  mention.  In  1204  the  leprous  women  of 
St.  James's  received  a  charter  respecting  a  certain  tenement  in  Chepe,  at  the  head  of 
Bread  Street;  in  1290  this  tenement  again  becomes  the  subject  of  a  charter.  In  i  263 
there  was  a  fire  which  consumed  a  part  of  Bread  Street. 

"  So  called  of  bread  in  old  time  there  sold  :  for  it  appeareth  by  records,  that  in 
the  year  1302,  which  was  the  30th  of  Edward  I.,  the  bakers  of  London  were  bound 
to  sell  no  bread  in  their  shops  or  houses,  but  in  the  market  :  and  that  they  should 
have  four  hall-motes  in  the  year,  at  four  several  terms,  to  determine  of  enorniities 
belonging  to  the  said  Company. 

"  Bread  Street  is  now  wholly  inhabited  by  rich  traders  ;  and  divers  fair  inns 
be  there,  for  good  receipt  of  carriers  and  other  travellers  to  the  city.  It  appears  in 
the  will  of  Edward  Stafford,  Earl  of  Wyltshire,  dated  the  22nd  of  March,  1498,  and 
14  Hen.  VII.,  that  he  lived  in  a  house  in  Bread-street  in  London,  which  belonged  to 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  55 

the  family  of  Stafford,  Duke  of  Bucks  afterwards  ;  he  bequeathing  all  the  stuff  in 
that  house  to  the  Lord  of  Buckingham,  for  he  died  without  issue  "  (Strype,  vol.  i. 
pp.  686-687). 

The  bakers  gave  continual  trouble  to  the  City  by  their  light-weight  loaves  and 
their  bad  bread.  When  they  were  "  wanted  "  by  the  alderman  they  gat  themselves 
out  of  the  City  and  to  their  hills  beyond  the  jurisdiction  of  the  mayor.  It  was 
ordained,  in  order  to  meet  this  difficulty,  that  the  servants  who  sell  the  bread  thus 
complained  of  should  be  punished  as  if  they  were  masters.  It  was  also  discovered 
that  "hostelers  and  habergeons"  bought  bread  in  the  market  and  sold  it  to  their 
guests  at  a  profit.  This  was  not  allowed  in  mediaeval  times.  It  was  ordered  that 
every  loaf  was  to  be  bought  of  a  baker,  with  his  special  stamp,  and  sold  at  the  price 
regulated  by  the  assize  of  bread. 

But  there  were  others  besides  bakers  who  used  the  market  of  Bread  Street, 
Cheapside  ;  it  became  a  place  for  cooks.  In  1351,  one  Henry  Pecche  bought  a 
caper  pasty  of  Henry  de  Passelowe,  cook  at  the  Stocks,  and  found  on  opening  it 
that  the  fowl  was  putrid.  The  case  coming  before  the  mayor,  experts  were  called 
in,  among  them  six  cooks  of  Bread  Street  and  three  of  Ironmonger  Lane.  The 
story  shows  how  the  exclusive  character  of  a  market  had  to  be  broken  up  for  the 
conveniences  of  the  people.  Here  we  have  cooks  carrying  on  their  trade  in  three 
different  parts  of  the  great  rnarket  of  Chepe.  A  few  years  later,  one  of  the  Bread 
Street  cooks,  John  Welburgh  Man  by  name,  was  convicted  by  the  evidence  of  his 
neighbours  of  selling  a  pie  of  conger,  knowing  the  fish  to  be  bad. 

In  1595  a  singular  discovery  was  made  at  the  north-east  end  of  this  street.  In 
the  construction  of  a  vault  was  found,  15  feet  deep,  a  "fair"  pavement,  and  at  the 
farther  end  a  tree  sawed  into  five  steps — Stow  says:  "which  was  to  step  over 
some  brook  running  out  of  the  west  towards  Walbrooke  ;  and  upon  the  edge  of 
the  said  brook,  as  it  seemeth,  there  were  found  lying  along  the  bodies  of  two 
threat  trees,  the  ends  whereof  were  then  sawed  off,  and  firm  timber  as  at  the  first 
when  they  fell,  part  of  the  said  trees  remain  yet  in  the  ground  undigged.  It  was 
all  forced  ground  until  they  went  past  the  trees  aforesaid,  which  was  about  seventeen 
feet  deep  or  better  ;  thus  much  hath  the  ground  of  this  city  in  that  place  been  raised 
from  the  main." 

The  first  turning  to  the  east  going  down  Bread  Street  was,  until  recently,  called 
the  Spread  Eagle  Court.  One  of  the  corner  houses  of  this  court  is  supposed  to 
have  been  the  work-place  of  John  Milton,  whose  father  traded  under  the  sign  of 
the  "Spread  Eagle."  He  was  baptized  in  the  church  of  Allhallows.  House  and 
church  were  destroyed  in  the  Fire,  but  the  register  remains. 

On  the  corner  house  between  Watling  and  Bread  Streets  is  a  stone  slab  fixed 
to  the  wall  ;  this  bears  a  bust  of  the  poet  in  alto  relievo.  The  rest  of  the  building, 
which  runs  along  Watling  Street  as  far  as   Red  Lion  Court,  is  in  new  red  brick, 


56  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

dated  1878.  It  has  ornamental  brickwork  and  festoons  here  and  there,  and  the  roof 
terminates  in  curiously  shaped  gables,  some  of  which  follow  the  old  shell  pattern. 
The  doorways  and  windows  are  carried  out  in  stone.  The  penthouse  pediment  over 
Milton's  bust  is  also  in  brick.  Beneath,  two  little  red  cherubs  hold  a  laurel  wreath. 
Below  the  head  is  the  one  word — Milton  ;  and  lower  follows  the  inscription  : 

Born  in  Bread  Street,  1608. 

Baptized  in  the  Church  of  Allhallows,  which  stood  here  ante  1678. 

The  Mermaid,  like  many  other  London  inns,  stood  in  a  court  with  an 
entrance  from  Friday  Street  and  from  Bread  Street. 

On  the  west  side  of  Bread  Street,  on  a  site  which,  when  Stow  wrote,  was 
occupied  by  "  large  houses  for  merchants  and  fair  inns  for  passengers,"  stood  the 
Bread  Street  Compter,  one  of  the  two  sheriffs'  prisons.  As  we  have  seen,  it  was 
later  removed  to  Wood  Street. 

Behind  St.  Mildred's  Church  stood  Gerard's  Hall,  the  entrance  from  Basing 
Lane.     Of  this  place  Stow  speaks  at  length  : 

"  On  the  south  side  of  this  lane  is  one  great  house,  of  old  time  built  upon  arched 
vaults,  and  with  arched  gates  of  stone,  brought  from  Caen  in  Normandy.  The  same 
is  now  a  common  hostrey  for  receipt  of  travellers,  commonly  and  corruptly  called 
Gerards  hall,  of  a  giant  said  to  have  dwelt  there.  In  the  high-roofed  hall  of  this 
house  sometime  stood  a  large  fir  pole,  which  reached  to  the  roof  thereof,  and  was 
said  to  be  one  of  the  staves  that  Gerard  the  giant  used  in  the  wars  to  run  withal. 
There  stood  also  a  ladder  of  the  same  length,  which  (as  they  say)  served  to  ascend 
to  the  top  of  the  staff.  Of  later  years  this  hall  is  altered  in  building,  and  divers 
rooms  are  made  in  it.  Notwithstanding,  the  pole  is  removed  to  one  corner  of  the 
hall,  and  the  ladder  hanged  broken  upon  a  wall  in  the  yard.  The  hosteler  of  that 
house  said  to  me,  '  the  pole  lacketh  half  a  foot  of  forty  in  length  '  :  I  measured  the 
compass  thereof,  and  found  it  fifteen  inches. 

"I  read  that  John  Gisors,  mayor  of  London  in  the  year  1245,  was  owner 
thereof,  and  that  Sir  John  Gisors,  knight,  mayor  of  London,  and  constable  of  the 
Tower  131 1,  and  divers  others  of  that  name  and  family,  since  that  time  owned  it. 
William  Gisors  was  one  of  the  sheriffs  1329.  More,  John  Gisors  had  issue,  Henry 
and  John  ;  which  John  had  issue,  Thomas  ;  which  Thomas  deceasing  in  the  year 
1350,  left  unto  his  son  Thomas  his  messuage  called  Gisor's  Hall,  in  the  parish  of 
St.  Mildred  in  Bread  Street:  John  Gisors  made  a  feoffment  thereof,  1386,  etc.  So 
it  appeareth  that  this  Gisor's  Hall,  of  late  time  by  corruption  hath  been  called 
Gerard's  Hall  for  Gisor's  Hall  ;  as  Bosom's  inn  for  Blossom's  inn,  Bevis  Marks 
for  Buries  Marks,  Marke  Lane,  for  Marte  Lane,  Belliter  Lane  for  Belsetter's  Lane, 
Gutter  Lane  for  Guthuruns  Lane,  Cry  Church  for  Christ's  Church,  St.  Michel  in  the 
Ouerne  for  St.  Michel  at  corne,  and  sundry  such  others.     Out  of  this  Gisor's  Hall,  at 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


57 


the  first  building  thereof,  were  made  divers  arched  doors,  yet  to  be  seen,  which 
seem  not  sufficient  for  any  great  monster,  or  other  man  of  common  stature  to  pass 
through,  the  pole  in  the  hall  might  be  used  of  old  time  (as  then  the  custom  was  in 
every  parish),  to  be  set  up  in  the  summer  as  May-pole,  before  the  principal  house 
in  the  parish  or  street,  and  to  stand  in  the  hall  before  the  screen,  decked  with  holme 
and  ivy,  at  the  feast  of  Christmas.  The  ladder  served  for  the  decking  of  the  may- 
pole and  roof  of  the  hall.  Thus  much  for  Gisor's  hall,  and  for  that  side  of  Bread 
street,  may  suffice  "  (Stow's  Survey,  393-394). 


GfcKAKiJ;.    HALl.    CRYPT    IN     I795 

The  crypt  of  this  house  escaped  the  Fire.  On  its  site  was  erected  an  inn 
called  Gerard's  Hall,  which  contained  seventy-eight  bedrooms,  and  was  one  of 
the  principal  hotels  of  the  City.  The  whole  was  removed  for  the  construction  of 
Cannon  Street ;  Basing  Lane,  which  ran  from  Bread  Street  to  Bow  Lane,  dis- 
appeared at  the  same  time. 


ST.   MILDRED,    BREAD   STREET 

The  Church  of  St.  Mildred,  Bread  Street,  still  stands.     It  is  on  the  east  side  of  the  street,  a  little  to 
the  south  of  Cannon  Street,  and    is  supposed    to   have  been  rebuilt   in   1300  by  Lord  Trenchaunt,  of 


58  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

St.  Alban's,  knight,  whose  monument  was  in  the  church.  It  was  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire  and  rebuilt 
by  Wren  in  1683,  when  the  parish  of  St.  Margaret  Moses  was  annexed.  The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent 
is  1 1 70. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Prior  and  Convent  of  St.  Mary  Overy, 
Southwark,  who  had  it  in  1300,  and  granted  it  to  John  Incent  and  John  Oliver,  1333  ;  the  above  Prior  and 
Convent. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  216. 

The  present  church  measures  62  feet  in  length,  and  36  feet  in  breadth,  while  the  total  height,  to  the 
summit  of  the  cupola,  is  52  feet.  The  interior  remains  practically  in  its  original  state.  The  carvings 
about  the  altar-piece  and  pulpit  are  attributed  to  Grinling  Gibbons.  The  steeple,  which  rises  at  the 
south-east,  consists  of  a  plain  brick  tower,  lantern,  and  slender  spire  culminating  in  a  ball  and  vane.  The 
total  height  is  140  feet,  but  only  the  upper  portion  is  visible,  owing  to  the  buildings  surrounding  it. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  by  Stephen  Bull,  citizen,  of  which  Thomas  Chapman  was  chaplain, 
April  26,  1453. 

The  church  originally  contained  monuments  to  :  Lord  Trenchaunt,  a  great  benefactor,  who  was 
buried  here  about  1300;  also  Sir  John  'Shadworth,  mayor,  1401,  who  gave  a  parsonage  house  and  other 
gifts  to  the  church.  Here  too  John  Ireland  and  Ellis  Crispe  were  buried  in  1614  and  1625,  the 
grandfather  and  father  of  Sir  Nicholas  Crispe,  the  devoted  adherent  of  Charles  I.,  who  is  greatly  eulogised 
for  his  loyalty  by  Dr.  Johnson  ;  he  died  in  1666. 

Few  details  of  the  charities  belonging  to  the  parish  are  recorded  by  Stow ;  Thomas  Langham  and 
Mr.  Coppinger  being  the  only  names  mentioned  besides  those  commemorated  by  monuments. 

Thomas  Mangey  (1688-1755),  D.D.,  Prebendary  of  Durham,  was  a  rector  here;  also  Hugh  Oldham 
(d.  15 19)  of  Exeter. 

The  Church  of  Allhallows,  Bread  Street,  stood  on  the  east  side  of  the  street.  In  1625  the 
building  was  repaired,  but  ruined  by  the  Great  Fire  shortly  after.  It  was  subsequently  rebuilt.  In  1878 
it  was  taken  down.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1284. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Prior  and  Chapter  of  Christ  Church, 
Canterbury;  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  April  24,  1365,  by  gift  (1284-85)  from  the  above,  in  whose 
successors  it  continued  up  to  1666,  when  St.  John's,  Watling  Street,  was  annexed  to  it,  these  being  annexed 
to  St.  Mary-le-Bow  by  Order  in  Council  dated  July  21,  1876. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  300. 

On  the  south  side  of  the  chancel  there  was  a  small  part  of  the  church,  called  "The  Salters'  Chapel," 
containing  a  window  with  the  figure  of  the  donor,  Thomas  Beaumont,  wrought  upon  it.  The  church 
originally  had  a  steeple,  but  in  1559  it  was  destroyed  by  lightning  and  not  restored.  The  King  granted  a 
licence  to  Roger  Paryt  and  Roger  Stagenhow  to  found  a  guild  in  honour  of  our  Lord,  April  12,  1394 
(Pat.  17  Rd.  II.  p.  2  m.  15).  Some  of  the  most  notable  monuments  were  those  of  Thomas  Beaumont  of 
the  Company  of  Salters,  John  Dunster,  a  benefactor  of  the  church,  and  Arthur  Baron. 

The  following  were  among  the  numerous  benefactors:  David  Cocke,  ;^ioo;  William  Parker, 
;^ioo;  John  Dunster,  ^200,  to  be  laid  out  in  lands  and  tenements;  Edward  Rudge,  ;^2oo,  to  be  laid 
out  in  lands  and  tenements;  Lady  Middleton,  ;!^ioo. 

The  most  notable  rectors  of  the  church  were:  William  Lyndwood  (d.  1446),  Chancellor  to  the 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury ;  Thomas  Langton  (d.  1501),  Bishop  of  St.  David's.  John  Milton  was  baptized 
in  this  church. 

A  tablet  formerly  affixed  to  the  exterior  of  the  church  in  commemoration  of  the  event  was  put  up 
outside  St.  Mary-le-Bow  after  the  destruction  of  Allhallows. 

Friday  Street. — "  So  called,"  says  Stow,  "  of  fishmongers  dwelling  there,  and 
serving  Friday's  market."  In  the  roll  of  the  Scrope  and  Grosvenor  controversy, 
the  poet  Chaucer  is  recorded  as  giving  evidence  connected  with  this  street,  tor  when 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  59 

he  was  once  in  Friday  Street  he  observed  a  sign  with  the  arms  of  Scrope  hanging 
out ;  and  on  his  asking  what  they  did  there,  was  told  they  were  put  there  by  Sir 
Robert  Grosvenor. 

Cunningham  also  notes  as  follows:  "The  Nag's  Head  Tavern,  at  the 
Cheapside  corner  of  Friday  Street,  was  the  pretended  scene  of  the  consecration  of 
Matthew  Parker,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth.  The 
real  consecration  took  place  in  the  adjoining  church  of  St.  Mary-le-Bow;  but  the 
Roman  Catholics  chose  to  lay  the  scene  in  a  tavern.  '  The  White  Horse,'  another 
tavern  in  Friday  Street,  makes  a  conspicuous  figure  in  the  Merry  Conceited  Jests 
of  Geo7'ge  Peele.  In  this  street,  in  1695,  at  the  'Wednesdays  Clubs,'  as  they 
were  called,  certain  well-known  conferences  took  place,  under  the  direction  of 
William  Paterson,  which  ultimately  led  to  the  establishment  of  the  Bank  of 
England." 

In  the  year  1247,  certain  lands  in  Friday  Street  are  held  by  the  nuns  of 
"  Halliwelle."  In  1258,  one  William  Eswy,  mercer,  bequeathed  to  the  Earl  of 
Gloucester  all  his  tenements  in  Friday  Street  for  100  marks,  wherein  he  was  bound 
to  the  Ea-rl,  and  for  robes,  capes,  and  other  goods  received  from  him.  In  1278, 
Walter  de  Vaus  left  to  Thomas,  his  uncle,  shops  in  Friday  Street.  Therefore  in  the 
thirteenth  century  the  street  was  already  a  lane  of  shops.  The  date  shows  that  the 
former  character  of  Chepe  market  as  a  broad  open  space  set  with  booths  and  stalls 
had  already  undergone  great  modifications.  Other  early  references  to  the  street 
show  that  it  was  one  of  shops.  Chaucer's  evidence  shows  that  a  hundred  years  later 
there  were  "  hostelers"  or  "  herbergeours  "  living  there. 

In  1363,  certain  citizens  subscribed  money  as  a  present  to  the  King.  Among 
them  is  one  Thomas,  a  scrivener  of  Friday  Street,  and  in  1370  we  find  one  Adam 
Lovekyn  in  possession  of  a  seld  which  has  been  used  for  time  out  of  mind  by  foreign 
tanners.  He  complains  that  they  no  longer  come  to  him,  but  keep  their  wares  in 
hostels  and  go  about  the  streets  selling  them  in  secret. 

In  Friday  Street  at  the  corner  in  Watling  Street  is  a  railed-in  space,  all  that 
remains  of  an  old  churchyard,  the  churchyard  of  St.  John  the  Evangelist.  This  is 
a  piece  of  ground  containing  very  few  square  yards,  separated  from  the  street  by 
high  iron  railings,  and  filled  with  stunted  laurel  bushes  and  other  evergreens.  A 
hard  gravel  walk  runs  round  a  circular  bed  of  bushes,  and  on  one  side  stands  a 
raised  tomb-like  erection.  On  the  wall  are  one  or  two  slabs  indicating  the  names  ot 
those  who  are  buried  in  the  vault  below. 

The  Church  of  St.  John  the  Evang-elist  was  burnt  duwn  in  tlie  Croat  Fire  and  not  rebuilt, 
its  parish  being  annexed  to  Allhallows,  Bread  Street,  and  both  of  these  to  St.  Mary-lelJow,  by  Order 
in  Council,  1876.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1354. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Prior  and  Convent  of  Christ  Church, 
Canterbury,  before  1354;  Henry  VIII.  seized  it  in  1540;  the  Dean  and  Ciiapter  of  Christ  Church, 
Canterbury,  1546  up  to  1666,  when  it  was  annexed  to  .Mlhallows,  Bread  Street. 


6o  SURVEY  OF  THE   CITY  OF   LONDON 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  100. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  by  William  de  Angre,  before  1361,  whose  endowment  fetched 
£S  :  13  :  4  in  1548,  when  John  Taylor  was  chaplain.     No  monuments  of  any  note  are  recorded  by  Stow. 

In  the  north  part  of  Friday  Street  is  Blue  Boar  Court  on  the  east  side.  This 
court  was  rebuilt  in  1896,  but  previous  to  this  was  surrounded  by  old  houses.  One 
of  these,  No.  56,  was  interesting  as  having  been  the  City  home  of  Richard  Cobden 
until  1845.  ^^  is  said  that  this  house  was  built  on  the  site  of  a  garden  attached  to 
Sir  Hugh  Myddelton's  house  in  Cheapside.  The  cellars  beneath  the  building  once 
covered  the  bullion  belonging  to  the  Bank  of  England.  This  was  at  the  time  when 
the  Bank  was  in  a  room  of  the  old  Grocers'  Hall. 

The  Church  of  St.  Matthew,  Friday  Street,  was  situated  on  the  west  side  of  the  street  near 
Cheapside.  It  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire,  and  rebuilt  from  the  designs  of  Sir  Christopher  Wren 
in  1685  ;  it  was  then  made  the  parish  church  for  this  and  St.  Peter's,  Westcheap,  which  was  annexed 
to  it.     About  1887  the  building  was  pulled  down.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1322. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of :  The  Abbot  and  Convent  of  St.  Peter,  Westminster, 
1322,  then  Henry  VIII.,  who  seized  it  and  gave  it  to  the  Bishop  of  Westminster,  January  20,  1540-41  ; 
the  Bishop  of  London,  March  3,  1553-54;  it  continued  in  his  successors  up  to  1666,  when  St.  Peter's, 
Cheapside,  was  annexed,  and  the  patronage  was  shared  alternately  with  the  patron  of  that  parish. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  200. 

The  church  was  plain,  without  aisles,  measuring  64  feet  by  33  feet  and  liaving  a  tower  74  feet  high. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  :  By  Adam  de  Bentley,  goldsmith,  for  himself  and  Matilda  his  wife,  to 
which  Adam  Ipolite  de  Pontefracto  was  admitted  chaplain,  June  14,  1334;  by  Thomas  Wyrlyngworth, 
at  the  Altar  of  St.  Katherine,  to  which  John  Donyngton  was  admitted  chaplain,  November  13,  1391  :  the 
King  granted  his  licence,  June  16,  1404;  by  John  Martyn,  whose  endowment  fetched  ;^io  in  1548, 
when  Henry  Coldewell  was  priest,  "  70  years  of  age,  meanly  learned " ;  for  Nicholas  Twyford,  wiks, 
about  1400. 

The  church  originally  contained  monuments  to  Sir  Nicholas  Twyford,  goldsmith  and  mayor,  who 
died  1583,  also  Sir  Edward  Clark,  Lord  Mayor  in  1696.  Sir  Hugh  Myddelton,  the  designer  of  the 
New  River,  was  a  parishioner,  and  was  buried  here  in  1631. 

A  legacy  of  ;£^  a  year  was  left  to  the  poor  of  the  parish  by  Mrs.  Cole. 

James  Smith,  Edward  Clark,  and  others  contributed  to  the  furnishing  of  the  necessities  of  the  church. 
The  parish  was  to  receive  ^^240  out  of  the  "cole-money"  for  the  use  of  the  parish  or  poor  (Stow). 

John  Thomas  (1691-1766),  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  1744,  of  Sarum  1761-66,  was  rector  here;  also 
Edward  Vaughan  (d.  1522),  Bishop  of  St.  David's;  John  Rogers,  who  was  burnt  at  Smithfield,  1555; 
Lewis  Bayley  (d.  1631),  Bishop  of  Bangor,  and  Michael  Lort  (1725-90),  Vice-President  of  Society  of 
Antiquaries ;  Henry  Burton,  the  ardent  Puritan,  who  was  put  in  the  pillory  and  imprisoned  for  his 
religious  opinions  and  attacks. 

The  Church  of  St.  Margaret  Moses  was  situated  on  the  east  side  of  Friday  Street,  opposite 
Distaff  Lane,  now  merged  in  Cannon  Street,  and  derived  its  name  from  one  Moses,  who  founded  it.  It 
was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire  and  its  parish  annexed  to  that  of  St.  Mildred,  Bread  Street.  The  eariiest 
date  of  an  incumbent  is  1300. 

l"he  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  Robert  Fitzwalter,  the  founder,  who  gave  it  in 
1 105  to  the  Priors  and  Canons  of  St.  Faith,  Horsham,  Norfolk,  being  confirmed  to  that  house  by  Pope 
Ale.xander  III.  in  his  Bill  dated  at  Turin,  May  26,  1163;  Edward  III.,  who  seized  it  from  St.  F'aith,  as 
an  alien  priory,  and  so  it  continued  in  the  Crown  till  the  parish  was  annexed  to  St.  Mildred,  Bread 
Street,  in  1666. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  6i 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  240. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by:  Nicholas  Rray,  whose  endowment  fetched  ;i{^8;i6:8  in  154S, 
when  John  Griffyn  was  "  priest  of  the  age  of  46  years,  of  virtuous  living  and  of  small  learning " ;  John 
Fenne,  whose  endowment  yielded  £<)  :  los.  in  1548,  when  John  Brightwyse  was  "priest  of  the  age  of  46 
years,  of  honest  behaviour  and  indifferently  learned";  Gerard  Dannyell,  whose  endowment  fetched  £?, 
in  1548,  when  Nicholas  Prideoux  was  priest. 

The  church  originally  contained  monuments  to  Sir  Richard  Dobbes,  mayor,  1551  ;  Sir  John 
Allot,  mayor,  1591. 

Only  two  legacies  are  recorded  by  Stow  :  i8s.  per  annum,  the  gift  of  John  Bush  ;  16s.  per  annum, 
the  gift  of  John  Spot. 

John  Rogers,  who  was  burnt  at  Smithfield  in  1555,  was  rector  here. 

Distaff  Lane. — "On  the  west  side  of  Friday  Street,  is  INIayden  lane,  so  named 
of  such  a  sign,  or  Distaffe  lane,  for  Distar  lane,  as  I  read  in  the  record  of  a  brewhouse 
called  the  Lamb,  in  Distar  Lane,  the  i6th  of  Henry  VI.  In  this  Distar  Lane,  on  the 
north  side  thereof,  is  the  Cordwainers,  or  Shoemakers'  hall,  which  company  were 
made  a  brotherhood  or  fraternity,  in  the  iith  of  Henry  IV.  Of  these  cordwainers 
I  read,  that  since  the  fifth  of  Richard  II.  (when  he  took  to  wife  Anne,  daughter  to 
Wenceslaus,  King  of  Bohemia),  by  her  e.xample,  the  English  people  had  used  piked 
shoes,  tied  to  their  knees  with  silken  laces,  or  chains  of  silver  or  gilt,  wherefore  in 
the  4th  of  Edward  IV.  it  was  ordained  and  proclaimed,  that  beaks  of  shoone  and 
boots,  should  not  pass  the  length  of  two  inches,  upon  pain  of  cursing  by  the  clergy, 
and  by  parliament  to  pay  twenty  shillings  for  every  pair.  And  every  cordwainer 
that  shod  any  man  or  woman  on  the  Sunday,  to  pay  thirty  shillings. 

"  On  the  south  side  of  this  Distar  Lane,  is  also  one  other  lane,  called  Distar 
Lane,  which  runneth  down  to  Knightrider  Street,  or  Old  Fish  Street,  and  this  is 
the  end  of  Bread  Street  Ward  "  (Stow's  Sui'vey,  p.  393). 

The  other  lane  was  afterwards  called  Little  Distaff  Lane.  Another  name  for 
this  street  was  Maiden  Lane.  There  was  another  Maiden  Lane  in  Thames  Street, 
and  a  third  in  Lad  Lane,  and  a  fourth  on  Bank  side. 

Distaff  Lane  is  absorbed  by  Cannon  Street,  and  the  "  Little  Distaff  Lane  "  has 
been  promoted  by  the  omission  of  the  adjective. 

Old  Change. — Of  this  street  Stow  tells  us  everything  that  is  of  interest  : 

"  A  street  so  called  of  the  King's  exchange  there  kept,  which  was  for  the 
receipt  of  bullion  to  be  coined.  For  Henry  HI.,  in  the  6th  year  of  his  reign,  wrote 
to  the  Scabines  and  men  of  Ipre,  that  he  and  his  council  had  given  prohibition,  that 
none,  Englishmen  or  other,  should  make  change  of  plate  or  other  mass  of  silver, 
but  only  in  his  Exchange  at  London,  or  at  Canterbury.  Andrew  Bukerell  then  had 
to  farm  the  E.xchange,  and  was  mayor  of  London,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  III.  In 
the  8th  of  Edward  I.,  Gregory  Rockesly  was  keeper  of  the  said  Exchange  for  the 
king.  In  the  5th  of  Edward  II.,  William  Hausted  was  keeper  thereof ;  and  in  the 
1 8th,  Roger  de  Frowicke. 


62  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

"  These  received  the  old  stamps,  or  coining-irons,  from  time  to  time,  as  the  same 
were  worn,  and  deHvered  new  to  all  the  mints  in  England,  as  more  at  large  in 
another  place  I  have  noted. 

"  This  street  beginneth  by  West  Chepe  in  the  north,  and  runneth  down  south 
to  Knightrider  Street;  that  part  thereof  which  is  called  Old  Fish  Street,  but  the 
very  housing  and  office  of  the  Exchange  and  coinage  was  about  the  midst  thereof, 
south  from  the  east  gate  that  entereth  Pauls  churchyard,  and  on  the  west  side  in 
Baynard's  castle  ward. 

"  On  the  east  side  of  this  lane,  betwixt  West  Cheape  and  the  church  of  St. 
Augustine,  Henry  Walles,  mayor  (by  license  of  Edward  1.),  built  one  row  of  houses, 
the  profits  rising  of  them  to  be  employed  on  London  Bridge"  (Stow's  Survey,  p.  35). 

Lord  Herbert  of  Cherbury  lived  in  a  "house  among  gardens  near  the  Old 
Exchange." 

St.  Paul's  School  was  founded  by  Dean  Colet  in  1509,  and  the  schoolhouse 
stood  at  the  east  end  of  the  Churchyard,  facing  the  Cathedral.  It  was  destroyed  by 
the  Great  Fire  and  rebuilt  by  Wren,  and  then  again  taken  down  and  rebuilt  in  1824, 
and  subsequently  removed  to  Hammersmith  to  the  new  building  designed  by  Alfred 
Waterhouse,  R.A.,  in  1884.  For  further,  see  "  Hammersmith  "  in  succeeding  volume. 
The  old  site  in  St.  Paul's  Churchyard  is  now  covered  by  business  houses. 

ST.   AUGUSTINE 

At  the  corner  of  Old  Change  and  Watling  Street  stands  St.  Augustine's  Church. 

It  was  burnt  down  by  the  Great  Fire  and  rebuilt  by  Wren  in  1682,  and  the  parish  of  St.  Faith's 
anne.xed  to  it.  The  steeple,  however,  was  not  completed  till  1695.  As  it  possessed  no  proper  burying- 
ground  of  its  own,  a  portion  of  the  crypt  of  St.  Paul's  was  used  for  the  interment  of  parishioners.  The 
earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  was  1148. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  always  in  the  hands  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  who 
granted  it  to  Edward,  the  priest,  in  1 1 48. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  360. 

The  present  church  measures  about  51  feet  in  length,  30  feet  in  height,  and  45  feet  in  breadth;  it 
is  divided  into  a  nave  and  side  aisles  by  six  Ionic  columns  and  four  pilasters.  The  steeple  rises  at  the 
south-west,  consisting  of  a  tower,  lantern,  and  spire.  It  is  20  feet  square  at  the  base,  and  has  three  stories. 
The  lantern  is  very  slender.  The  total  altitude  is  140  feet.  No  chantries  are  recorded  to  have  been 
founded  here.  The  ancient  church  contained  few  monuments  of  note.  The  present  building  has  a 
tablet  to  the  memory  of  Judith  (died  1705),  the  first  wife  of  the  eminent  lawyer  William  Cowper. 

Some  of  the  benefactors  were  :  Thomas  Holbech,  rector  of  the  parish,  1662,  who  gave  ;£ioo  towards 
finishing  the  church;  Dame  Margaret  Ayloff,  ^100.  After  the  parish  of  St.  Faith's  was  annexed,  gifts 
to  the  amount  of  ^£^700  were  received  from  various  sources. 

William  Fleetwood  (1656-1723),  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph,  was  rector  here;  also  John  Douglas  (1721- 
1807),  Bishop  of  Carlisle  and  of  Sarum,  and  Richard  H.  Barham  (1788-1845),  author  of  The  Ingoldshy 
Legends. 

With  this  we  end  the  first  section  of  the  City. 


GROUP    II 

The  second  group  of  streets  will  be  those  lying  north  of  Gresham  Street,  with 
Noble  Street  and  Monkwell  Street  on  the  west,  and  Moorgate  Street  on  the  east. 
This  part  of  the  City  is  perhaps  less  rich  in  antiquities  and  associations  than  any 
other.  The  north  part  was,  to  begin  with,  occupied  and  built  over  with  houses 
much  later  than  the  south.  For  a  long  time  the  whole  area  north  of  Gresham  (then 
Cateaton)  Street  and  within  the  Wall  presented  the  appearance  of  gardens  and 
orchards  with  industrial  villages  as  colonies  dotted  here  and  there,  each  with  its 
parish  church  and  its  narrow  lane  of  communication  with  the  great  market  of  Chepe. 
Some  of  the  names,  as  Oat  Lane,  Lilypot  Lane,  Love  Lane,  preserve  the  memory 
of  the  orardens  and  their  walks. 

In  this  district  grew  up  by  degrees  a  great  many  of  the  industries  of  the  City, 
especially  the  noisy  trades  and  those  which  caused  annoyance  to  the  neighbours,  as 
that  of  the  foundry,  the  tanyard,  the  tallow  chandlers. 

An  examination  of  the  Calendar  of  Wills  down  to  the  fifteenth  century  is  in  one 
sense  disappointing,  because  it  affords  no  insight  into  the  nature  of  the  trades  carried 
on  in  the  area  before  us.  On  the  other  hand,  it  curiously  corroborates  the  theory 
that  this  part  of  the  City  was  in  the  thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries  purely 
industrial,  because  among  the  many  entries  referring  to  this  quarter  there  is  but  one 
reference,  down  to  the  seventeenth  century,  of  any  shops.  There  are  rents,  tene- 
ments— "all  my  Rents  and  Tenements"  several  times  repeated;  land  and  rents — 
"  all  my  Land  and  Rents  "  ;  there  are  almshouses.  Halls  of  Companies,  gardens  ;  but 
there  are  no  shops,  and  that  at  a  time  when  the  streets  and  lanes  about  Cheapside 
are  filled  with  shops  ! 

The  Companies'  Halls  offer  some  index  to  the  trades  of  the  quarter.  There 
are  still  Broderers'  Hall,  Curriers'  Hall,  Armourers'  Hall,  Coopers'  Hall,  Parish 
Clerk's  Hall,  Brewers'  Hall,  Girdlers'  Hall  ;  and  there  were  Haberdashers'  Hall, 
Mercers'  Hall,  Wax  Chandlers'  Hall,  Masons'  Hall,  Plaisterers'  Hall,  Pinners'  Hall, 
Barber  Surgeons'  Hall,  Founders'  Hall,  Weavers'  Hall,  and  Scriveners'  Hall,  which 
have  now  been  removed  elsewhere  or  destroyed.  These  trades,  we  may  note,  are 
for  the  most  part  of  the  humbler  kind. 

Coleman  Street   is  described  by  Stow  as   "  a  fair  and  large   Street  on  both 

63 


64  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

sides   built   with   divers   fair   houses,    besides  alleys   with  small   tenements   in   great 
numbers." 

Cunningham  enumerates  the  chief  events  connected  with  the  street  : 
"The  five  members  accused  of  treason  by  Charles  I.  concealed  themselves  in 
this  street.  'The  Star,'  in  Coleman  Street,  was' a  tavern  where  Oliver  Cromwell 
and  several  of  his  party  occasionally  met.  .  .  .  In  a  conventicle  in  '  Swan  Alley,'  on 
the  east  side  of  this  street,  Venner,  a  wine-cooper  and  INIillenarian,  preached  the 
opinions  of  his  sect  to  'the  soldiers  of  King  Jesus'"  (see  London  in  the  Titiie  of 
the  Stnarts,  p.  68  et  seq.).  "John  Goodwin,  minister  in  Coleman  Street,  waited  on 
Charles  I.  the  day  before  the  King's  execution,  tendered  his  services,  and  offered  to 
pray  for  him.  The  King  thanked  him,  but  said  he  had  chosen  Dr.  Juxon,  whom  he  knew. 
Vicars  wrote  an  attack  on  Goodwin,  called  '  The  Coleman-street  Conclave  Visited  ! ' 
Justice  Clement,  in  Ben  Jonson's  Every  Man  in  his  Humour,  lived  in  Coleman  Street ; 
and  Cowley  wrote  a  play  called  Cutter  of  Coleman-street.  Bloomfield,  author  of 
'  The  Farmer's  Boy,'  followed  his  original  calling  of  a  shoemaker  at  No.  14  Great 
Bell-yard  in  this  street." 

ST.   STEPHEN,   COLEMAN    STREET 

The  Church  of  St.  Stephen,  Coleman  Street,  was  "  at  first  a  Jews'  synagogue,  then  a  parish  church, 
then  a  chapel  to  St.  Olave's  in  the  Jewry,  now  (7  Edward  IV.)  incorporated  as  a  parish  church  "  (Stow). 
It  is  situated  on  the  west  side  of  Coleman  Street,  near  to  the  south  end.  It  was  consumed  by  the  Great 
Fire  and  rebuilt  by  Wren.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  13 11. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  who  granted 
it  to  the  Prior  and  Convent  of  Butley;  Henry  VIII.  seized  it,  and  in  the  Crown  it  continued  till 
Queen  Elizabeth  granted  it,  about  1597,  to  the  parishioners,  in  whose  successors  it  continued. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  8S0. 

The  church  is  plain,  long  and  narrow,  without  any  aisles,  measuring  75  feet  in  length  and  35  feet 
in  breadth.  The  steeple,  which  rises  at  the  north-west,  consists  of  a  stone  tower,  a  lantern,  and  small  spire, 
the  total  height  being  about  65  feet. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  :  William  Grapefig,  for  which  the  King  granted  a  licence,  August  6, 
1321,  and  to  which  John  de  Maderfield  was  admitted  chaplain,  June  23,   1324;   Rodger  le   Bourser,  for 
which  the  King  granted  his  licence,  August  i,  132 1  ;  Stephen  Fraunford  and  John  Essex,  both  citizens  of- 
London,  of  which  John  de  Bulklegh  was  chaplain,  who  died  in  1391  :  founded  July  1361  ;  Edward  IV., 
who  endowed  it  with  lands,  etc.,  which  fetched  ;^5o  :  5  :  4  in  1548. 

Anthony  Munday,  the  dramatist,  arranger  of  the  City  pageants  and  the  continuation  of  Stow's 
Survey,  who  died  in  1633,  was  buried  here. 

A  very  large  number  of  legacies  and  charitable  gifts  are  recorded  by  Stow,  amongst  which  are : 
^640,  the  gift  of  Christopher  Eyre,  for  the  building  and  maintenance  of  six  almshouses  ;  p£^ioo,  the  gift  of 
Sir  Richard  Smith,  for  coals  for  the  poor;  .;^ioo,  the  gift  of  Hugh  Capp,  for  lands  for  the  poor;  ^400, 
the  gift  of  Barnard  Hyde,  to  purchase  land  for  six  poor  people  for  ever. 

In  White  Alley  there  were  six  almshouses  built  by  Christopher  Eyre  for  six  poor  couples,  each  of 
whom  were  allowed  jQ^  per  annum. 

Richard  Lucas  (1648-1715),  author  of  several  theological  works,  was  a  rector  here;  also  John  Daven- 
port (1597-1670),  he  was  one  of  the  leaders  of  a  party  who  went  over  to  America  in  1637,  and  founded 
Newhaven  in  Connecticut.  He  had  a  design  of  founding  a  university  (Yale),  but  this  was  not  carried  into 
effect  until  sixty  years  later. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


65 


Over  the  stuccoed  gateway  of  the  churchyard  is  a  skull  and  cross-bones,  with  an  elaborate  panel 
in  relief  below,  representing  the  Last  Judgment ;  this  is  a  replica  in  oak  of  the  original  panel,  which  was 
removed,  for  its  better  preservation,  to  the  Vestry. 

As  for  the  present  street  the  most  notable  building  is  the  Armourers'  Hall. 

THE    ARMOURERS    AND    BRASIERS    COMPANY 

The  trade  of  armourer  was  of  great  importance  in  the  ages  when  men  went  out  to  war  clad  in  iron. 


7'.  //.  Shtphird. 
THE   armourers'    AND    llRASIERs'   ALMSHOUSES,    BISHOPSGATE   WITHOUT    (1857) 


There  were  many  kinds  of  armour.  Some  were  taught  to  make  helmets  and  some  corslets.  There  was 
armour  of  quilted  leather  worn  under  the  armour  or  acting  as  armour. 

A  great  number  of  people  lived  by  the  making  of  armour.  The  custom  of  wearing  armour  decayed 
gradually,  not  rapidly.     It  is  still  kept  up  for  purposes  of  show  but  no  longer  for  any  use  in  defence. 

The  origin  of  the  Company  of  Armourers  and  Brasiers  is  lost  in  antiquity.  The  Company  was, 
however,  founded  previously  to  the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century,  for  records  are  in  existence  showing 
that  at  that  time  (1307-27)  the  Company  had  vested  in  it  the  right  of  search  of  armour  and  weapons.  It 
would  appear  from  documents  in  the  jiossession  of  the  Company  that  as  early  as  the  year  1428  the  Company 
was  in  the  possession  of  a  hall.  In  the  year  1453  the  Company  was  incorporated  by  a  charter  from  King 
Henry  VI.  by  the  title  of  "  The  Fraternity  or  Guild  of  St.  George  of  the  Men  of  Mistery  of  Armorers  of 

5 


66  SURVEY  OF  THE   CITY  OF   LONDON 

our  City  of  London,"   and   had  licence  granted   to   it   to  appoint  a  chaplain  to  its  chapel  in  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral. 

It  is  believed  that  the  Company  of  Brasiers  was  incorporated  about  the  year  1479  ^y  Edward  IV., 
and  that  the  craft  of  bladesmiths  was  incorporated  with  the  Company  of  Armourers  about  the  year  1515, 
but  the  Company  has  no  authentic  evidence  in  its  possession  as  to  these  facts. 

In  the  year  1559,  Queen  Elizabeth  granted  a  charter  of  Inspeximus,  confirming  the  Letters  Patent 
of  King  Henry  XI. 

In  the  year  1618,  King  James  I.,  in  consideration  of  the  sum  of  ;^ioo,  granted  Letters  Patent 
confirming  the  title  of  the  Fraternity  or  Guild  of  St.  George  of  the  Men  of  Mystery  of  Armourers  in  the 
City  of  London,  to  the  messuages  and  lands  then  held  by  it.  The  greater  part  of  these  messuages  and 
lands  is  still  in  the  possession  of  the  Company. 

In  the  year  1685,  King  James  II.  granted  Letters  Patent  to  the  Company  which  (infer  a/ia)  directed 
that  all  edge  tools  and  armour,  and  all  copper  and  brass  work  wrought  with  the  hammer  within  the  City 
of  London,  or  a  radius  of  five  miles  therefrom,  should  be  searched  and  approved  by  e.xpert  artificers  of 
the  Company. 

In  the  year  1708  the  Company  of  Armourers  was,  by  Letters  Patent  granted  by  Queen  Anne,  incor- 
porated with  the  Brasiers  under  the  corporate  title  of  "  The  Company  of  Armourers  and  Brasiers  in  the 
City  of  London."  In  this  charter  it  is  recited  that  of  late  years  many  of  the  members  of  the  Company 
of  Armourers  had  employed  themselves  in  working  and  making  vessels,  and  wares  of  copper  and  brass 
wrought  with  the  hammer,  and  that  for  want  of  powers  to  search  and  make  byelaws  to  bind  the  workers 
of  such  wares  in  the  City  of  London,  frauds  and  deceits  in  the  working  of  such  goods  and  vessels  had 
increased,  and  power  was  thereby  granted  to  the  Company  of  Armourers  and  Brasiers  to  make  byelaws  for 
the  government  of  the  Company  ;  and  also  of  all  persons  making  any  work  or  vessel  of  wrought  or  hammered 
brass  or  copper,  in  the  Cities  of  London  and  Westminster,  or  within  a  radius  of  five  miles  thereof,  and 
with  authority  to  inflict  fines  and  penalties  against  persons  offending  against  such  byelaws.  And  the 
Company  was  invested  with  power  to  inspect  and  search  for  all  goods  worked  or  wrought  with  the  hammer 
and  exposed  to  sale  within  such  limits  as  aforesaid.  No  person  was  allowed  to  sell  or  make  armour  or  vessels, 
or  wares  of  copper  or  brass  wrought  with  the  hammer,  unless  he  was  a  member  or  had  been  apprenticed 
to  a  member  of  the  Company. 

It  would  appear  that  the  master  and  wardens  exercised  a  very  extensive  jurisdiction  in  ancient 
days,  fining  and  punishing  members  of  the  Company  for  social  offences  as  well  as  for  infringements  of  the 
byelaws  of  the  Company,  and  hearing  and  adjudicating  upon  all  questions  arising  between  members  of  the 
Company  and  their  apprentices,  and  also  inflicting  fines  on  persons  making  or  selling  goods  of  an  improper 
quality. 

This  Company  is  still  in  the  habit  of  binding  apprentices  to  masters  engaged  in  the  trades  of  workers 
of  brass  and  copper,  and  of  pensioning  infirm  members  of  those  trades.  Their  workshops  were  situated 
close  to  London  Wall,  below  Bishopsgate,  probably  in  order  to  remove  their  hammering  as  far  as  possible 
from  the  trading  part  of  the  City. 

The  Company  is  governed  by  a  Master,  an  Upper  Warden  and  a  Renter  Warden,  with  eighteen 
assistants,  and,  together  with  the  livery,  now  number  91.  The  Hall  is  at  Si  Coleman  Street.  Stow 
mentions  the  Hall  on  the  north  end  of  Coleman  Street  and  on  the  east  side  of  it.  "  The  Company  of 
Armourers  were  made  a  Fraternity  or  Guild  of  St.  George  with  a  Chantry  in  the  Chapel  of  St.  Thomas  in 
Paul's  Church  in  the  ist  of  Henry  VI.'' 

On  the  north  side  of  King's  Arms  Yard  extends  the  elaborate  and  very  handsome 
building  of  the  Metropolitan  Life  Assurance  Society,  which  has  its  entrance  at  the  corner 
of  Moorgate  Street.  This  has  deeply  recessed  windows,  and  the  corner  is  finished 
off  by  an  octagonal  turret  which  begins  in  a  projecting  canopy  over  the  door,  and 
is  carried  up  to  the  roof      In  niches  here  and  there  are  small  stone  figures.     This 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  67 

building  is  the  work  of  Aston  Webb  and  Ingress  Bell  in  1891.  Opposite,  in  great 
contrast,  are  oldish  brick  houses,  very  plain  in  style.  Round  the  northern  corner 
into  Coleman  Street  is  carried  a  building  which  is  chiefly  remarkable  for  the  amount 
of  polished  granite  on  its  surface.  On  the  west,  a  little  higher  up,  is  another  entrance 
of  the  Wool  Exchange  from  which  a  large  projection  overhangs  the  street.  There 
is  a  lamb  in  stonework  ov^er  the  door. 

Basinghall  Street  (or  Bassishaw  Street)  runs  from  London  Wall  to  Gresham 
Street.  The  street  used  to  contain  the  Masons',  Weavers',  Coopers',  and 
Girdlers'  Halls.  Only  the  Girdlers'  and  Coopers'  Halls  now  remain.  The  names 
Basinghall  and  Bassishaw  are  frequently  supposed  to  have  the  same  origin.  Riley, 
however,  quotes  a  passage  in  which  (a.d.  1390)  there  is  mention  of  the  "Parish  of 
St.  Michael  Bassishaw  in  the  Ward  of  Bassyngeshaw,"  which  he  considers  indicates 
that  the  word  Basseshaw  is  Basset's  haw,  and  Bassyngeshaw  is  Basing's  haw,  referring 
to  two  families  and  not  one.  There  is  a  great  number  of  references  to  Basings  and 
to  Bassets.  Yet  the  names  seem  to  refer  to  the  same  place.  Thus  in  1280  and 
1283  we  hear  of  houses  in  Bassieshaw.  In  1286  we  hear  of  houses  in  Bassinge  haw. 
Basinghall  was  the  hall  or  house  of  the  Basings,  an  opulent  family  of  the  thirteenth 
century.  Solomon  and  Hugh  Basing  were  sheriffs  in  12 14;  Solomon  was  mayor 
in  1 2 16;  Adam  Basing  was  sheriff  in  1243.  Basinghall  passed  into  the  hands  of  a 
family  named  Banquelle  or  Bacquelle.  John  de  Banquelle,  Alderman  of  Dowgate, 
had  a  confirmation  and  quit  claim  to  him  of  a  messuage  in  St.  Michael,  Bassieshawe, 
in  1293. 

At  the  south-west  corner  of  Basinghall  Street  was  a  fine  stone  house  built  by 
a  "certain  Jew  named  Manscre,  the  son  of  Aaron."  Thomas  Bradberry  (d.  1509) 
kept  his  mayoralty  there. 

THE    GIRDLERS    COMPANY 

The  Girdlers  Company  traces  its  existence  to  a  very  early  period,  and  cannot,  in  the  strict  sense  of 
the  word,  be  said  to  have  been  founded.  It  is  believed  to  have  been  a  fraternity  by  prescription,  which 
owed  its  origin  to  a  lay  brotherhood  of  the  order  of  Saint  Laurence,  maintaining  themselves  by  the  making 
of  girdles  and  voluntarily  associating  for  the  purpose  of  mutual  protection  and  for  the  regulation  of  the 
trade  which  they  practised,  and  the  maintenance  of  the  ancient  ordinances  and  usages  established  to 
ensure  the  honest  manufacture  of  girdles  with  good  and  sound  materials. 

The  earliest  public  or  State  recognition  of  the  Company  of  which  it  now  possesses  any  evidence 
consists  of  Letters  Patent  of  the  first  year  of  King  Edward  IIL,  a.d.  1327,  addressed  to  them  as  an 
existing  body,  as  "les  ceincturiers  de  notre  Citee  de  Loundres,"  by  which  the  "ancient  ordinances  and 
usuages  "  of  the  said  trade  are  approved  and  their  observance  directed.  The  King  also  grants  licence  to 
the  girdlers  that  they  shall  have  power  to  elect  one  or  two  of  their  own  trade  to  seek  out  folse  work  and 
present  it  before  the  mayors  or  chief  guardians  of  the  places  where  found,  who  shall  cause  the  same  to  be 
burnt  and  those  who  have  worked  the  same  to  be  punished ;  all  amercements  resulting  therefrom  to  belong 
to  the  mayors  of  the  places  where  the  false  work  is  found. 

Some  ten  years  later  we  find  the  girdlers  presenting  a  code  of  laws  for  the  governance  of  their  trade 
to  the  mayor  and  aldermen ;  therefore,  though  their  charter  enabled  them   to  search  into  and  discover 


68  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

bad  work,  it  gave  them  no  power  to  make  laws  for  the  safeguarding  of  the  trade.  Moreover,  the  charter 
gave  them  no  power  over  wages,  nor  did  it  compel  the  workers  of  the  trade  to  join  the  Fraternity,  nor  did  it 
empower  them  to  hold  land,  to  sue  or  to  be  sued.  Considering  these  omissions,  the  document  quoted  by 
Riley  ought  not,  strictly  speaking,  to  be  considered  a  charter. 

The  said  Letters  Patent  were  confirmed  in  i  Richard  II.  (1377)  and  2  Henry  IV.  (1401),  and 
the  Company  was  incorporated  in  27  Henry  VI.  (1448)  by  the  Master  and  CJuardians  of  the  Mystery 
of  Girdlers  of  the  City  of  London. 

Further  confirmations  were  made  in  2  Edward  IV.,  10  Elizabeth,  15  Charles  I.,  and  i  James  II. 

No  important  change  in  the  original  constitution  of  the  Company  was  made  by  any  of  the 
charters  prior  to  that  of  10  Elizabeth,  which  directed  that  the  three  arts  or  mysteries  called  Pinners, 
Wyerworkers,  and  Girdlers  should  be  joined  and  invited  together  into  one  body  corporate  and  polity,  and 
one  society  and  company  for  ever,  and  did  incorporate  them  by  the  name  of  the  Masters  and  Wardens  or 
Keepers  of  the  Art  and  Mystery  of  Girdlers,  London. 

It  does  not  appear  that  the  Pinners  and  Wyerworkers  brought  any  accession  of  property  to  the  Girdlers. 

The  Hall  has  always  been  in  Basinghall  Street.  Here  it  is  mentioned  by  Stow  along  with  Masons' 
Hall  and  Weavers'  Hall. 

No.  I  on  the  east  of  Basinghall  Street  was  probably  built  early  in  the 
nineteenth  century  ;  the  buildings  which  follow  it  are  chiefly  modern.  The  whole 
street  is  rather  fine,  though  too  narrow  for  much  effect.  There  are  in  it  many  great 
"houses,"  "chambers,"  and  "buildings"  occupied  in  floons.  Gresham  Buildings  are 
faced  with  dark-coloured  stone  and  rise  comparatively  high.  The  ground-floor  walls 
on  the  exterior  are  covered  with  the  most  elaborate  stonework  representations  of 
flowers  and  foliage.  The  City  of  London  Court  in  the  passage  known  as  Guildhall 
Buildings  is  picturesquely  built  in  a  perpendicular  style  of  Gothic.  A  great  square 
stone  building  opposite  was  built  in  1890,  and  ne.xt  to  it  a  plain  Portland  stone 
edifice  contains  the  Lord  Mayor's  court  office.  The  City  Library  and  Museum  form 
a  picturesque  group  of  buildings  in  the  west  of  Basinghall  Street. 

Near  at  hand  is  the  Coopers'  Hall  with  a  narrow  frontage. 

THE    COOPERS    COMPANY 

The  Coopers  Company  was  incorporated  in  1501  by  charter  of  King  Henry  VII.,  dated  29th  Aprfl, 
in  the  sixteenth  year  of  his  reign.  There  is  no  record,  however,  of  any  anterior  charter.  There  is  no 
doubt  that  the  Coopers  were  one  of  the  early  mysteries  or  brotherhoods  of  the  City  of  London,  though  it 
is  difficult  to  assign  a  correct  date  of  their  origin.  The  Comi)any's  archives,  however,  show  that  the 
Company  had  existed  for  a  considerable  period  prior  to  the  date  of  its  incorporation.  A  subsequent  charter 
was  granted  on  the  30th  August,  in  the  thirteenth  year  of  King  Charles  II.  This  is  the  governing  charter, 
and  its  provisions  regulate  the  management  of  the  Company  to  the  present  day.  Under  the  statute  of 
23  Henry  Yll.  cap.  4,  power  is  given  to  the  wardens  of  the  Company  with  one  of  the  mayor's  officers  to 
gauge  all  casks  in  the  City  of  London  and  the  suburbs,  and  within  two  miles'  compass  without  the  suburbs, 
and  to  mark  such  barrels  when  gauged.  By  a  subsequent  Act,  31  Elizabeth,  cap.  8,  "for  the  true  gauging 
of  vessels  brought  from  beyond  the  seas,  converted  by  brewers  for  the  utterance  and  sale  of  ale  and  beer," 
brewers  were  prohibited  from  selling  or  putting  to  sale  any  ale  or  beer  in  any  such  vessels  within  the  limits 
before  mentioned  before  the  same  should  be  lawfully  gauged  and  marked  by  the  master  and  wardens  of  the 
Coopers  Company.  The  Company  do  not  now  exercise,  and  have  not  for  a  considerable  period  exercised, 
any  control  over  the  trade  of  coopers. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  69 

It  is  quite  certain  that  a  craft  so  technical  and  so  useful  as  that  of  the  cooper  must  have  been 
constituted  as  a  guild  as  soon  as  craftsmen  began  to  work  together  at  all.  In  the  year  1396  (Riley,  p.  541), 
"the  goodmen  of  the  trade  of  Coopers  "  presented  a  code  of  ordinances  for  the  regulation  of  the  trade. 
They  complained  that  certain  persons  of  the  trade  were  in  the  habit  of  making  casks  out  of  wood  which 
had  been  used  for  oil  and  soap  casks,  so  that  ale  or  wine  put  into  these  casks  was  spoiled.  Therefore  it 
is  certain  that  their  guild  did  not  possess  authority  over  the  trade  at  that  time.  This  is  shown  again  in 
14 1 3,  when  certain  Master  Coopers  again  complained  to  the  mayor  that  one  Richard  Bartlot,  fishmonger, 
had  made  260  vessels  called  barrels  and  firkins  of  unseasoned  wood  and  of  false  measure.  These  vessels 
were  ordered  to  be  destroyed.  Perhaps  in  order  to  prevent  similar  practices,  it  was  decreed  that  every 
cooper  should  mark  his  work  by  his  own  trade-mark. 

The  Corporate  Income  of  the  Company  is  given  in  1898  as  ^2400;  the  Trust  Income  as  ^5coo  ; 
the  number  of  the  livery  as  200.     Their  Hall  is  7 1  Basinghall  Street,  on  the  site  of  two  previous  halls. 

Close  by  is  the  "Wool  Exchange  and  Colonial  Office"  with  an  open  entry 
supported  by  polished  granite  pillars,  whose  capitals  are  carved  as  rams'  heads. 
This  is  rather  a  fine  building,  with  segmental  windows  set  closely  all  across  the 
frontage.  Bevois  House,  just  completed,  takes  a  good  line  of  curvage  and  is  of 
white  stone.  Before  Guildhall  Chambers  there  is  an  old  house  built  of  narrow  red 
bricks,  with  semicircular  pillars  on  each  side  of  the  centre  window  frame,  and  above, 
on  a  slab  of  stone,  the  date  1660.  The  site  of  St.  Michael's  Church  is  here.  A 
row  of  straight  ordinary  business  houses  succeeds.  On  the  east  are  Guildhall 
Chambers,  plastered  houses  built  round  an  asphalt  court.  The  centre  one  has 
a  small  portico  with  Ionic  columns  ;  the  rest  of  the  court  is  plain  and  severe,  but  not 
ineffective. 

The  Church  of  St.  Michael,  Bassishaw,  was  situated  on  the  west  side  of  Basinghall  Street. 
It  was  rebuilt  in  the  fifteenth  century,  but  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire,  and  again  rebuilt,  by  Wren, 
between  1676  and  1679.  I"  '895  'he  church  was  closed,  a  commission  having  been  issued  in  1893  by 
the  Bishop  of  London  to  inquire  into  the  expediency  of  uniting  this  with  the  parishes  of  St.  Lawrence, 
Jewry,  and  St.  Mary  Magdalene,  Milk  Street.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1286. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Prior  and  Canons  of  St.  Bartholomew's  about 
1 140,  given  by  the  Bishop  of  London  ;  Henry  III.  ;  Thomas  de  Bassinges,  1246,  who  left  it  to  his  wife  by 
will  dated  1275  ;  Henry  Bodyk,  1327,  who  left  it  to  Johanna  his  wife  ;  Nicholas  de  Chaddesdon,  who  sold 
it  in  1358  to  Sir  John  de  Beauchamp,  brother  to  the  Earl  of  Warwick ;  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's, 
1435,  'f'  whose  successors  it  continues. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  500. 

The  present  church  measures  70  feet  in  length,  50  feet  in  breadth,  and  42  feet  in  height,  and 
includes  a  nave  and  two  side  aisles  separated  by  Corinthian  columns.  The  ceiling  is  divided  into 
panels,  and  is  pierced  with  openings  to  admit  the  light.  The  tower,  which  rises  at  the  west,  contains  four 
stories  concluded  by  a  cornice  and  parapet ;  above  this  is  a  lead-covered  octagonal  lantern  m  two  stages 
surmounted  by  a  short  spire  with  ball,  finial,  and  vane.     The  total  height  is  140  feet. 

Chantries  were  founded  here:  By  John  Hannem,  citizen,  before  1326;  by  John  A.sche,  whose 
endowment,  "called  the  bell  on  the  hope,"  fetched  ^3:6:8;  by  James  Yardeford,  Knt.,  whose 
endowment  yielded  ^16  in  1548. 

A  considerable  number  of  monuments  are  recorded  by  Stow,  the  most  notable  of  which  are  those 
of  Sir  John  Gresham  (d.  1556),  Lord  Mayor  of  London,  uncle  to  the  more  famous  Sir  Thomas  Gresham  ; 
and  Dr.  Thomas  Wharton  (d.  1673),  a  physician  who  gained  great  glory  from  his  labours  during  the 
Plague  of  1665. 


70 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


The  parish  received  a  large  number  of  gifts  and  charities,  some  of  which  were  as  follows :  ;£g  from 
Lady  Anne  Vaughan,  for  lectures;  ^lo  from  Sir  Wolstan  Dixey,  for  lectures;  ;£^20  from  Lady  Anne 
Bacon ;  ;£-jo  from  Sir  Robert  and  Lady  Ducie. 

George  Gardiner  (d.  1589),  chaplain  to  Queen  Elizabeth  and  Chancellor  of  Norwich,  was  rector 
here;  also  George  Lavington  (1684-1762),  Bishop  of  Exeter  1746-47. 

Aldermanbury  is  another  ancient  City  street.  The  name,  according  to  Stow, 
is  derived  from  the  Court  of  Aldermen  formerly  held  in  the  first  Guildhall,  the  ruins 
of  which,  on  the  east  side  of  the  street,  were  standing  in  his  day.     They  had  then 


Pra^i-n  fiy  <;.  Sfiefiiird. 


ST.    MARY,    ALDERMANBURY,    IN    1S14 


been  converted  into  a  carpenter's  shop.  Here,  in  1383,  Sir  Robert  Tressilian,  Lord 
Chief  Justice,  had  his  residence.  At  the  north  end  of  this  street,  before  the  memory 
of  men  living  in  1415,  a  postern  had  been  built  leading  from  the  City  to  the  moor. 
In  Riley's  Alcinorials  there  is  a  full  account  of  a  crowded  meeting  of  citizens  in  the 
Guildhall,  July  2,  1415,  to  consider  the  state  of  the  moor  and  certain  nuisances 
outside  the  postern  and  within  Bishopsgate.  It  was  resolved  to  lay  out  the 
moor,  then  a  waste  place,  in  gardens  to  be  allotted  to  citizens  at  a  certain  rental. 
The  street  is  frequently  mentioned  from  the  thirteenth  century.  In  the  sixteenth 
century  the  street  had  become  a  place  of  residence  for  the  better  sort.  "  Here  be 
divers  fair  houses  on  both  sides  meet  for  merchants  and  men  of  worship." 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  71 

ST.   MARY,    ALDERMANBURY 

This  church  is  of  very  ancient  date,  as  appeared  from  a  sepulchral  inscription,  said  to  have  been  in 
the  old  church,  dated  11 16.  The  building  was  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire,  and  re-erected  by  Wren  in 
1668-76.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1200. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  who,  June 
1 1 13,  appropriated  it  to  Elsing  Spital,  with  certain  restrictions.  The  living  is  now  in  the  gift  of  the 
parishioners. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  371. 

The  church  measures  72  feet  in  length,  45  feet  in  breadth,  and  38  feet  in  height,  and  includes  two 
aisles  separated  by  six  Corinthian  columns  from  the  nave.  Externally,  the  church  is  rather  imposing. 
The  east  front  has  a  handsome  cornice  and  pediment,  with  carved  scrolls  and  figures.  The  steeple, 
which  rises  at  the  west,  consists  of  a  tower  completed  by  a  cornice  and  parapet.  This  is  surmounted 
by  a  square  turret  in  two  stages,  and  a  concave  roof  tapering  to  a  point,  with  a  finial  and  vane ;  the 
total  height  is  about  90  feet.  There  is  a  churchyard  on  the  south  side,  open  to  the  public  for  several 
hours  daily. 

Chantries  were  founded  here :  By  William  Estfelde,  augmented  by  Stephen  Bockerell,  at  the 
Altar  of  St.  George,  for  Stephen,  Isabella  his  wife,  and  William  his  son,  before  1363  ;  by  Henry  Bedeyk — 
the  advowson  thereof  was  released  to  Sir  John  de  Beauchamp  by  John  de  Bovenden  and  Katherine 
his  wife,  in  1359;  by  Adam  de  Bassyng. 

A  considerable  number  of  citizens  of  repute  were  buried  in  the  old  church,  amongst  whom  the  two 
most  interesting  to  posterity  are  Henry  Condell  (d.  1627)  and  John  Heminge  (d.  1630),  the  fellow-actors 
of  Shakespeare  and  editors  of  the  folio  of  1623.  The  celebrated  divine  Edmund  Calamy  (the  elder)  was 
rector  here  for  some  years,  and  was  buried  in  1666  beneath  the  ruined  building  with  which  he  had  been 
so  long  connected.  In  the  register  of  the  church  the  marriage  of  Milton  with  his  second  wife  Katherine 
Woodcock,  1656,  is  entered.  The  remains  of  Judge  Jeffreys,  interred  in  the  Tower  after  his  death  there 
in  1689,  were  removed  here  and  deposited  in  a  vault  beneath  the  communion  table  in  1693. 

According  to  Stow,  there  were  no  legacies  or  bequests  to  the  church,  but  a  legacy  to  the  poor,  by  the 
Lady  Gresham,  of  j£^  per  annum,  paid  by  the  Mercers  Company. 

Among  other  celebrated  rectors  are  Edmund  Calamy  the  younger,  and  Dr.  Kennett  (d.  1728),  author 
of  Kennett's  Register,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Peterborough. 


ST.   ALPHAGE 

At  the  north  end  of  Aldermanbury  at  the  corner  of  London  Wall,  is  the  Church  of  St.  Alphage. 
This  parish  church  originally  stood  on  the  other  side,  against  the  Wall.  It  is  dedicated  to  St.  Alphage, 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  who  was  canonised  in  1012.  Its  old  churchyard  may  still  be  seen.  It  is  built 
on  part  of  the  site  of  the  hospital  and  priory  founded  by  ^^'illiam  Elsing  in  1329  and  1332.  The 
priory  harboured  one  hundred  poor  blind  men,  and  .suffered  suppression  along  with  the  rest  at  the 
Dissolution.  Under  Henry  VIII.  a  remnant  of  the  jiriory  church  became  parochial  and  was  extensively 
repaired  and  rebuilt  in  1624,  1628,  and  1649.  It  escaped  the  Great  Fire,  but  was  taken  down  in  1774  and 
the  present  building  erected  by  Sir  William  Staines  and  opened  in  1777.  Part  of  the  original  structure 
may  still  be  seen  in  the  porch.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1 137. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Deans  and  Canons  of  St.  Martin's-le-Grand 
before  1324,  from  whom  it  passed  to  the  Abbot  and  Convent  of  Westminster  from  1505  ;  the  Bishop  of 
Westminster  by  grant  of  Henry  VIII.,  January  20,  1540;  the  Bishop  of  London  by  gift  of  Edward  VI.  m 
1550,  confirmed  by  Mary,  March  3,  1553-54,  in  whose  successors  it  continued. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  345. 

The  present  church  possesses  two  fronts,  an  eastern  and  north-western  ;  the  north-west  door  leads 


72  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

into  a  porch,  the  pointed  arches  of  which  show  it  to  have  once  formed  part  of  the  old  priory  church.  This 
is  the  only  relic  of  past  times.      The  interior  is  plain,  the  ceiling  flat,  and  there  are  no  aisles. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  by  John  Graunte,  whose  endowment  yielded  ^15  :  10  : 8  in  1548. 

The  church  contains  a  handsome  monument  on  the  north  wall  to  Sir  Rowland  Hayward,  Lord 
Mayor  in  1570  and  1591  ;  it  was  placed  on  the  south  side  of  the  old  church.     On  the  same  wall,  farther 


PORCH    OF   ST.    ALPHACE,    LONDON    WALL,    lSl8. 

east,  a  marble  monument  commemorates  Samuel  Wright,  who  at  his  death  in  1736  left  charitable  bequests 
to  the  extent  of  ^20,950. 

Some  of  the  donors  of  gifts  were  Sir  Rowland  Hayward,  2od.  for  bread  every  Sabbath  day  for  the 
poor,  1 591,  and  John  Brown,  ^30  for  church  repairs,  1629. 

There  was  a  school  for  fifty  boys  and  twenty-five  girls,  who  were  clothed  and  educated  and  put  out 
to  trades  and  service  at  the  charge  of  the  ward.  There  were  also  ten  almshouses  for  ten  men  and  ten 
women,  each  of  whom  was  allowed  ;^4  per  annum,  founded  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Thomas  White.  Part  of  the 
almshouses  in  Monkwell  Street  belonged  to  this  parish. 

A  notable  rector  of  this  church  was  Philip  Stubbs  (1665-1738),  Archdeacon  of  St.  Alban's. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


72> 


Just  opposite  to  Philip  Street  is  still  preserved  the  old  churchyard  of 
St.  Alphage,  a  rectangular  railed-in  space  with  ivy  growing  over  the  old  wall  that 
forms  the  backbone.     On  a  slab  near  the  centre  is  the  inscription  : 

The  burial  ground  of  St.  Alphage  containing  part  of  the  old  Roman  City  wall.  Closed  by  Act 
of  Parliament  1853.     Laid  out  as  a  garden  1872. 

To  the  west  of  the  churchyard  once  stood  Sion  College.  This  was  built  in 
1623  with  almshouses  attached,  according  to  the  will  of  Dr.  Thomas  White,  vicar 


SIGN    COLLEGE,    LONDON    WALL,    itOO 
From  an  original  drawing  in  the  possession  of  ihe  President  and  Fellows  oi  .Sioji  College. 


of  St.  Dunstan's-in-the-West.      It  stood  on  the  site  of  Elsing  Spital  (see  Medieval 
London,  vol.  ii.  p.  248). 

Sion  College  had  a  fine  library  left  by  the  will  of  Ur.  John  Simson,  rector  of 
St.  Olave,  Hart  Street,  and  a  third  of  these  books  was  burnt  in  the  Great  Fire, 
which  almost  destroyed  the  College.  Up  to  1836  the  College  enjoyed  the  privilege 
of  receiving  a  gratuitous  copy  of  every  published  book.  The  City  clergy 
were  Fellows  of  the  College.  In  1886  a  new  building  on  the  Embankment  was 
opened  to  take  the  place  of  the  old  one,  and  now  the  ancient  site  is  covered  by 
business  houses. 


74  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

THE    CURRIERS   COMPANY 

The  Curriers  were  incorporated  by  James  I.  in  April  30,  1606,  for  a  master,  two  wardens,  twelve 
assistants,  and  103  liverymen. 

The  exact  date  of  the  origin  of  the  Company  is  unknown,  but  it  must  have  had  some  sort  of 
existence  previous  to  1363,  for  in  that  year  it  is  recorded  that  the  Company  contributed  five  marks  to 
aid  King  Edward  III.  in  carrying  on  his  wars  with  France. 

There  are  no  documents  in  existence  referring  to  the  origin  of  the  Company. 

Many  indications  of  the  antiquity  of  this  Fraternity  occur.  It  was  attached  to  the  White  Friars' 
Church  in  Fleet  Street.  The  Curriers  settled  in  Soper  Lane;  they  asked  for  ordinances  in  14151  they 
were  authorised  to  appoint  the  City  scavengers. 

Their  Hall  is  the  third  erected  on  the  same  site;  it  was  founded  in  1S74.  The  first  Hall  perished 
in  the  Fire.  The  quarter  where  the  curriers  lived  and  worked  was  in  the  north  facing  London  Wall, 
where  they  built  their  Hall. 

Of  Addle  Street  Stow  says  :  "  The  reason  of  which  name  I  know  not."  It 
may  have  been  derived  from  "  Ethel,"  meaning  noble.      In  it  is  the  Brewers'  Hall. 

THE    BREWERS  COMPANY 

In  the  year  1445  ^^'^  Brewers  were  first  incorporated.  Like  many  other  trades,  they  had  been 
associated  long  before.  Thus  in  1345  the  Brewers  (Riley's  Meinoruih,  p.  225)  are  treated  as  a  body,  being 
ordered  not  to  use  the  water  of  the  Chepe  conduit  for  making  beer  and  ale,  seeing  that  it  was  wanted  for 
the  supply  of  the  citizens.  (Fishmongers  at  the  same  time  were  forbidden  to  use  the  water  for  washing 
their  fish.) 

The  original  charter  of  February  22,  1445,  granted  by  Henry  VI.,  after  citing  the  Brewers  Company 
as  one  of  the  ancient  mysterie.s,  incorporates  the  Company  into  one  body  and  perpetual  community. 

The  charter  granted  nth  November,  2  Elizabeth,  and  the  charter  of  August  29,  1563,  confirm  the 
previous  charter  of  Henry  VI. 

The  charter  of  July  13,  21  Elizabeth,  appears  to  have  been  granted  owing  to  the  great  increase  of 
persons  engaged  in  and  practising  the  trade  of  brewing.  The  charter  incorporates  all  persons  in  or  about 
the  City  of  London  or  the  suburbs,  or  within  two  miles  of  the  City. 

The  charter  of  6th  April,  15  Charles  I.,  recites  previous  charters,  but  increases  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
corporation  over  the  brewing  trade  in  or  about  the  City  of  London  to  a  limit  of  four  miles. 

This  charter  of  Charles  I.  confers  a  great  deal  of  power  on  those  in  authority  over  the  trade.  It 
allows  them  to  make  rules  and  ordinances,  and  generally  to  exercise  supervision  over  all  members  of  the 
trade  in  and  about  the  City,  and  within  a  four-mile  radius. 

Byelaws  on  the  strength  of  this  charter  were  framed  for  the  Company  on  July  9,  Charles  I.,  1641. 

The  charter  of  i8th  March,  1  Charles  II.,  after  reciting  the  charter  of  22nd  February,  16  Henry  VI., 
the  confirmation  of  the  said  charter  by  Queen  Elizabeth  on  August  29,  1563,  and  a  surrender  of  the 
right  to  elect  master,  warden,  or  assistant,  incorporates  the  Company  again,  nominates  William  Carpenter 
to  be  master  till  June  24,  1686,  further  nominates  wardens  and  assistants;  provides  for  the  institution 
of  search  and  quarterage,  and  for  the  binding  of  apprentices ;  gives  the  corporation  the  right  to  inspect 
brew-houses  within  certain  limits,  and  to  inflict  penalties ;  orders  that  every  assistant  elected  shall  be  a 
communicant,  and  allows  the  commonalty  to  distil  aqua-vit£e  or  spirits. 

The  deed  of  July  i,  1684,  surrenders  the  Company's  charter  and  all  rights  appertaining  to  it. 

The  charter  of  i8th  March,  James  II.,  after  reciting  the  charter  of  16  Henry  VI.,  and  4  Elizabeth, 
1563,  and  the  surrender  of  their  charter  by  the  Company,  orders  all  brewers  within  eight  miles  of  the  City  or 
suburbs  of  London  to  be  of  the  corporation  ;  establishes  search  and  quarterage  payments  according  to 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  75 

the  number  of  servants  employed ;  gives  the  Company  power  to  make  laws  or  set  penalties ;  grants  a 
licence  in  mortmain  to  purchase  lands  up  to  the  value  of  £60 ;  orders  every  master,  warden,  assistant, 
and  clerk  to  take  the  oaths  of  allegiance  and  supremacy,  and  to  subscribe  the  declaration ;  orders  each 
person  elected  to  be  a  communicant. 

The  Company  have  a  cojjy  of  byelaws  drawn  up  in  the  year  17 14,  and  signed  by  all  the  members  of 
the  court. 

The  present  constitution,  orders,  rules,  and  conditions,  as  drawn  up  by  the  master,  wardens,  and 
assistants,  were  made  on  July  13,  1739.  They  provide  for  the  holding  of  the  courts;  the  election  of 
masters,  wardens,  and  assistants  ;  for  certain  penalties  for  refusing  to  serve ;  for  the  auditing  of  accounts, 
for  the  election  to  the  livery  and  freedom ;  for  binding  apprentices ;  for  making  the  search  and 
quarterage  ;  for  certain  restrictions  in  the  case  of  freemen ;  for  power  for  the  master  and  wardens  to 
sue  for  penalties  ;  for  the  taking  of  the  oaths,  and  the  signing  of  the  declarations. 

In  February  13,  1857,  the  byelaws  were  altered  under  the  Act  of  6  William  IV.,  as  far  as  regards  the 
taking  of  oaths,  and  an  order  was  made  that  a  declaration  should  be  substituted  for  the  oath. 

The  Company  is  governed  by  a  master,  three  wardens,  and  twenty-six  assistants. 

This  Company  is  one  of  the  richest  of  the  City  Companies;  it  has  an  annual  income  of  ;^25oo 
and  administers  Trusts  and  charities  to  the  extent  of  ^25,000  more  ;  it  has  a  livery  of  47  ;  it  admits 
none  but  members  of  the  trade.  The  Company  has  always,  as  might  be  expected,  been  rich 
and  flourishing. 

THE   BRODERERS   COMPANY 

The  first  charter  of  the  Company  of  Broderers.  or  embroiderers,  is  dated  in  1561,  and  this  is  the  earliest 
definite  evidence  now  in  the  possession  of  the  Company  of  the  date  of  its  existence  as  a  Company,  though  the 
association  existed  long  before  incorporation.  In  an  indenture  of  conveyance  of  certain  of  the  Company's 
property  in  Gutter  Lane,  dated  5  Henry  VIII.,  one  Thomas  Foster  (the  grantee)  is  described  as  a  citizen 
and  broyderer,  and  "  The  wardens  of  the  mystery  of  broyderers  within  the  city  of  London  "  are  described 
as  a  definite  body  in  the  will  of  the  same  Thomas  Foster. 

25th  October,  3  Elizabeth,  1561. — Original  charter  of  Queen  Elizabeth. 

Incorporates  the  freemen  of  the  mystery  or  art  of  the  broderers  of  the  City  of  London  and  the 
suburbs  by  the  name  of  Keepers  or  Wardens  and  Society  of  the  Art  or  Mystery  of  the  Broderers  of  the 
City  of  London,  to  have  perpetual  succession  and  a  common  seal,  to  bring  and  defend  actions,  and 
especially  in  the  City  of  London  to  hold  lands  of  the  annual  value  of  ^30,  for  the  assistance  and  support 
of  poor  men  and  women  of  the  mystery. 

Grants  powers  to  the  keepers  or  wardens  from  time  to  time  to  make  good  and  salutary  statutes  and 
ordinances  for  the  good  regulation  and  government  of  the  mystery  and  the  freemen  thereof,  which  shall  be 
inviolably  observed. 

Grants  to  the  keepers  or  wardens  power  to  overlook  and  govern  the  art  and  all  using  the  same  in 
the  City  and  suburbs  thereof,  the  City  of  Westminster,  Saint  Katherine's  in  Middlesex,  and  the  borough  of 
Southwark,  and  to  punish  all  men  for  not  truly  working  or  selling. 

20th  April,  7  James  I.,  1609.— Original  charter  of  James  the  First. 

Contains  only  a  recital  and  confirmation  of  the  charter  of  Queen  Elizabeth  without  any  alteration 
or  addition. 

The  al)0ve  is  an  abstract  of  the  subsisting  charter  of  the  Company. 

It  was  the  Broderers  who  produced  the  i)alls  used  by  many  Companies  at  the  funerals  of  their 
members.  They  also  made  the  pulpit  cloths  and  altar  cloths  of  the  churches,  the  vestments  of  the  clergy, 
the  caparison  of  horses,  and  the  decoration  of  arms  and  armour. 

The  livery  in  1900  was  28.  Their  Trust  Income  about  ^32  :9s.  The  beautiful  art  of  embroidery 
is  encouraged  by  this  Company  by  scholarships  at  the  Royal  School  of  Art  Needlework,  Decorative 
Needlework  Society,  and  Clapton  and  Stamford  Hill  Government  School  of  Art. 


76  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Milton  Street,  one  of  the  dreariest  and  dullest  of  thoroughfares,  deserves  some 
comment,  having  originally  been  that  Grub  Street  for  ever  associated  with  starveling 
authors.  In  1600  it  was  inhabited  by  bowyers,  fletchers,  bowstring-makers  and  such 
occupations.  There  were  many  bowling  alleys  and  dicing  houses.  Andrew  Marvell 
speaks  of  the  Puritans  of  Grub  Street. 

It  was  in  the  eighteenth  century  that  the  jaoorer  sort  of  literary  men  seem  to 
have  lived  here. 

Swift  and  Pope  both  ridiculed  Grub  Street  writers ;  and  Swift's  advice  to  Grub 
Street  verse-writers  is  worth  quoting  : 

I  know  a  trick  to  make  you  thrive  : 

Oh  !  'tis  a  quaint  device  : 
Your  still-born  poems  shall  survive, 

And  scorn  to  wrap  up  spice. 

Get  all  your  verses  printed  fair, 

Then  let  them  well  be  dried  : 
And  Curll  must  have  a  special  care 

To  leave  the  margin  wide. 

Lend  these  to  paper-sparing  Pope, 

And  when  he  sits  to  write. 
No  letter  with  an  envelope 

Could  give  him  more  delight. 

When  Pope  has  filled  the  margin  round, 

Why  then  recall  your  loan  ; 
Sell  them  to  Curll  for  50  pound. 

And  swear  they  are  your  own  ! 

Let  us  commemorate  some  of  the  Grub  Street  poets  and  a  few  others  of  the 
same  obscure  kind.  The  names  of  those  selected  justify  my  assertion  that  the 
miseries  of  poets  fell  only  on  those  who  were  profligate,  indolent,  or  incapable. 

Samuel  Boyse,  a  colonist,  so  to  speak,  of  Grub  Street,  since  he  evidently 
belonged  to  that  and  no  other  quarter,  was  not  a  native  of  London,  but  of  Dublin, 
where  his  father  was  a  dissenting  minister  of  great  name  and  fame.  The  young  man 
was  sent  to  Glasgow  University,  where  he  brought  his  university  career  to  a  close 
by  marrying  a  wife  at  the  age  of  nineteen.  As  he  had  no  means  of  his  own,  he  was 
obliged  to  take  his  wife,  with  her  sister,  to  Dublin,  where  his  father  supported 
them,  selling  an  estate  he  had  in  Yorkshire  to  defray  his  son's  debts.  On  his  father's 
death  Samuel  Boyse  removed  to  Edinburgh,  where  he  published  a  volume  of  poems 
and  wrote  an  elegy  on  the  death  of  Lady  Stormont. 

He  had  many  introductions,  but  his  natural  indolence  forbade  his  taking 
advantage  of  them.  He  seems  to  have  been  unable  to  converse  with  persons  in 
higher  life,  and  when  letters  failed  he  made  no  further  effort  to  win  their  favour. 
Like  all  the  poets  of  Grub  Street,  he  was  of  a  grovelling  habit,  and  loved  to  make 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  77 

friends  with  men  of  low  life  and  habit ;  at  the  same  time  he  was  selfishly  extravagant, 
and  would  feast  upon  a  casual  guinea  while  his  wife  and  child  were  starving  at  home. 
The  casual  guinea  he  mostly  got  by  writing  begging  letters. 

At  one  time  he  was  so  far  reduced  that  he  had  no  garment  of  any  kind  to  put 
on  ;   all,  including  his  shirts,  were  at    the   pawnbrokers  ;    he   sat   up   in   bed  with   a 


GRUB    STREEr    HERMIT 


blanket  wrapped  round  him  through  which  he  had  cut  a  hole  for  his  arm,  in  which 
condition  he  wrote  his  verses.  He  died  in  1749  in  a  lodging  in  Shoe  Lane.  A 
friend  endeavoured  to  get  up  a  subscription  to  save  him  from  a  pauper's  funeral. 
It  was  in  vain  ;  the  parish  officers  had  to  take  away  the  body. 

The  man  was  a  hopeless  tenant  of  Grub  Street,  without  foresight,  without 
prudence,  without  care,  except  for  the  present,  without  dignity  or  self-respect  ;  his 
poetry  was   third-rate,  yet   there  are   fine   passages  in    it ;    he  had  scholarly  tastes, 


78  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

especially  for  painting  and  music,  and  in  heraldry  he  was  well  skilled.  In  a  word, 
Samuel  Boyse  is  quite  the  most  illustrious  example  of  the  poetaster  who  has  failed 
to  reach  even  the  lower  levels  of  genius  ;  whose  life  was  utterly  contemptible  ;  who 
would  have  brought,  had  such  a  man  been  worth  considering,  discredit  by  his  sordid- 
ness  and  his  want  of  principle,  morals,  and  honour,  upon  the  profession  of  letters. 

Another  case  is  that  of  Thomas  Britton.  He  was  born  about  the  year  1650  at 
Higham  Ferrers.  He  was  apprenticed  to  a  small  coalman  in  Clerkenwell  and 
followed  the  same  trade.  He  walked  the  streets  carrying  his  sack  on  his  back, 
dressed  in  the  blue  frock  of  his  profession.  When  he  had  disposed  of  his  coal  he 
walked  home,  looking  at  the  book-stalls  and  picking  up  bargains.  It  was  a  splendid 
time  for  picking  up  bargains.  There  were  still  the  remnants  of  the  old  Monastic 
libraries  and  MSS.  together  with  the  old  books  which  had  escaped  the  Great  Fire. 

Many  collectors  used  to  search  about  among  the  same  book-stalls.  Britton 
became  known  to  them  and  was  employed  by  them.  The  Earls  of  O.xford, 
Pembroke,  Sunderland,  and  Winchelsea,  and  the  Duke  of  Devonshire,  were  among 
those  collectors. 

Presently  it  was  discovered  that  the  small  coalman,  besides  being  an  excellent 
hand  at  discovering  an  old  book,  was  also  a  very  good  musician.  Then  the  wonder- 
ful spectacle  was  to  be  seen  of  the  great  ones  of  the  earth — the  aristocracy,  the  wits, 
the  musicians — -assembling  in  an  upper  room  of  an  itinerant  pedlar  of  small  coals  to 
hear  a  concert  of  music.  Handel  played  the  harpsichord  here  ;  Dubourg  played  the 
violin.  These  concerts  were  begun  in  1678  and  continued  for  many  years.  Britton 
himself  played  the  viol  de  gamba.  But  he  was  not  only  a  musician  and  a 
bibliophile,  he  was  also  an  antiquarian  ;  he  was  a  collector  of  music  ;  in  addition  to 
all  these  things,  he  was  also  a  chemist  and  had  a  laboratory  of  his  own.  He  died  in 
1 7 14,  aged  about  sixty-four.      He  was  buried  in  Clerkenwell  Churchyard. 

Let  us  not  forget  the  famous  Tom  Brown.  Though  most  of  his  life  was  spent 
in  London,  he  was  a  native  of  Shifnal  in  Shropshire.  He  was  sent  to  Christ  Church, 
Oxford,  where  he  distinguished  himself  as  a  linguist,  a  scholar,  and  a  writer  of  pieces 
which  were  certainly  witty  whatever  else  they  might  be.  He  was  so  brilliant  as  a 
wit  that  he  found  it  necessary  to  exchange  Oxford  for  London,  where  he  nearly 
starved.  However,  he  obtained,  just  in  time  to  save  him,  the  school  of  Kingston- 
on-Thames,  which  he  held  for  a  while,  giving  it  up  after  a  very  short  tenure  of  office. 
Once  more  he  came  to  London,  and  became  poet,  satirist,  descriptive  writer,  and 
libeller.  He  was  one  of  the  earliest  authors  by  profession,  having,  in  fact,  no  other 
means  of  livelihood  than  the  proceeds  of  his  writings.  There  is  very  little  known 
concerning  his  life  ;  he  is  said  to  have  been  deficient  in  the  courtliness  which  was 
necessary  in  the  society  of  Addison  and  the  wits  of  society  ;  indeed,  he  belonged  to 
a  somewhat  earlier  time.  He  had  no  patron  among  the  nobility,  though  it  is  related 
that  he  was  once  invited  to  dinner  by  the  Earl  of  Dorset,  who  placed  a  bank-note  for 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  79 

^50  under  his  plate.  This  was  the  solitary  exception,  however.  Nothing  is  known 
as  to  his  private  circumstances,  though  it  would  be  extremely  interesting  to  learn 
what  sums  he  received  for  his  Dialogues,  Letters,  and  Poems.  He  closed  a  short, 
merry,  godless,  waggish  life  at  the  early  age  of  forty-one,  a  fact  which  suggests  drink 
and  good  living,  with  other  easy  ways  of  shortening  life.  He  is  said — which  one 
readily  believes — to  have  died  in  great  poverty,  and  he  was  buried  in  the  cloister  of 
Westminster  Abbey. 

An  unfortunate  poet  named  William  Pattison  belongs  to  Grub  Street.  He  was 
the  son  of  a  farmer  in  Sussex.  By  the  kindness  of  Lord  Thanet  he  was  sent  to 
school  and  to  Cambridge.  He  quarrelled,  however,  with  the  tutor  of  this  College, 
and  took  his  name  off  the  boards.  He  then  went  up  to  London  intending  to  live  by 
his  pen.  It  was  a  very  bad  time  for  living  by  the  pen,  and  the  boy,  for  he  was  no 
more,  arrived  with  a  very  slender  equipment  of  experience  and  knowledge.  He 
began  by  soliciting  subscriptions  for  a  volume  of  poems  ;  he  seems  to  have  had 
no  friends ;  but  he  made  some  impression  at  the  coffee-house  by  clever  talk. 
When  he  had  brought  out  his  poems  and  spent  all  the  subscription  money,  he  fell 
into  absolute  indigence  and  was  forced  to  accept  a  post  as  assistant  in  the  shop  of 
the  notorious  Curll.  Before  he  did  that,  he  wrote  to  Lord  Burlington  a  poem  called 
Effigies  Anthoris,  in  which  he  said  that  he  was  destitute  of  friends  and  money,  half- 
starved,  and  reduced  to  sleeping  on  a  bench  in  St.  James's  Park.  To  another  person 
he  writes,  "  I  have  not  enjoyed  the  common  necessaries  of  life  these  two  days."  He 
did  not  long  continue  in  this  post  of  bookseller's  assistant,  because  small-pox  attacked 
him  and  he  died.      He  was  not  yet  twenty-two  years  of  age. 

Not  with  less  glory  niijjhty  Dulness  crowned 

.Shall  take  through  Grub  .Street  her  triumphant  round, 

says  Pope  in  "The  Dunciad." 

Among  others  who  lived  in  Grub  Street  was  Foxe  the  martyrologist.  General 
Monk  is  said  to  have  had  a  house  in  a  court  off  Grub  Street.  As  to  the  origin  of  the 
later  name  of  the  street,  it  is  in  doubt,  some  asserting  it  was  from  a  builder  named 
Milton,  and  others  that  it  was  so  called  from  Milton's  many  residences  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood. The  latter  explanation  sounds  probable;  Milton  lived  at  different  times 
in  Aldersgate  Street,  in  Jewin  Crescent,  in  Little  Britain,  and  in  Bunhill  Fields,  all 
within  the  district. 

Eastward  is  Moorgate  Street  Station,  and  not  far  from  it  St.  Bartholomew's 
Church,  founded  in  1850  to  meet  new  demands.  Northward  in  White  Street  is  the 
City  of  London  College.  This  is  a  very  large  building  occupying  all  the  space 
between  White's  Court  and  Finsbury  Street.  The  lower  part  is  red  brick  and  above 
is  glazed  white  brick.  The  character  of  the  building  changes  just  before  the  corner, 
having  stone  facings  and  a  turret  angle,  which  springs  from  above  the  first  floor. 


8o  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

This  institution  was  founded  in  1848  and  was  first  established  at  Crosby  Hall.  It 
removed  to  Sussex  Hall,  Leadenhall  Street,  in  i88i,  and  the  present  building  was 
opened  in  1884  In  1895  the  secondary  portion  in  White  Street,  connected  with  the 
main  building  by  means  of  a  bridge,  was  added.  The  institution  was  first  established 
as  Metropolitan  Evening  Classes.  In  1891  it  became,  under  a  scheme  of  the 
Charity  Commissioners,  one  of  the  constituent  Institutes  of  the  City  Polytechnic. 
It  is  in  union  with  the  Society  of  Arts,  the  Science  and  Art  Department,  and  the 
City  and  Guilds  of  London  Technical  Institute.  The  number  of  individual  students  in 
attendance  during  the  session  1894-95  was  2257  (College  Calendar,  1895-96).  Besides 
languages,  sciences,  and  arts,  the  curriculum  includes  a  practical  knowledge  of 
technical  subjects.     There  is  accommodation  for  4000  students. 

In  Redcross  Street  the  long  line  of  wall  bounding  the  yard  of  the  Midland 
Railway  goods  station  occupies  much  of  the  east  side.  Beyond  this  is  a  grey 
brick  house  partly  stone  faced,  and  very  ugly,  with  "  Lady  Holies'  School  for  Girls, 
founded  1702,"  running  across  the  front.  The  west  side  of  the  street  is  all  composed 
of  manufactories  and  warehouses  in  various  styles. 

There  is  a  tree-covered  space  in  the  middle  of  Bridgewater  Square.  Along 
the  south  side  is  Tranter's  Temperance  Hotel,  a  dingy  building,  in  the  some  style 
as  the  houses  in  the  street  just  mentioned.  On  the  west  near  the  south  end  are  one 
or  two  old  tiled  houses.  On  the  north  the  new  building  of  the  Cripplegate  Without 
Boys'  School  rises  high,  with  narrow  frontage  and  projecting  bow  window  in  the  centre 
resting  on  a  bracket.  Up  near  the  roof  is  the  figure  of  a  boy  in  a  long  coat  standing 
in  a  niche.  At  this  school  there  is  accommodation  for  260  boys;  of  these  150  are 
clothed  by  Trust,  and  an  outfit  on  leaving  and  a  situation  found  for  all  who  pass 
the  Vllth  Standard. 

The  houses  on  either  side  of  the  school  are  of  recent  date,  but  from  that  on  the 
west,  to  the  west  corner,  stretches  a  long  row  of  old  houses  with  windows  under  the 
tiles  on  the  roof  The  west  side  of  the  square  is  almost  wholly  eighteenth  century, 
in  the  usual  style.  The  staircases  are  panelled,  and  have  spiral  balusters.  The' 
rooms  are  all  completely  wainscotted,  and  have  heavily  recessed  fireplaces.  The 
entrance  ways  are  completely  panelled,  and  many  door  lintels  and  window  frames 
are  perilously  askew. 

ST.   GILES,   CRIPPLEGATE 

By  far  the  most  interesting  object  in  the  ward  without  the  Walls  is  the  Church  of  .St.  Giles,  Cripplegate, 
which  stands  at  the  south  end  of  Red  Cross  Street.  It  was  built  about  logo  by  Alfure,  who  became  the 
first  Hospitaller  of  St.  Bartholomew's  Hospital  ;  the  building  was  replaced  by  a  second  church,  towards 
the  end  of  the  fourteenth  century,  and  this  was  burnt  down  in  1545.  It  was  at  once  rebuilt,  and  escaped 
the  Great  Fire  of  1666,  and  has  remained  substantially  the  same  up  to  the  present  time.  It  is  of  exceptional 
interest  in  contrast  with  the  uniformity  of  Wren's  City  churches.  In  1791  the  pitch  of  the  roof  was  raised, 
and  during  the  latter  half  of  the  eighteenth  century  there  was  e.xtensive  restoration.  The  earliest  date 
of  an  incumbent  is  1181. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


8i 


The  patronage  of  the  church  has  been  in  the  hands  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  who 
received  it  from  Almund  the  priest  in  iioo,  or  thereabouts,  up  to  the  present  time. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  2440. 

This  church  is  in  the  Perpendicular  style  and  contains  a  nave,  chancel,  and  two  side  aisles  separated 
from  the  central  part  by  clustered  columns  and  pointed  arches.  The  total  length  is  146  feet  3  inches,  and 
the  height  42  feet  8  inches  ;  the  total  height  of  the  steeple  146  feet  3  inches,  that  of  the  four  pinnacles 
rising  from  the  corners  of  the  parapet  of  the  tower  12  feet  9  inches. 

Chantries  were  founded  in  the  church  :  By  Richard  Chaurye,  whose  endowment  fetched  £^  in  1548  ; 


l-rciti  a  dra-fittg  by  H'.  Pfan^'i 


ST.    GILES,    CRIPPLEGATE 


by  Matthew  Ashebye,  whose  endowment  yielded  /<)  :  7  ;  8  in  1548.  The  King  granted  his  licence  to 
found  the  Fraternity  of  Our  Lady  and  St.  Giles,  September  21,  1426 ;  there  were  several  chantries  endowed 
here  by  John  Bullinger,  William  Lake,  and  William  Serle,  and  by  William  Grove  and  Richard  Heyworth. 

Among  the  several  memorial  windows  of  the  church  the  most  interesting  is  that  at  the  west  of  the 
south  aisle,  comprising  three  subjects,  erected  in  memory  of  Edward  Alleyne,  the  founder  of  Dulwich 
College.  The  earliest  monument  now  existing  is  of  Thomas  Busby,  who  died  in  1575.  On  the  west 
wall,  at  the  end  of  the  north  aisle,  is  a  tablet  commemorating  the  martyrologist  John  Foxe,  who  died  in 
the  parish  in  1587.  Sir  Martin  Frobisher  was  buried  here,  but  it  was  not  till  1888  that  a  monument 
was  erected  to  his  memory,  on  the  eastern  part  of  the  south  wall.  On  the  same  wall,  farther  west, 
John  Speed  is  commemorated,  author  of  various  works  dealing  with  the  history  of  Great  Britain.  The 
chief  interest  attaching  to  this  church  is  the  fact  that  in  it  John  Milton  was  buried  in   1674;  there  is  a 

6 


82  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

stone  commemorating  him.  In-  1793  a  monument  in  the  shape  of  a  bust  was  erected  to  him  at  the 
expense  of  Samuel  Whitbread,  and  in  1862  a  cenotaph  designed  by  Edmund  Woodthorpe  was  placed  in 
the  south  aisle.  The  church  contains  numerous  other  monuments,  a  great  many  of  which  have  a 
considerable  degree  of  interest ;  many  of  them  have  been  erected  to  the  memory  of  benefactors  and 
vicars.  It  was  here  that  the  wedding  of  Oliver  Cromwell  was  solemnised  in  1620  ;  the  register  also 
contains  entries  to  another  family  whose  name  is  also  linked  with  Milton's — that  of  the  Egerton's,  Earls 
of  Bridgewater. 

The  greatest  of  the  benefactors  recorded  by  Stow  seems  to  have  been  Throckmorton  Trotman,  who 
gave  to  the  parish  ^^547  in  all.  In  later  times,  Sir  William  Staines,  Lord  Mayor  in  1800,  was  a  liberal 
donor,  founding  and  endowing  four  almshouses  for  decayed  parishioners ;  also  the  Rev.  Frederick  W. 
Blomberg,  D.D.,  vicar  of  this  church  in  1833. 

There  was  a  school  for  150  boys  in  the  Freedom  ;  also  another  for  50  girls,  supported  by  the 
donation  of  the  Lady  Eleanor  Holies,  the  Haberdashers'  Free  School.  There  were  six  almshouses,  founded 
by  Mr.  Allen,  also  the  Lorrimer's  almshouses. 

John  Buckeridge  (d.  1631),  Bishop  of  Rochester,  was  vicar  here;  also  William  Fuller  (d.  1659),  Dean 
of  Durham;  Lancelot  Andrewes  (1555-1626),  Bishop  of  Chichester,  Ely,  and  Winchester;  John  Rogers, 
(1679-1729),  chaplain  to  the  Prince  of  Wales  (afterwards  George  II.)  ;  John  Dolben  (1625-86),  Archbishop 
of  York  ;  William  H.  Hale  (1795-1870),  Master  of  Charterhouse. 

The  churchyard  contains  a  drinking  fountain  in  the  shape  of  the  old  Cripplegate, 
which  is  neatly  laid  out  and  intersected  by  a  public  footpath;  there  is  also  an  interesting 
relic,  a  bastion  of  the  old  London  Wall,  36  feet  wide  and  about  1 2  feet  high,  the  most 
perfect  fragment  of  the  wall  now  existing.  It  is  of  inconsiderable  height,  not  more 
than  I  2  feet,  and  made  of  many  odd  pieces  of  different  kinds  of  stone,  laid  in  cement. 
It  looks  solid  enough  to  last  another  400  years.  Ivy  grows  over  it  and  over  the 
adjoining  wall,  which  is  a  modern  addition.  Within  this  bastion  was  formerly  a  small 
religious  house  called  St.  James-on-the-Wall  (see  Mcdurval  London,  vol.  ii.  p.  368). 
The  backs  of  great  warehouses  and  the  east  side  of  the  box-like  vicarage  surround 
the  churchyard.  Over  the  entry  from  Fore  Street  are  several  very  old  houses. 
We  are  outside  the  limits  of  the  Fire  here,  as  the  date  of  the  entry,  1660,  testifies. 
This  entry  has  a  semicircular  canopy  or  pediment  containing  this  date,  and  the  names 
of  the  churchwardens  of  the  period,  deeply  and  clearly  cut.  On  either  side  are  the 
representations  of  two  large  hour-glasses.  A  skull  and  cross-bones  on  the  one  side, 
and  an  hour-glass  on  the  other,  are  carved  in  relief  below,  and  the  whole  is  covered 
with  plaster.  The  backs  of  the  houses  are  covered  with  overlapping  pieces  of 
wood  which  rise  right  up  to  the  gable  ends.  Facing  the  street,  there  are  projecting 
bays  running  up  the  front  containing  windows. 

The  street,  London  Wall,  until  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  consisted 
of  a  south  row  of  houses  facing  the  wall  itself  In  two  places  the  space  before  the 
wall  was  occupied  by  churchyards,  that  of  Allhallows-on-the-Wall  and  that  of  St. 
Alphage.  Farther  to  the  east,  St.  Martin  Outwich  also  had  a  burial-ground  beside 
the  wall.  The  pulling  down  of  the  wall,  the  building  of  houses  upon  it  and  against 
it  on  either  side,  was  the  work  of  many  years.  To  this  day  there  are  houses  on  the 
north  side  of  the  street  to  which  access  is  gained  by  a  step,  showing  that  they  were 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


8- 


built  actually  on  the  wall.  Towards  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century  a  long  piece 
of  wall,  where  is  now  the  opening  to  Finsbury  Square,  was  taken  down  to  allow  of 
more  sunshine  in  the  front  of  Bethlehem  Hospital.  The  appearance  of  the  street 
at  that  time  was  very  pleasing.  Sion  College,  the  churches  of  Allhallows  and 
St.  Alphage,  and  the  Armourers'  Hall,  with  the  venerable  wall  on  the  north,  gave  it 


ONDON    WALL 


a  very  striking  and  picturesque  character.      It  is  a  great  pity  that  the  wall  was  taken 
down.     The  distance  marked  by  the  length  of  a  lane  connecting  London  Wall  with  the 
south  side  of  Fore  Street  gives  the  breadth  of  the  wall  and  of  the  town  ditch  beyond. 
At  the  east  end  of  London  Wall  is  the  church  of 


ALLHALLOWS,   LONDON    WALL 

This  church  stands  on  the  old  Roman  wall  erected  in  the  third  century,  and  probably  marks  the  site 
of  one  of  the  earliest  Christian  churches  built  in  this  country. 


84  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

The  earliest  authentic  records  give  particulars  of  a  church  on  the  present  site,  which  dates  from  the 
year  a.d.  1300,  and  there  is  little  doubt  that  it  replaced  an  earlier  structure,  which  had  stood  since  the 
Norman  Conquest,  and  had  fallen  into  disrepair.  In  a.d.  1474  Allhallows  Chapel  was  constructed, 
probably  for  the  accommodation  of  the  Ankers,  or  Anchorites,  who  were  closely  associated  with  the  church. 
The  most  famous  of  these  was  Sir  Simon,  or  Master  Anker,  the  author  of  a  devotional  book  which  has  been 
preserved  in  the  British  Museum,  entitled  The  Fruits  of  Redemption,  who  was  a  great  benefactor  to  Allhallows. 

In  A.D.  1527  a  new  aisle  was  added  to  the  church.  Possibly  Sir  Simon,  when  he  attached  himself  to 
Allhallows,  discarded  the  loft  over  the  chapel,  and  settled  himself  in  a  cell  in  the  bastion  of  the  old 
Roman  wall,  which  now  forms  the  vestry.  If,  as  is  probable,  he  had  taken  a  vow  never  to  emerge  from 
his  retirement,  it  may  be  that  when  the  new  aisle  was  added  he  was  persuaded  to  place  his  eloquence  at 
the  disposal  of  the  parishioners,  by  consenting  to  preach  on  condition  that  a  private  passage  was  made  from 
his  cell  leading  straight  into  the  pulpit.  This  would  e.xplain  why,  when  the  present  church  was  built,  the 
conditions  were  reproduced  by  which  the  pulpit  is  not  accessible  from  the  church,  but  can  only  be  reached 
by  a  staircase  leading  through  the  vestry. 

The  list  of  rectors  can  only  be  traced  back  to  a.d.  1335,  but  there  is  an  interesting  record  in  the 
Croniques  de  Londres,  which  mentions  that  in  a.d.  1320  the  priest  of  Allhallows  (whose  name  is  not  given) 
was  murdered  by  Isabel  de  Bury,  who  took  refuge  in  the  church,  but  the  Bishop  of  London  would  not 
allow  her  to  seek  sanctuary  there,  so  she  was  seized,  and  was  hanged  five  days  afterwards. 

The  patronage  of  Allhallows  was  for  many  centuries  in  the  hands  of  the  Prior  and  Convent  of  Holy 
Trinity,  Aldgate.  At  the  dissolution  of  the  monasteries  in  the  sixteenth  century  it  passed  to  the  Crown, 
and  since  then  has  belonged  to  the  Lord  Chancellor. 

The  church  was  fortunate  enough  to  escape  destruction  during  the  Great  Fire  in  1666,  but  it  fell  into 
a  ruinous  state  about  a  century  later,  and  had  to  be  demolished.  The  present  structure,  for  the  erection  of 
which  a  special  Act  of  Parliament  was  passed,  was  commenced  in  a.d.  1765,  and  cost  ^^3000.  The  archi- 
tect was  George  Dance  the  younger,  and  it  was  his  brother,  Sir  Nathaniel  Dance  Holland,  R.A.,  who  pre- 
sented to  the  church  the  magnificent  painting  which  hangs  over  the  altar.  It  was  a  copy  made  by  himself 
of  the  famous  picture  in  the  Church  of  the  Conception  at  Rome  by  Pietro  Berretini  di  Cortona,  a  Florentine 
painter  of  repute  who  died  in  1669.  The  subject  is  the  restoration  to  sight  of  Saul  of  Tarsus  (St.  Paul)  by 
Ananias  at  Damascus  The  fifteenth-century  monk  in  the  crowd  gives  a  quaint  touch  of  mediaevalism  to 
the  scene. 

The  architecture  of  the  church  deserves  a  passing  notice.  The  plan  is  intended  to  reproduce  a 
modified  Roman  Basilican  church,  but  the  evidences  of  the  Greek  revival  are  shown  in  the  character  of  the 
Ionic  capitals  of  the  interior  columns,  as  well  as  in  the  famous  Greek  honeysuckle  ornament,  which  appears 
both  in  the  Roman  barrel-vault  of  the  ceiling  and  in  the  frieze  round  the  interior  walls.  The  church  is 
almost  unique  in  representing  the  transition  stage  between  the  Italian  renaissance  and  the  short-lived  intro- 
duction of  the  Greek  style. 

Among  the  most  famous  rectors  during  the  nineteenth  century  were  the  Rev.  \\'illiam  Beloe,  the  well- 
known  translator  of  Herodotus  and  Aulus  Gellius ;  the  Rev.  Robert  Nares,  the  Shakespearian  glossary 
writer ;  and  the  Rev.  George  Davys,  who  was  tutor  to  the  late  Queen  Victoria,  and  became  successively 
Rector  of  Allhallows,  Dean  of  Chester,  and  Bishop  of  Peterborough. 

Returning  to  our  section,  from  which  we  have  somewhat  strayed,  we  find  Wood 
Street  has  been  already  described. 

In  Noble  Street  stood  the  houses  of  Sir  Nicholas  Bacon  and  Sergeant  Fleet- 
wood, Recorder  of  London.  This  street  is  dismissed  by  Stow  in  a  few  words  ; 
it  faced  the  City  Wall  westward,  and  so  long  as  the  \\'all  was  preserved  there 
was  an  open  space  of  twenty  feet  at  least  free  from  buildings,  while  without  there 
was  the  City  Ditch.      It  began  at   the  end  of  Foster   Lane,  having  the  Church  of 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  85 

St.  John  Zachary  in  the  east,  and  on  the  west,  separated  by  a  block  of  houses,  the 
Church  of  St.  Anne-of-the-Willows.  Going  up  the  street  we  pass  Lilypot  Lane, 
Oat  Lane,  leading  to  St.  Mary  Staining  Church  (see  p.  47),  and  two  or  three 
courts. 

At  the  south  end  of  Noble  Street  was  Engain  Lane,  called  also  Maiden  Lane, 
Ingelene  Lane,  or  Ing  Lane.  Here  a  Roman  pavement  was  found  {Proceedings 
of  Soc.  Aiitiq.  Series,  i.  2.  p.  184).  Riley,  in  his  Introduction  to  the  Memorials, 
thinks  that  this  lane  is  lost.  He  supposes,  however,  that  the  St.  Michael  "  Hoggene 
Lane"  was  St.  Michael  Oueenhithe,  instead  of  St.  Michael  by  Huggin  Lane,  which 
is  adjacent. 

A  continuation  of  Maiden  Lane  is  St.  Anne's  Lane  or  Distaff  Lane. 

In  1339,  William  de  Clif  bequeaths  tenements  in  Igene  Lane  "elsewhere  called 
Ing  Lane  and  Engaynes  end,  afterwards  Maiden  Lane"  (Prideaux,  Goldsmiths' 
Company,  vol.  i.  p.  4).  In  1560,  "Mother  Lowndes"  had  a  melting  furnace  in 
Maiden  Lane.  In  1627,  Lord  Nowell  had  the  lease  of  a  house  in  the  lane.  In 
1642,  Lord  Campden  wanted  to  purchase  the  messuage  of  which  he  held  a  lease, 
but  was  refused.  In  Staining  Lane  stood  the  almshouses  of  the  Haberdashers 
for  the  men  of  that  Company. 

In  the  modern  Noble  Street  the  new  Post  Office  Hotel  is  a  conspicuous  object 
on  the  east.  Close  by  is  Ye  Noble  Restaurant.  Lilypot  Lane  is  one  consecutive 
series  of  the  less  ornamental  style  of  modern  brick  and  stone  warehouses.  Ye  Olde 
Bell  next  to  Oat  Lane  is  evidently  an  old  house,  and,  seen  in  the  vista  of  the  street, 
has  a  considerable  bow  forward.  It  is  plastered.  The  coat-of-arms  over  the  wooden 
doorway  of  the  Coachmakers'  Hall  arrests  attention  for  a  moment.  Then  we  see 
Nos.  16  and  17  on  either  side  over  the  entry  of  Fitchett's  Court,  which  are  really 
old.  They  are  of  roughened  red  brick,  dating  from  the  rebuilding  after  the  F'ire. 
Fitchett's  Court  is  a  narrow  stone-flagged  ail  de  sac  lined  on  either  side  with  similar 
houses.  At  the  upper  end  is  a  modern  glass  -  roofed  building.  It  is  inhabited 
chiefly  by  manufacturers'  agents,  but  is  quaint,  with  a  projecting  bowed  window 
near  the  entry,  and  a  dark  woodwork  doorway  with  two  carved  brackets  supporting 
the  cornice.  The  house  mentioned  above  in  Noble  Street  on  the  north  of  the 
Court  is  The  Royal  Mail  Tavern.  The  remainder  of  this  street  contains  no 
point  of  interest.  The  Coachmakers'  Hall  stands  on  the  east  side  of  Noble  Street, 
north  of  Oat  Lane. 

THE   COACHMAKERS    COMPANY 

The  Hall  stands  on  the  site  of  Shelley  House,  owned  by  Sir  Thomas  Shelley  k»ip  Henry  IV. 
Afterwards  it  was  named  Bacon  House  by  Nicholas  Bacon.  "A  plain  man,  direct  and  constant, 
without  all  finesse  and  doubleness,"  who  dwelt  here  till  the  Queen,  Elizabeth,  made  him  Lord 
Keeper  in  1558,  when  he  moved  hence.  He  was  the  father  of  Lord  Bacon,  the  philosopher.  He 
sometime  rebuilt  this  house,   and  was  buried  in  St.   Paul's,  where  his  effigy  yet  remains.      After   the 


86  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Lord  Keeper's  departure,  William  Fleetwood,  Recorder  of  London,  lived  here  between  1575  and  1586, 
yet  he  seems  to  have  died  in  a  house  of  his  own  building,  in  Noble  Street,  to  the  north  of  this  (1593-94). 
By  continual  industry,  advanced  by  natural  good  parts,  he  attained  to  the  name  of  an  eminent  lawyer. 
He  was  a  man  of  a  merry  conceit,  eloquent  and  very  zealous  against  vagrants,  mass-priests,  and  papists. 
In  1638,  Sir  Arthur  Savage  and  others  sold  the  house  to  one  Charles  Bostock,  scrivener.  Now,  the 
Common  Scriveners  had  been  a  Company  of  this  City  by  prescription,  time  out  of  mind.  They  made 
regulations  for  their  profession  in  1373  ;  in  1390  they  began  their  Common  Paper,  a  book  of  ordinances 
and  signatures,  still  extant.  Yet  there  is  no  account  of  any  Hall  for  them.  In  1497  they  met  at  the 
dwelling-place  of  Henry  Woodcock,  their  warden;  in  1557  at  Wax  Chandlers'  Hall.  Their  Charter  of 
Incorporation  (January  28,  1616-17)  ordained  a  Hall,  so  in  1631  they  bought  Bacon  House  for  ^Sio. 
After  the  Great  Fire  of  1666  they  rebuilt  this. 

Afterwards  the  Coachmakers  Company  treated  for  its  purchase,  and  bought  it  with  houses  in 
Oat  Lane,  for  ^1600,  raised  by  gift.  For  though  coaches  had  become  common  since  the  seventeenth 
century  began,  and  the  Coach  and  Coach-Harness  Makers  had  been  incorporated  in  1677,  they  had  up  till 
then  no  Hall. 

Early  in  the  nineteenth  century  the  Hall  had  become  a  warehouse,  whose  counting-house  retained  the 
Coachmakers'  arms  and  a  name-list  of  their  benefactors.  In  1841  they  rebuilt  it  ;  in  1843  furnished 
it  anew  by  subscription. 

In  1S70,  borrowing  money,  they  built  the  present  Hall. 

THE    COACH    AND    COACH-HARNESS    MAKERS    COMPANY 

The  date  of  the  first  charter  is  31st  May,  29  Charles  II.,  1677,  and  is  for  the  general  protection  and 
supervision  of  the  trade  of  coachmakers  and  coach-harness  makers. 

In  the  early  days  of  the  Company,  the  master,  wardens,  and  assistants  used  to  visit  all  the  workshops 
within  the  prescribed  limits  of  the  Company's  sphere  of  action,  but  that  seems  to  have  engendered  bad 
feelings  among  the  various  members  of  the  trade,  and  so  gradually  fell  into  desuetude;  but  in  1864 
the  Company  granted  the  free  use  of  the  hall  for  the  operative  Coachmakers'  Industrial  Exhibition,  which 
was  opened  under  the  auspices  of  the  Marquis  of  Lansdowne  and  the  Very  Reverend  Dean  Milman,  D.D. 
From  that  time  to  the  present  the  Company  have  continuously  offered  prizes  to  those  connected  with 
the  trade. 

At  present  the  number  of  the  livery  is  115.  The  Corporate  Income  is  ^970;  there  is  no  Trust  Income. 
The  Company  have  of  late  held  exhibitions  and  offered  prizes  for  the  encouragement  of  coach-building. 

St.  Olave's  Churchyard  is  on  the  south  side  of  Silver  Street.  A  stone  inscription 
tells  us  that  the  road  was  widened  8  feet  in  1865  just  at  this  point.  The  disused 
graveyard  is  now  open  to  the  public  as  a  recreation  ground,  and  the  Metropolitan 
Public  Gardens  Association  have  distributed  seats  about  among  the  old  tombs.  Low 
down  by  the  steps  at  the  entrance  is  a  stone  slab  bearing  a  heading  of  a  skull  and 
cross-bones,  and  beneath  the  following  words  : 

This  was  the  parish  church  of  St.  Olave's,  Silver  Street,  destroyed  by  the  Dreadful  Fire  in  the 
year  1666. 

ST.   OLAVE,   SILVER  STREET 

This  church  was  situated  on  the  south  side  of  Silver  Street,  in  Aldersgate  Ward.  It  was  destroyed 
in  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being  annexed  to  that  of  St.  Alban's,  \\'ood  Street.  The 
earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1343. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  87 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  always  in  the  hands  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's. 
Houseling  people  in  1548  were  130. 
No  monuments  of  any  interest  are  recorded. 

The  parish  received  two  charitable  gifts  :  a  messuage  purchased  for  ;^58,  the  gift  of  Roger  James  ; 
and  ^5  :  los.,  to  be  paid  every  tenth  year,  the  gift  of  Bernard  Hyde. 

In  Silver  Street,  No.  24  is  the  Parish  Clerks'  Hall. 

PARISH   CLERKS 

The  Parish  Clerks  were  first  incorporated  by  12  Henry  HI.,  1232,  and  confirmed  by  14  Henry  l\'., 
141 2.  In  1547,  the  first  year  of  Edward  VI.,  all  lands  and  properties  belonging  to  fraternities  not  being 
mysteries  and  crafts,  were  declared  Crown  possessions ;  thus  the  Parish  Clerks  suffered  the  loss  of  their 
hall  in  Bishopsgate,  which  was  sold  to  Sir  Robert  Chester  in  1548.  In  vain  they  disputed  the  King's 
claim ;  in  vain  obtained  powerful  support  in  the  City,  and  hoped  to  win  the  day  :  Sir  Robert  pulled  down 
their  hall,  and  they  were  homeless.  Then  they  took  quarters  at  the  north-west  corner  of  Broad  Lane 
in  the  Vintry ;  the  site  is  now  thrown  into  the  roadway  of  Queen  Street  Place.  Immortal  Machyn,  in 
his  diary,  1562,  records  that,  after  service  at  the  Guildhall  chapel  and  procession,  that  year  the  Parish 
Clerks  went  to  "their  own"  hall  to  dine;  this  was  the  Broad  Lane  house.  Little  enough  is  known 
of  the  premises:  the  Clerks  were  paying  thirty-one  nobles  (j£^io:6:8)  rent  in  1583;  in  1592  they 
commenced  publishing  the  Bills  of  Mortality  ;  on  renewing  the  lease  in  1628,  for  forty  years,  they  handed 
to  "the  superior"  ;^4o  as  fine.  By  this  time  they  had  been  reincorporated  by  the  8  James  I.,  161 1,  and 
were  confirmed  by  12  Charles  I.,  1636.  They  seem  to  have  covered  their  rent  from  1648  onwards  by 
letting  the  lower  rooms  and  cellars  on  lease  for  ^11  per  annum.  In  1625  the  Star  Chamber  granted 
them  permission  to  set  up  a  printing-press  in  this  hall  for  the  purpose  of  issuing  the  weekly  Bills  of 
Mortality.  Here  also  the  Company  appointed  its  own  joiner,  carpenter,  and  bricklayer,  nor  omitted  to 
secure  the  all-important  cook.  By  1637  the  bricklayer  had  new-tiled  the  roof;  he  charged  ;6i2  :  also  the 
joiner  had  wainscotted  the  parlour,  but  the  Clerks  thought  his  bill  of  ^13  rather  too  much;  he  must 
include  "some  convenient  work  in  addition,"  to  be  set  up  above  the  three  doors  in  the  newly  wainscotted 
room,  then  they  would  pay  him  and  appoint  him  their  official  joiner.  The  Great  Fire  destroyed  this  hall 
two  years  before  the  lease  was  up.  For  some  time  the  Court  of  the  Company  wandered  from  tavern  to 
tavern,  but  in  1671  ultimately  settled  at  their  present  hall  in  Silver  Street. 

Monkwell  Street,  anciently  written  Mugwell,  Muggewell,  or  Mogwell  Street, 
was  so  called,  according  to  Stow,  after  a  well  in  the  Hermitage  of  St.  James  at  the 
north  end  of  the  street.  The  Hermitage  was  a  cell  belonging  to  Garendon  Abbey 
where  two  or  three  of  the  brethren  resided  as  chaplains.  There  is  no  doubt  about  the 
house  or  the  Hermitage,  and  very  possibly  there  was  a  well  within  its  small  precinct. 
At  the  same  time  the  ancient  form  of  the  name,  Mugwell,  does  not  suggest  the  word 
Monk.  It  seems  probable  that  the  name  was  originally  Mugwell,  and  that  after  the 
Dissolution  the  memory  of  the  well  was  kept  up  by  a  corruption  of  the  name.  The 
street  appears  to  have  been  outside  the  industries  of  North  London.  It  is  mentioned 
many  times  in  the  Ca/endar  of  Wills,  but  never  in  connection  with  workshops  or 
trading  shops.  Between  1277  and  1576  there  are  the  entries  of  the  street.  They 
all  speak  of  rents,  tenements,  and  houses.  In  the  year  1349  we  find  a  brewery  m 
the  street.  This  naturally  inclines  us  to  think  that  there  must  have  been  a  well— 
.'Mugwell— to  supply  the  brewery.      In  Riley's  Memorials  it  is  mentioned  once  only 


88  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

in  connection  with  a  tourelle  of  London  Wall  near  the  street.     The  Hermitage  was 
succeeded  by  Lamb's  Chapel. 

THE   BARBERS 

This  Fraternity  should  also  be  of  extreme  antiquity.  When  or  why  the  barbers  took  upon  themselves 
the  practice  of  surgery  I  do  not  know.  It  was  the  custom  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  to  allow 
ecclesiastics  to  become  physicians  on  the  condition  (Council  of  Tours,  1163)  that  they  abstained  from  fire 
and  steel ;  Rabelais,  for  instance,  in  the  fifteenth  century,  practised  medicine  subject  to  this  condition. 
But  some  kinds  of  surgery  are  necessary  ;  bone-setting,  for  instance,  which  was  understood  and  performed 
by  the  common  people ;  dentistry,  which  at  first  fell  into  the  hands  of  barbers  but  afterwards  became  a 
separate  mystery  practised  by  itinerants ;  cupping,  blood-letting,  the  dressing  of  wounds,  and  amputations 
also  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  barbers.  But  not  of  all  the  barbers.  Surgery  advanced  by  degrees  ;  it 
became  a  distinct  profession  before  it  was  recognised. 

That  the  barbers  practised  blood-letting  is  proved  by  an  ordinance  of  1307  forbidding  them  to  put 
blood  in  their  windows  in  view  of  folks.  In  1308,  Richard  le  Barber  is  presented  to  the  mayor  and 
admitted  Master  over  the  trade  of  Barbers.  He  swore  to  make  scrutiny  among  the  craft,  and  if  he 
found  any  keeping  brothels  or  acting  unseemly  he  would  distrain  upon  them.  The  oath  indicates  that 
barbers  were  suspected  of  keeping  disorderly  houses ;  in  fact  they  looked  after  the  bagnios,  which 
were  always  regarded  with  well-founded  suspicion.  Barbers  were  often  appointed  as  gatekeepers.  The 
reason  would  seem  difficult  to  find,  until  it  is  remembered  that  it  was  strictly  forbidden  that  lepers 
should  enter  the  City,  and  that  barbers  were  better  able  than  other  men  from  their  medical  knowledge 
to  detect  them. 

The  earliest  admission  of  a  surgeon  is  recorded  in  the  year  13 12.  John  of  .Southwark  is  described 
as  "cirurgicus."     Clearly  he  was  that  and  nothing  else;  not  a  shaving  man  at  all. 

Some  of  them  were  wealthy.  For  instance,  Hamo  the  Barber  in  1340  was  assessed  at  ;£io  as  his 
contribution  towards  a  forced  loan  of  ^^5000  to  the  King. 

In  the  year  1376,  the  fraternity  was  ruled  by  two  masters  representing  the  two  divisions  of  barbers — 
who  could  also  let  blood  and  draw  teeth — and  surgeons. 

In  the  year  1388,  the  King  sent  writs  all  over  the  kingdom  to  inquire  into  the  constitution  of  the 
guilds  and  fraternities  then  existing  in  the  country.  The  returns  appear  to  have  been  lost.  But  the 
return  sent  in  by  the  barbers  still  exists  in  a  copy  preserved  at  Barbers'  Hall.  It  is  published  in  cxtenso 
in  Mr.  Sidney  Young's  book.  It  is  a  long  document,  and  it  pours  a  flood  of  light  upon  the  guilds  and 
their  laws.     The  original  is  in  Norman  French. 

Since  the  barbers  were  not  yet  incorporated,  they  had  no  authority  except  over  their  own  members. 
They  could  not,  therefore,  prevent  the  formation  of  a  Fraternity  of  Surgeons,  who  practised  without  any 
reference  to  the  barbers.  In  1376,  the  barbers,  no  doubt  because  of  this  rival  guild,  complained  against 
incompetent  persons  practising  surgery,  and  prayed  that  two  masters  should  rule  the  craft,  and  that  none 
should  be  admitted  without  examination.  In  1390,  the  Surgeons'  Guild  obtained  powers  to  appoint  five 
masters  for  the  directing  of  those  practising  surgery  and  of  women  as  well  as  men.  The  surgeons 
thereupon  tried  to  exercise  the  right  of  scrutiny  over  the  barbers,  who  claimed  and  obtained  the 
protection  of  the  City. 

In  the  year  1461,  Edward  IV.  granted  the  barbers  a  Charter  of  Incorporation. 

The  preamble  to  the  Letters  Patent,  i  Edward  IV.,  by  which  the  Company  were  incorporated, 
recites  that  the  Freemen  of  the  Mystery  of  Barbers  of  the  City  of  London,  using  the  Mystery  or  Faculty 
of  Surgery,  had  for  a  long  time  exercised  and  sustained  and  still  continued  to  exercise  and  sustain  great 
application  and  labour,  as  well  about  the  curing  and  healing  wounds,  blows,  and  other  infirmities  as  in 
the  letting  of  blood  and  drawing  of  teeth,  and  that  by  the  ignorance  and  unskilfulness  of  some  of  the  said 
barbers,  as  well  freemen  of  the  said  City  as  of  others  being  foreign  surgeons,  many  misfortunes  had 
happened  to  divers  people  by  the  unskilfulness  of  such  barbers  and  surgeons  in  healing  and  curing  wounds, 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  89 

blows,  hurts,  and  other  infirmities,  and  that  it  was  to  be  feared  that  the  Hke  or  worse  evils  might  thereafter 
ensue  unless  a  suitable  remedy  was  speedily  provided  in  the  premises. 

And  it  was  thereby  granted  to  the  freemen  of  the  said  mystery  of  barbers  in  the  said  City  of  London, 
that  the  said  mystery  and  all  the  men  of  the  said  mystery,  should  be  one  body,  and  one  perpetual 
community,  with  power  for  electing  two  masters  or  governors,  and  that  the  said  masters  or  governors  and 
commonalty  and  their  successors  might  make  statutes  and  ordinances  for  the  government  of  the  said 
mysteries.  And  that  the  masters  or  governors  for  the  time  being,  and  their  successors,  should  have  the 
survey,  search,  correction,  and  government  of  all  the  freemen  of  the  said  City  being  surgeons,  using  the 
mystery  of  barbers  in  the  said  City,  and  other  surgeons  being  foreigners  practising  the  mystery  of  surgery 
within  the  said  City  and  suburbs  thereof,  and  the  punishment  of  them  for  offences  in  not  perfectly  executing, 
performing,  and  using  the  said  mystery,  and  should  have  the  survey  of  all  manner  of  instruments,  plaisters, 
and  other  medicines,  and  the  receipts  used  by  the  said  barbers  and  surgeons  for  the  curing  and  healing  of 
sores,  wounds,  hurts,  and  such  like  infirmities.  And  that  no  barber  using  the  said  mystery  of  surgery 
within  the  said  City  or  suburbs  should  be  thereafter  admitted  to  exercise  the  same  mystery  unless  he  had 
first  been  approved  of  as  well  instructed  in  that  mystery  by  the  said  masters  or  governors,  or  their 
successors  sufficiently  qualified  in  that  behalf. 

By  the  Act  of  Parliament  of  32  Henry  VIII.,  after  reciting  that  within  the  said  City  of  London  there 
were  then  two  several  and  distinct  companies  of  surgeons  exercising  the  science  and  faculty  of  surgery, 
the  one  company  called  the  Barbers  of  London,  and  the  other  called  the  Surgeons  of  London,  and  that 
the  former  were  incorporated  by  the  Letters  Patent  of  i  Edward  IV.,  but  the  latter  had  not  any  manner 
of  incorporation ;  it  was  enacted  that  the  two  several  and  distinct  companies,  and  their  successors,  should 
from  thenceforth  be  united  and  made  one  entire  and  whole  body  corporate,  which  should  thereafter  be 
called  by  the  name  of  Masters  or  Governors  of  the  Mystery  or  Commonalty  of  Barbers  and  Surgeons 
of  London. 

The  Letters  Patent  of  i  James  and  5  Chas.  L,  granted  and  confirmed  to  the  united  companies  :  All 
and  singular  the  manors,  messuages,  lands,  tenements,  customs,  liberties,  franchises,  immunities,  jurisdic- 
tions, and  hereditaments  of  the  united  companies  of  barbers  and  surgeons  then  held  by  them  and  enjoyed 
under  any  letters  patent  of  any  former  kings  and  queens  or  by  colour  of  any  lawful  prescription,  with 
power  to  make  byelaws,  annual  elections,  appoint  examiners  of  surgeons,  and  that  no  person  should  exercise 
surgery  within  the  cities  of  London  and  Westminster  or  within  the  distance  of  seven  miles  of  the  said 
cities,  unless  previously  examined;  and  by  the  public  letters  testimonial  of  the  said  company,  under  their 
common  seal,  and  admitted  to  exercise  the  said  art  or  mystery  of  surgery  under  the  penalty  therein 
mentioned ;  and  that  all  persons  so  examined  and  admitted  as  aforesaid  might  exercise  the  art  in  any 
other  places  whatsoever  of  the  kingdom  of  England,  with  power  to  appoint  lectures  for  instruction  in  the 
principles  and  rudiments  in  the  art  of  chirurgery. 

By  the  Act  of  18  Geo.  2,  cap.  15,  after  reciting  the  before-mentioned  Acts,  and  that  the  barbers 
had  for  many  years  past  been  engaged  in  a  business  foreign  to  and  independent  of  the  practice  of  surgery, 
and  the  surgeons  being  then  become  a  numerous  and  considerable  body,  and  finding  their  union  with  the 
barbers  inconvenient  in  many  respects,  and  in  no  degree  conducive  to  the  progress  of  the  art  of  surgery, 
and  that  a  separation  of  the  corporation  of  barbers  and  surgeons  would  contribute  to  the  improvement  of 
surgery,  it  was  enacted  that  the  said  union  and  incorporation  of  barbers  and  surgeons  should,  after 
June  24,  1745,  be  dissolved,  and  the  surgeons  were  constituted  a  separate  and  distinct  body  corporate 
by  the  name  of  the  Master,  Governors,  and  Commonalty  of  the  Art  and  Science  of  Surgeons  of  London  ; 
and  the  barbers  were  thereby  constituted  a  body  corporate  and  commonalty  perpetual,  which  should  be 
called  by  the  name  of  the  Master,  Governors,  and  Commonalty  of  the  Mystery  of  Barbers  of  London. 

The  Barbers  Company,  since  their  separation  from  the  surgeons,  have  continued  to  conduct  the 
affairs  of  the  Company. 

The  Hall  of  the  Company  is  mentioned  by  Stow  with  certain  particulars  of  their  history  : 

"  In  this  west  side  is  the  Barbers-Chirurgeons'  hall.  This  Company  was  incorporated  by  means  of 
Thomas  Morestede,  esquire,  one  of  the  sheriffs  of  London   1436,  chirurgeon  to  the  kings  of  England, 


90'  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Henry  1\'.,  V.,  and  VI.  :  he  deceased  1450.  Then  Jaques  Fries,  physician  to  Edward  IV.,  and  William 
Hobbs,  physician  and  chirurgeon  for  the  same  king's  body,  continuing  the  suit  the  full  time  of  twenty  years, 
Edward  IV.,  in  the  2nd  of  his  reign,  and  Richard,  Duke  of  Gloucester,  became  founders  of  the  same 
corporation  in  the  name  of  St.  Cosme  and  St.  Damiane.  The  first  assembly  of  that  craft  was  Roger 
Strippe,  W.  Hobbs,  T.  Goddard,  and  Richard  Kent ;  since  the  which  time  they  built  their  hall  in  that 
street,  etc." 

The  number  of  the  livery  is  about   120.      There  are  no  particulars  as  to  the  Corporate  Income 
of  the  Company.     The  Trust  Income  is  about  ^^650  per  annum. 


GROUP    III 

The  third  group  of  streets  is  that  which  is  bounded  on  tlie  south  by  Cannon 
Street,  on  the  east  by  Bishopsgate  Street  and  Gracechurch  Street,  and  on  the 
west  by  Moorgate  Street,  Princes  Street,  and  Walbrook,  and  northward  by  the 
City  Hmits. 

This,  with  Cheapside,  includes  the  very  heart  and  centre  of  the  City.  In  it  are 
the  streets  called  Cornhill,  Lombard  Street,  Threadneedle  Street,  Throgmorton 
Street,  Lothbury,  Princes  Street,  and  Broad  Street.  Here  were  formerly  the 
ecclesiastical  foundations  of  the  Austin  P'riars  and  St.  Anthony's.  Here  are  the 
Royal  Exchange,  the  Bank  of  England,  the  Mansion  House,  the  offices  of  many 
Banks  and  of  Companies  ;  the  site  of  such  well-known  houses  as  the  Baltic,  the 
South  Sea  House,  Garraway's,  the  Jerusalem,  the  London  Tavern.  In  Lombard 
Street  we  have  the  first  house  of  City  Firemen  and  the  first  Post  Office.  In  Broad 
Street  is  the  site  of  Gresham  House,  afterwards  Gresham  College,  founded  with  such 
a  noble  ambition,  fallen  now  to  so  poor  a  place. 

In  this  place  it  is  proposed  to  take  the  principal  streets  and  lanes  and  to  set 
down  whatever  points  of  interest  have  not  been  touched  upon  in  the  large  History  of 
London. 

Cornhill  has  been  a  crowded  street  from  time  immemorial.  Stow  says  that 
there  was  here  a  corn  market.  It  does  not  seem  proved,  however,  that  there  ever 
was  one  here.  Loftie  points  out  that  the  London  corn  market  was  on  the  east  side 
of  St.  Michael-le-Ouerne,  opposite  Bread  Street.  It  has  been  suggested  that  the 
family  of  Coren  Hell  or  Corn  Hill  gave  their  name  to  the  ward.  In  1125  there  is 
Edward  Heep  Cornhill  among  those  engaged  in  the  conveyance  of  the  Portsoken 
to  the  Holy  Trinity  Priory.  But  a  market  of  some  sort  was  most  certainly  held 
here,  and  it  may  have  been  originally  a  corn  market. 

We  must  not  suppose  that  the  division  of  trades  and  markets  was  ever  rigidly 
observed.  If  there  were  bakers  in  Bread  Street,  there  may  have  been  bakers 
elsewhere  for  the  general  convenience.  Then  in  1347  {RWey's  Mevioria is,  p.  236) 
there  was  a  corn  market  in  Gracechurch  Street  and  another  in  Newgate  Street. 
The  market  was  opposite  the  Franciscan  House,  so  that  perhaps  we  may  accept 
Stow's  statement  and  conclude  that  the  corn  market  of  Cornhill  gradually  receded 

9' 


92  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

eastward  into  Gracechurch  Street,  where  it  was  presently  absorbed  by  Leadenhall 
Market,  which  is  reckoned  by  Stow  as  in  Cornhill. 

In  1310  proclamation  was  made  in  the  City  as  follows  : 

"It  is  ordered  and  commanded  on  the  King's  behalf,  that  no  man  or  woman 
shall  be  so  daring  or  so  bold  as  from  henceforth  to  hold  a  common  market  for  any 
manner  of  merchandise  in  the  highway  of  Chepe  after  the  hour  of  None,  as  hereto- 
fore they  have  done ;  nor  yet  in  any  other  place  within  the  City,  save  only  upon 
Cornhulle  ;  and  that,  from  Matins  until  the  hour  of  None,  and  not  after  :  on  pain  of 
forfeiture  of  the  goods  so  carried  there  to  sell,  by  way  of  holding  common  market 
there"  (Riley's  Memorials,  p.  75). 

The  hour  of  "  None"  is  from  two  to  three.  What  was  the  meaning  of  this 
proclamation  ?  Why  must  the  markets  of  Chepe  be  closed  at  three  while  those  of 
Cornhill  remained  open?  But  in  1369,  because  many  cheats  had  been  possible  by 
selling  things  after  dark,  it  was  ordered  that  at  the  ringing  of  the  bell  upon  the  Tun 
at  sunset  (not  the  bell  of  St.  Mary-le-Bow,  which  only  belonged  to  West  Chepe),  all 
shops  and  stalls  were  to  be  closed. 

The  Tun,  of  which  mention  has  often  been  made  in  other  volumes  of  this  book, 
was  a  small  prison,  something  like  a  tun,  built  by  Henry  le  Waleys  in  1282. 
Beside  it  was  a  conduit  built  by  the  same  citizen.  And  there  was  a  standard  for 
Thames  water  brought  there  by  the  contrivance  of  one  Peter  Morris,  a  Dutch- 
man.     Distances  were  reckoned  from  the  standard  of  Cornhill. 

Here  were  stocks  for  the  sturdy  beggar,  the  lazar,  should  he  venture  into  the 
City,  and  fraudulent  dealers.  Here  was  a  pillory  for  similar  offenders  ;  one  William 
Felde  stood  in  it  in  1375  for  cheating  hucksters  of  ale.  Here  Gyleson  also,  in  1348, 
was  so  put  to  public  shame  for  selling  putrid  pork,  some  of  which  was  burned  under 
his  nose  to  his  unspeakable  discomfort. 

The  earliest  occupants  of  Cornhill,  according  to  Strype,  were  drapers.  It  is, 
however,  certain  that  other  trades  were  established  there.  Thus  in  1302  there  is  a 
baker  of  Cornhill;  in  131 8  a  bakehouse  opposite  the  Pillory;  in  1345  the  City 
poulterers  are  ordered  not  to  sell  east  of  the  Tun  on  Cornhill,  while  the  "foreign" 
poulterers  are  sent  to  Leadenhall  ;  in  1342,  "false  "  blankets  are  burned  in  Cornhill ; 
in  1347  there  is  a  turner  of  Cornhill;  in  1364  a  tailor;  in  1365  the  pelterers  are 
ordered  to  carry  on  their  business  in  Cornhill,  Walbrook,  and  Budge  Row  only  ;  in 
1372  the  blacksmiths  are  confined  for  the  exhibition  of  their  wares  to  Gracechurch 
Street,  St.  Nicholas  Fleshambles'  (Newgate),  and  the  Tun  of  Cornhill. 

The  punishment  of  common  clerks  illustrated  by  Stow  is  noted  elsewhere.  As 
regards  the  Tun,  he  writes  : 

"  By  the  west  side  of  the  foresaid  prison,  then  called  the  Tun,  was  a  fair  well  of 
spring  water  curbed  round  with  hard  stone;  but  in  the  year  1401,  the  said  prison 
house,  called  the  Tun,  was  made  a  cistern  for  sweet  water,  conveyed  by  pipes  of  lead 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE   CITY 


93 


from  Tiborne,  and  was  from  thenceforth  called  the  Conduit  upon  Cornhill.  Then 
was  the  well  planked  over,  and  a  strong  prison  made  of  timber  called  a  cage,  with  a 
pair  of  stocks  therein  set  upon  it,  and  this  was  for  night  walkers.  On  the  top  of 
which  cage  was  placed  a  pillory,  for  the  punishment  of  bakers  offending  in  the  assize 


THE   PUMP   IN'   COKNIIILL,    iSoO 

of  bread,  for  millers  stealing  of  corn  at  the  mill,  for  bawds,  scolds,  and  other 
offenders.  As  in  the  year  1468,  the  7th  of  Edward  IV.,  divers  persons  being 
common  jurors,  such  as  at  assizes  were  forsworn  for  rewards,  or  favour  of  parties, 
were  judged  to  ride  from  Newgate  to  the  pillory  in  Cornhill,  with  mitres  of  paper  on 
their  heads,  there  to  stand,  and  from  thence  again  to  Newgate,  and  this  judgment 
was  given  by  the  mayor  of  London.      In  the  year   1509,  the   ist  of  Henry  VIII., 


94  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Darby,  Smith,  and  Simson,  ringleaders  of  false  inquests  in  London,  rode  about  the 
city  with  their  faces  to  the  horse  tails,  and  papers  on  their  heads,  and  were  set  on 
the  pillory  in  Cornhill,  and  after  brought  again  to  Newgate,  where  they  died  for  very 
shame,  saith  Robert  Fabian. 

"  The  foresaid  conduit  upon  Cornhill,  was  in  the  year  1475  enlarged  by  Robert 
Drope,  draper,  mayor,  that  then  dwelt  in  that  ward  ;  he  increased  the  cistern  of  this 
conduit  with  an  east  end  of  stone  and  castellated  it  in  comely  manner  "  (Stow's 
Survey,  p.  208). 

\n  the  time  of  Stow  there  were  still  standing  some  of  the  old  houses,  built  of 
stone  in  accordance  with  the  regulations  of  Henry  Fitz  Aylwin  and  other  mayors. 
The  danger  of  fire  was  thus  diminished.  But  those  houses  which  in  many  cases 
were  built  round  open  courts,  covering  a  large  space  and  of  no  more  than  two  stories 
in  height,  were  gradually  taken  down  and  houses  of  four  or  five  stories  built  in  their 
place,  a  fact  which  must  be  remembered  when  we  read  of  the  Great  Fire.  All  those 
broad  courts  and  open  spaces  which  might  have  checked  the  Fire  at  so  many  points 
were  gone  in  1666,  and  replaced  by  high  houses  standing  together  and  by  narrow 
courts. 

The  Royal  Exchange,  the  Bank  of  England,  and  the  Mansion  House  are  so 
mixed  up  with  the  general  history  of  London  that  they  must  be  sought  for  in  the 
volumes  that  have  preceded  this. 

The  Weigh-house  was  the  place  where  all  merchandise  brought  across  the  sea 
was  taken  to  be  weighed  at  the  King's  beam.  "  This  house  hath  a  master,  and 
under  him  four  master  porters,  with  porters  under  them  :  they  have  a  strong  cart, 
and  four  great  horses,  to  draw  and  carry  the  wares  from  the  merchants'  houses  to 
the  beam  and  back  again  "  (Stow,  p.  73).  The  house  was  built  by  Sir  Thomas 
Lovell,  "with  a  fair  front  of  tenements  towards  the  street."  The  cart  therefore 
was  taken  into  an  inner  court  through  a  gateway,  as  we  might  expect. 

There  were  many  taverns  in  and  about  Cornhill. 

In  the  sixteenth  century  was  still  standing  one  of  the  old  stone  houses  of  which 
we  have  spoken.  This  was  popularly  known  as  "  King  John's  House."  Now  at 
the  granting  of  the  commune  to  the  City,  John  lodged  at  the  house  of  Richard  Fitz 
Richer,  the  sheriff.  Possibly  this  was  the  house.  Pope's  Head  Alley  marks  the 
site  of  the  Pope's  Head  Tavern,  which  had  the  ancient  arms  of  England,  three 
leopards  between  two  angels,  engraved  in  stone  on  the  front.  Stow  thinks  it  may 
have  been  a  royal  palace. 

A  perspective  view  of  Cornhill  at  the  present  day  gives  a  very  fine  effect. 
The  sides  are  lined  with  large  buildings  on  the  erection  of  which  no  time  or  expense 
has  been  spared,  and  the  protuberant  stone  decoration  and  the  lines  of  enriched 
windows  give  on  the  whole  an  appearance  of  wealth  and  dignity.  Yet,  taken  singly, 
there  are  i&\\  of  these  buildings  that  deserve  any  commendation.     There  is  a  same- 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  95 

ness  and  want  of  originality.  Everywhere  are  round-headed  windows  and  stone 
foliage  ;  everywhere  the  same  shaped  roof  projections  and  pinnacles.  The  flagged 
space  in  front  of  the  Royal  Exchange  is  decorated  by  trees  in  tubs,  and  on  it  stands 
an  equestrian  statue  of  the  Duke  of  Wellington.  This  was  executed  by  Sir  Francis 
Chantrey  in  1844.  The  Royal  Exchange  lines  the  side  of  the  street  for  some 
distance  and  all  round  the  ground-floor  are  shops,  etc.  Beyond  it  is  a  second  open 
space.  The  statue  here  facing  southward  is  of  Rowland  Hill.  The  figure  is  on  a 
block  of  polished  granite. 

Beyond  Finch  Lane  the  Union  Bank  of  Australia  stands  out  as  one  of  the 
exceptions  to  the  general  monotony  of  the  street.  It  is  of  white  stone,  in  a  severe 
style  without  undue  excrescences,  and  the  chief  ornament  is  a  row  of  sculpturesque 
figures  supporting  the  cornice. 

On  the  south  side  of  Cornhill  an  entrance  to  St.  Peter's  Church  first  attracts 
attention. 

ST.   PETER,    CORNHILL 

This  church  is  possibly  the  most  ancient  in  the  City.  It  was  practically  rebuilt  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  IV.  and  thoroughly  renovated  in  1632,  but  so  damaged  by  the  Great  Fire  that  after  attempts  at 
restoration  it  had  to  be  rebuilt.  The  present  building  was  erected  by  Wren  in  16S0-81.  The  earliest 
known  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1263 — one  John  de  Cabanicis.  There  is  an  unbroken  succession  since 
John  de  Exeter,  1282. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the  family  of  Nevil  before  1263,  one  of  whom, 
Lady  Alice  Nevil,  conveyed  it  in  1362  to  Richard,  Earl  of  Arundell,  for  a  term  of  years;  in  1380  to 
Thomas  Coggeshall  and  others  ;  in  1402  to  Hampweyde  Bohern,  Earl  of  Hereford.  It  was  again  conveyed 
about,  or  shortly  before,  1395  to  Robert  and  Margaret  Rykedon  and  others,  who  presented  to  it  in  1405  ; 
it  was  confirmed  to  Richard  Whittington  and  others  in  1408,  who  in  turn  confirmed  it  in  141 1  to  the 
Mayor  and  Commonalty  of  London,  in  whose  successors  it  continued. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  500. 

The  church  measures  80  feet  in  length,  47  feet  in  breadth,  and  40  feet  in  height,  and  contains  a 
nave  and  two  aisles  separated  from  the  central  portion  by  Corinthian  columns.  There  is  a  very  fine 
screen,  one  of  the  only  two  erected  in  the  City  of  London,  and  the  only  one  remaming  in  its  original 
position.  The  steeple,  which  rises  at  the  south-west,  attains  a  height  of  140  feet,  and  consists  of  a  tower 
and  cornice  surmounted  by  a  cupola,  an  octagonal  lantern,  and  a  spire,  terminating  in  St.  Peter's  emblem, 
the  Key.  The  view  of  the  e.xterior  is  blocked  on  the  north  by  intervening  houses,  but  on  the  south  the 
church  is  open  to  the  churchyard. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  Roger  FitzRoger  previous  to  1284;  by  Nicholas  Pycot  at  the  Altar 
of  St.  Nicholas  in  1312  ;  by  Philip  de  Ufford  at  the  Altar  of  St.  Katherine  in  1321 ;  by  Robert  de  la 
Hyde  at  the  Altar  of  St.  George  in  1328;  by  William  Elliot  (William  of  Kingston)  at  the  Altar  of  the 
Holy  Trinity,  for  himself,  Sarah  and  Alynor  his  wives,  and  for  his  father  and  mother  in  1375  ;  by  John 
Foxton  at  the  Altar  of  St.  George  in  1382  ;  by  John  Waleys  at  the  same  altar  in  1409  ;  and  by  Dame  Alice 
Brudenel  in  1437  to  the  Altar  of  St.  Nicholas.  There  were  also  chantries  founded  by  Richard  Morley, 
Peter  Mason,  and  John  Lane.  The  Guild  or  Fraternity  of  St.  Peter  was  established  in  this  church  by 
Henry  IV.  in  1403  at  the  intercession  of  Queen  Johanna,  William  Aghton  being  rector.  The  valuation 
of  the  Rectory  temp  Henry  VIII.  was  ^39  :  5  :  7 A,  to  which  was  added  tenths  from  the  chantries  amounting 
to  ^14: 14:  4. 

A  large  number  of  monuments  are  recorded  by  Stow,  some  of  the  most  notable  of  which  were  in 


96 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


memory  of:  William  of  Kingston;  Margery  Clopton,  widow  of  Robert  Clopton ;  Sir  Christopher  Morice, 
Master  Gunner  of  England  to  Henry  VIII. ;  Sir  Henry  Huberthorne,  Merchant  Taylor,  and  Lord  Mayor 
of  the  City  ;  Francis  Breerewood,  Treasurer  of  Christ's  Hospital ;  Sir  William  Bowyer.  John  Carpenter, 
the  famous  Town  Clerk  of  London  and  compiler  of  the  Liber  Albtis,  was  also  buried  here.  In  the  vestry 
is  an  interesting  tablet  copy  of  one  hanging  in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  from  a.d.  1300,  and  preserved  from  the 
Great  Fire,  to  the  effect  that  this  church  was  the  first  founded  in  London,  and  that  it  was  erected  by 
King  Lucius  in   179 — a  legend  which  Stow  himself  appears  not  to  have  believed.     There  is  here,  also. 


ST.  Peter's,  cornhill 


the  old  key-board  and  organ-stops  used  by  Mendelssohn  when  he  played  in  St.  Peter's  in  1840  and  1842. 
The  portraits  of  Bishop  Beveridge  and  Bishop  Waugh,  both  of  whom  were  rectors  here  for  some  years, 
hang  on  the  walls.  A  fine  manuscript  Vulgate,  with  illuminations,  written  for  the  Altar  of  the  Holy 
Trinity  in  St.  Peter's,  is  also  preserved  in  the  vestry. 

Among  the  most  important  charities  were  those  of:  Laurence  Thompson,  1601,  who  left  ^"100  in 
trust  for  tea,  coal,  and  bread  for  the  poor  of  the  parish.  William  Walthal,  1606,  who  left  ^246:  13:4, 
;!C2oo  of  which  was  to  be  lent  to  the  struggling  shopkeepers  of  the  parish,  the  interest  to  be  distributed  in 
bread  and  coal.  The  Robert  Warden  (1609)  bequest  for  Ash  Wednesday  sermons  and  Sunday  bread  to  be 
administered  through  the  Poulterers  Company.     The  Lucy  Edge  (1630)  bequest  for  the  weekly  lecture.     Sir 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  97 

Benjamin  Thorowgood's  (1682)  bequest  of  three  shops  at  the  west  end  of  the  church  for  the  maintenance  of 
the  organ  and  organist  ;  and  the  Gibbs'  bequest  (1864).  Of  these,  all,  with  the  exception  of  the  Lucy  Edge 
and  Gibbs'  bequests,  which  provide  for  the  Thursday  lecturer,  and  part  of  the  Robert  Warden  bequest, 
which  provides  for  the  Ash  Wednesday  sermon  before  the  Poulterers  Company,  have  been  appropriated, 
with  other  endowments,  by  the  City  Parochial  Charities,  out  of  which  common  fund  a  yearly  allowance  is 
made  for  the  upkeep  of  the  Church. 

John  Hodgkin,  Bishop  of  Bedford,  1537,  was  rector  here;  also  John  Taylor  (d.  1554),  Bishop  of 
Lincoln;  Francis  White  (d.  1638),  Bishop  of  Ely;  William  Beveridge  (1637-1708),  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph  ; 
John  Waugh,  Bishop  of  Carlisle,  1723 — he  is  buried  in  front  of  the  present  altar. 

Next  door  to  the  church  is  another  of  the  exceptions  in  the  street,  a  well- 
designed  terra-cotta  building.  The  building  is  in  a  late  Perpendicular  or  Tudor 
style,  and  is  appropriately  named  Tudor  Chambers.  St.  Peter's  Alley  leads  to  the 
graveyard  at  the  back  of  the  church,  which  is  cut  in  two  by  an  abnormally  broad 
sweeping  way  up  to  the  centre  door.  Plainly  built  chambers  of  many  stories  look 
down  on  the  dusty  evergreens  of  the  churchyard.  The  next  object  of  interest  is  the 
deeply  recessed  and  beautifully  ornamented  porch  of  St.  Michael,  which  stands  back 
a  litde  from  the  line  of  the  street.  By  the  side  of  the  church  is  St.  Michaels  Alley, 
which  leads  us  to  the  graveyard.  In  this  a  small  cloister  or  entry  with  vaulted  roof 
leads  through  to  the  churchyard,  a  space  of  newly  turned  soil  with  a  fringe  of  the 
inevitable  evergreen  bushes. 

The  great  London  coffee-house  was  set  up  in  St.  Michael's  Alley  in  1652  by 
one  Pasqua  Rosee. 

ST.   MICHAEL,   CORNHILL 

The  body  of  St.  Michael's  Church  was  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire  and  rebuilt  by  Wren  in  1672; 
the  tower  was  injured  and  pulled  down  in  1722,  when  the  present  tower,  also  the  work  of  Wren,  was 
erected.     In  1858  it  was  greatly  altered  by  Sir  Gilbert  Scott.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1287. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  Alnoth  the  priest,  before  1133,  who  granted  it  to 
the  Abbot  and  Convent  of  Evesham,  who  gave  it  in  1 133  to  Sparling  the  priest;  the  Abbot  and  Convent 
of  Evesham,  who  granted  it  in  1 505  to  Simon  Hogan,  who  bequeathed  it  to  the  Drapers'  Company,  who 
presented  to  it  in  1515,  and  in  whose  successors  it  continued. 

The  church  measures  87  feet  in  length,  60  feet  in  breadth,  and  35  feet  in  height,  and  contains  two 
aisles  divided  from  the  nave  by  Doric  columns.  The  church  was  originally  in  the  Italian  style,  but  the 
alterations  in  1858-60  by  Sir  Gilbert  Scott  give  the  appearance  of  a  nineteenth-century  imitation  of 
medievalism.  The  tower  is  Gothic  in  architecture,  and  contains  three  stories  crowned  by  a  parapet  from 
the  angles  of  which  four  pinnacles  rise  up.  The  total  height  is  130  feet.  The  church  has  always  been 
famous  for  its  bells,  of  which  it  possesses  12. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  :  Walter  de  Bullingham,  to  which  John  de  Bourge  was  admitted 
chaplain,  August  22,  1390;  Thomas  Baker  augmented  the  endowment  by;^2:i8:8;  Ralph  More  was 
chaplain  in  1548,  "a  man  of  50  yrs.  who  hath  lyen  bedridden  this  18  years";  Simon  Smith;  William 
Comerton  at  the  Altar  of  Blessed  Virgin  Mary  ;  Hamo  Box,  for  which  the  King  granted  his  licence,  July  28, 
1321;  William  Rus,  whose  endowment  for  this  and  other  purposes  fetched  ^27:13:4  in  1548,  when 
William  Penne  was  priest  "  of  the  age  of  38  years,  and  of  indifferent  learning  and  hath  none  other  living  but 
this  his  yearly  stipend  of  ^8;  Andrew  Smythe,  who  endowed  it  with  lands,  etc.,  which  fetched  £\2  in 
1548,  when  John  Paddye  was  priest  "  of  the  age  of  26  years,  indifferently  learned,  having  no  other  living  or 
promotion  over  and  above  his  stipend  oi  £t.  (> :  i  "  ;  Simon  Mordonne,  mayor,  1368,  who  left  tenements 

7 


98 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


valued  at  ^9  in  154S,  when  John  Campyon  was  priest,  "of  the  age  of  66  years,  a  good  singer  and 
indifferently  well  learned,  having  none  other  living  besides  this  his  stipend  of  ^6:18:4";  John 
Langhorne,  who  endowed  it  with  tenements  which  yielded  ;£io:8s.  in  154S,  when  Abail  Mortcock  was 
priest,  "  of  the  age  of  36  years,  whose  qualities,  conversation,  and  learning  is  as  the  other  and  hath  none 
other  living  but  this  his  stipend  of  ^6  :  13  :  4."  The  King  granted  his  licence  to  Peter  Smart  and  others 
to  found  a  guild  in  honour  of  St.  Anne  and  Our  Lady,  September  27,  1397,  which  was  valued  at 
^17:13:4  in  1548,  when  Sir  William  Bryck  was  chaplain  "of  the  age  of  33  years,  moderately  well 
learned."  John  Shopman  and  others  have  licence  to  found  a  guild  in  honour  of  Blessed  Virgin  Mary 
with  special  devotion  to  St.  Michael  the  Archangel,  October  4,  1442. 

Alderman  Robert  Fabian  (d.  1513)  was  buried  here  in  1513;  he  compiled  an  elaborate  chronicle, 


confectioner's  shop,  cornhill 


The  Concordance  of  Histories,  dealing  with  France  as  well  as  England.  This  church  is  specially  connected 
with  the  antiquary  John  Stow,  and  both  his  father  and  grandfather  were  buried  here.  Against  the  north 
walk  there  is  a  monument  in  memory  of  John  Vernon,  erected  in  place  of  one  consumed  by  the  Fire,  by 
the  Merchant  Taylors  in  1609;  he  was  a  donor  of  several  large  legacies.  In  1609  John  Cowper  was 
buried  here — founder  of  a  family  whose  memory  is  still  preserved  in  connection  with  Cowper's  Court, 
Cornhill.     To  this  family  the  poet  Cowper  belonged. 

The  parish  was  extremely  rich  in  charitable  gifts.  Brass  tablets  are  affixed  to  the  sides  of  the  tower 
recording  the  dates,  etc.,  of  repairs,  and  the  benefactors  in  connection,  amongst  whom  are  the  following : 
Sir  John  Langham,  ^500;  Sir  Edward  Riccard,  ;^ioo;  James  Clotheroe,  ^^50.  Other  benefactors 
were  Robert  Drope,  donor  of  ^30,  and  his  wife  Jane,  afterwards  Viscountess  Lisle,  of  ^£^90. 

William  Brough  (d.  1671),  Dean  of  Gloucester,  and  author  of  several  religious  works,  was  rector 
here;  also  Robert  Poole-Finch  (1724-1803),  chaplain  of  Guy's  Hospital  and  a  preacher  of  some  eminence. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


99 


No.  15  Cornhill  is  the  oldest  shop  of  its  class  in  the  Metropolis.  The  window 
is  set  in  a  carved  wooden  framework,  painted  green,  which  encloses  the  small  glass 
panes  in  three  arches.  It  was  established  as  a  confectioner's  shop  in  the  time  of 
George  I.,  and  it  is  a  confectioner's  still.  Within,  the  low  roof  and  thick  woodwork 
testify  its  age.  It  might  easily  be  overlooked,  as  the  brick  house  rising  above  it 
presents  no  noticeable  feature. 

Of  Change  Alley  one  has  to  note  that  Jonathan's  Coffee-house  was  the 
resort  of  those  who  dealt  and  dabbled  in  stocks. 


GARKAWAY  S   COl-FEKllOU^E 


Why  did  'Change  Alley  waste  thy  precious  hours. 

Among  the  fools  who  gap'd  for  golden  show'rs  ? 

No  wonder  if  we  found  some  poets  there, 

Who  live  on  fancy  and  can  feed  on  air  ; 

No  wonder  they  were  caught  by  South-Sea  schemes, 

Who  ne'er  enjoyed  a  guinea  but  in  dreams. 

Here  also  were  Garraway's  and  Robins'  Coffee-houses.  In  1722  "the  better 
sort,"  according  to  Defoe,  who  carried  on  business  as  a  hosier  in  Freemason's 
Court,  met  at  these  coffee-houses  before  going  to  the  Exchange. 

The  present  Stock  Exchange  was  not  erected  till  the  year  1801. 


lOO  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Strype  thus  speaks  of  the  Alley  as  it  was  after  improvements  : 

"  Exchange  Alley,  that  lies  next  eastward,  hath  two  passages  out  of  Cornhill  ; 
one  into  Lombard  Street,  and  another  bending  east  into  Birchin  Lane.  It  is  a 
large  Place  vastly  improved,  chiefly  out  of  an  house  of  Alderman  Backwall's,  a 
Goldsmith,  before  the  Great  Fire,  well  built,  inhabited  by  tradesmen  ;  especially  that 
passage  into  Lombard  Street  against  the  Exchange,  and  is  a  place  of  a  very  con- 
siderable concourse  of  Merchants,  seafaring  men  and  other  traders,  occasioned  by 
the  great  Coffee  houses,  Jonathan's  and  Garraway's,  that  stand  there.  Chiefly  now 
brokers,  and  such  as  deal  in  buying  and  selling  of  Stocks,  frequent  it.  The  Alley  is 
broad  and  well  paved  with  free-stones,  neatly  kept.  The  Fleece  Tavern,  seated  in 
Cornhill,  hath  a  passage  into  this  Alley,  being  a  very  large  house  and  of  great  resort." 

At  No.  41  Thomas  Gray  the  poet  was  born  on  December  24,  17 16. 

Change  Alley  is  at  present  a  winding  and  tortuous  thoroughfare.  It  bears  the 
date  1886  over  the  western  entry,  and  contains  many  red  and  glazed  white  brick 
houses.  Close  by  this  entry  is  the  Bakers'  Chop  House,  a  curious  little  old  building 
with  projecting  windows  of  dark  wood. 

In  the  next  portion  of  Change  Alley  is  a  well-built  red  brick  building  by 
R.  Norman  Shaw,  with  a  slab  on  the  north-east  corner  bearing  the  inscription  : 

The  site  of  Garraway's  Coffee  House,  rebuilt  1S74  ; 

and  beneath  is  a  large  stone  grasshopper. 

Gracechurch  Street,  called  also  Grass  church,  Garscherche,  and  Gracious 
Street,  was  formerly  a  market  for  hay,  corn,  malt,  cheese,  etc.  There  was  uncertainty 
about  the  name,  for  in  1329  we  find  it  written  Grescherche  Street,  in  1333 
Grascherche  Street,  a  form  of  the  name  which  is  afterwards  repeated. 

In  1275  there  is  a  will  by  one  Martin  de  Garscherche  bequeathing  property 
to  his  sons  and  daughters;  in  1294,  1311,  and  1324,  we  hear  of  tenements  in 
Garscherche,  which  seems  as  if  the  place  was  then  an  open  market,  not  yet  settled 
down  to  a  street ;  perhaps,  however,  the  dignity  of  a  street  was  sometimes  conferred 
upon  it,  for  in  1296  there  is  mention  of  Leadenhall  in  Garscherch  Street,  and  in  1342 
it  is  also  named  as  a  street. 

In  1320  one  of  the  supervisors  of  shoes  was  Richard  le  Cordewaner  of 
"  Gras  cherche  "  ;  in  1347  a  jury  of  "  Graschirche,"  consisting  of  a  butcher  and 
eleven  others,  accused  John  de  Burstalle  of  selling  corn  at  more  than  the  legal 
price,  and  he  was  sent  to  prison  for  forty  days;  in  1372  it  was  ordained  that  the 
blacksmiths  should  send  their  work  either  to  "  Graschirche  "  or  to  the  "  Pavement  " 
by  St.  Nicholas  Fleshambles,  or  by  the  Tun  on  Cornhill,  and  should  stand  by  their 
work  openly.  Therefore  the  market  here  was  not  confined  to  hay  and  corn.  In 
1386  one  Thomas  Stokes  was  in  trouble  for  pretending  to  be  an  officer  and  taker  of 
ale  for  the  household  of  the  King,  under  which  pretence  he  marked  with  an  arrow- 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  loi 

head  several  barrels  in  the  brewery  of  William  Roke  of  Graschirche.  There  was 
therefore  a  brewery  in  the  market.  One  finds  so  many  breweries  scattered  about 
the  City  that  one  asks  how  they  got  the  water;  it- must  certainly  have  been  drawn 
up  from  a  local  well.  Another  case  of  personating  an  officer  of  the  King  was  that  of 
William  Redhede  in  1417,  who  tried  to  carry  off  certain  bushels  of  wheat  at 
Graschirche  pretending  that  they  were  for  the  King.  He  was  clapped  into  prison 
and  then  put  in  pillory.  "  Upon  the  three  market  days  ensuing  he  was  to  be  taken 
each  day  from  the  Prison  of  Newgate  to  the  Market  called  '  le  Cornmarket ' 
opposite  to  the  Friars  Minors  and  there  the  cause  of  the  judgment  aforesaid  was  to 
be  proclaimed  :  and  after  that  he  was  to  be  taken  through  the  middle  of  the  high 
street  of  Chepe  to  the  Pillory  on  Cornhille ;  and  upon  that  he  was  to  be  placed  on 
each  of  those  three  days  there  to  stand  for  one  hour  each  day,  the  reason  of  his 
sentence  being  then  and  there  proclaimed,  and  after  that  he  was  to  be  taken  from 
thence  through  the  middle  of  the  high  street  of  Cornhill  to  the  Market  of  Graschirche 
aforesaid,  where  like  proclamation  was  to  be  made  :  and  from  thence  back  to  prison." 

Roman  remains,  such  as  vases,  bronzes,  coffins,  have  been  found  in  this  street. 

In  1654  Brethmer,  citizen  of  London,  gave  to  the  Church  at  Canterbury  his 
messuage  at  "  Gerscherche  "  as  also  the  Church  of  Allhallows,  Lombard  Street. 

The  street  is  continually  mentioned  in  connection  with  tenements,  messuages, 
houses,  and  rents. 

In  more  modern  times  Richard  Tarleton  the  actor  lived  in  Gracechurch  Street, 
at  the  sign  of  the  Saber.  Probably  he  acted  in  the  courtyard  of  the  Cross  Keys 
in  the  same  street,  licensed  in  1570,  but  only  for  that  year.  Many  pageants  and 
processions  were  conducted  through  Gracechurch  Street. 

In  Gracechurch  Street  at  the  corner  of  Fenchurch  Street  was  St.  Benet's  Church. 

St.  Benet,  Grasschurch,  was  so  called  after  St.  Benedict.  The  date  of  its  foundation  is  unknown. 
It  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire,  rebuilt  and  finished  in  1685.  In  186S  the  building  was  pulled  down, 
and  in  1869  and  1870  the  site  was  occupied  by  offices.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1 170. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  who  granted  it 
about  1 142  to  Algarus  the  priest,  for  his  life. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  223. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Mary  and  St.  Katherine  for  Lady  Joan  Rose ;  the 
endowment  fetched  ;!C^i4  :  3  :  4  in  1548. 

Few  notable  monuments  in  this  church  are  recorded  by  Stow.  It  originally  contained  Queen 
Elizabeth's  monument.  The  parish  was  rich  in  charitable  gifts,  some  of  the  donors  of  which  were : 
Mrs.  Doxie  of  ;^So,  for  the  better  maintenance  of  the  parson;  Lady  Elizabeth  Newton  .;^4o,  and  many 
others  whose  names  are  not  recorded. 

In  modern  Gracechurch  Street,  at  the  corner  of  Eastcheap,  is  a  fine  new  building 
of  the  National  Provident  Institution  for  Mutual  Life  Assurance.  The  courts  opening 
out  of  the  street  are  lined  with  countless  window  reflectors  and  are  very  monotonous. 
The  Russian  Bank  is  fine  and  of  great  height ;  on  the  west  there  is  a  long  line  of 


I02  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

brick  and  stucco  buildings  which  can  boast  no  style  at  all.  The  street  is  given  over 
to  merchants,  solicitors,  bankers,  agents,  etc.  The  great  building  at  the  corner  of 
Lombard  Street  is  the  City  Linen  Company  Bank,  and  is  conspicuous  by  reason 
of  its  stone  ornamentation. 

The  northern  portion  of  the  street  is  not  remarkable  for  architectural  beauty. 
The  street  consists  chiefly  of  great  square  blocks  of  buildings  interspersed  with  dull 
early  nineteenth-century  brick  boxes.  In  Bell  Yard  there  is  an  almost  unbroken  line 
of  old  houses  on  the  south  side,  and  at  the  end  the  half-embedded  gilt  bell  over  a 
public-house  points  to  the  name-derivation.  On  the  east  of  Gracechurch  Street  a 
high  arch  of  rusticated  stone  leads  to  Leadenhall  market  (see  p.  i6o).  Gracechurch 
Buildings  follow,  and  Bull's  Head  Passage,  leading  to  Skinner's  Place,  is  lined  by 
open  stalls.     The  flat  end  of  St.  Peter's,  Cornhill,  faces  Leadenhall  Buildings. 

Lombard  Street. — Shops  and  tenements  are  mentioned  belonging  to  Lombard 
Street  in  the  fourteenth  century.  The  Calendar  of  Wills  has  a  reference  in  the 
year  1327.      Riley's  earliest  reference  is  1382. 

When  the  street  first  received  its  name  is  not  known.  Stow  ventures  back  no 
further  than  Edward  II.,  but  there  were  Italian  merchants  before  that  time  : 

"  Then  have  ye  Lombard  Street,  so  called  of  the  Longobards,  and  other 
merchants,  strangers  of  divers  nations  assembling  there  twice  every  day,  of  what 
original  or  continuance  I  have  not  read  of  record,  more  than  that  Edward  II.,  in  the 
1 2th  of  his  reign,  confirmed  a  messuage,  sometime  belonging  to  Robert  Turke, 
abutting  on  Lombard  Street,  toward  the  south,  and  toward  Cornehill  on  the  north, 
for  the  merchants  of  Florence,  which  proveth  that  street  to  have  had  the  name  of 
Lombard  Street  before  the  reign  of  Edward  II.  The  meeting  of  which  merchants 
and  others  there  continued  until  the  22nd  of  December,  in  the  year  156S;  on  the 
which  day  the  said  merchants  began  to  make  their  meetings  at  the  burse,  a  place 
then  new  built  for  that  purpose  in  the  ward  of  Cornhill,  and  was  since  by  her 
majesty,  Queen  Elizabeth,  named  the  Royal  Exchange." 

The  Lombards  came  over  at  first  as  collectors  of  the  papal  revenue  ;  but  they 
did  much  more  than  this  :  they  opened  up  trade  between  the  Italian  towns  and 
London — every  year  the  fleets  of  Genoa  and  Venice  brought  goods  from  the  East 
and  from  the  Mediterranean.  Moreover,  the  Italians  in  England  sent  wool  from 
England  instead  of  precious  metals  by  way  of  Florence,  if  not  other  cities.  Their 
wealth  enabled  them  to  take  the  place  of  the  Jews  in  their  expulsion  ;  if  the  City  was 
suddenly  and  heavily  taxed  they  made  advances  to  the  nierchant  who  could  not 
immediately  realise.  Of  course  they  charged  heavy  interest  —  as  heavy  as  the 
necessities  of  the  case  permitted — and  they  became  unpopular.  The  lending  of 
money,  forbidden  and  held  in  abhorrence,  was  absolutely  necessary  for  the  conduct 
of  business  :  those  who  carried  on  this  trade  naturally  lived  together,  if  only  to  be 
kept  in  knowledge  of  what  was  going  on.     And  as  the  progress  of  trade  went  on, 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


lOi 


their  power  increased  year  by  year.      Lombard  Street,  where  they  lived,  was  the  daily 
mart  of  the  London  merchants  before  the  erection  of  the  Exchange. 

"  Jane  Shore's  husband  was  a  goldsmith  in  this  street ;  so  at  least  the  old  ballad, 
printed  in  Percy's  Re/iques,  would  lead  us  to  believe.  No.  68,  now  Messrs.  Martin, 
Stones  and  Martin's  (bankers),  occupies  the  site  of  the  house  of  business  of  Sir 
Thomas  Gresham,  founder  of  the  Royal  Exchange.  When  Pennant  wrote,  the 
Messrs.  Martin  still  possessed  the  original  grasshopper  that  distinguished  his  house. 
'How    the     Exchange    passeth    in     Lombard     Street'    is    a    phrase    of    frequent 


.^^^&rm 


^■'''■i;r:..-^i]|u;-; 


«1  'mnnrinn  ,'i'"  ■ 


E2^ 


Popib  '  Hoose.'"-- 


POPES    HOUSE    IN    PLOUGH    COURT 


occurrence  in  Sir  Thomas  Gresham's  early  letters.  No.  67,  now  in  the  occupation 
of  Messrs.  Glyn  and  Co.  (bankers),  belongs  to  the  Goldsmiths'  Company,  to  whom 
it  was  left  by  Sir  Martin  Bowes,  an  eminent  goldsmith  in  the  reign  of  Queen 
Elizabeth.  Guy,  the  founder  of  Guy's  Hospital,  was  a  bookseller  in  this  street. 
The  father  of  Pope,  the  poet,  was  a  linendraper  in  Lombard  Street ;  and  here,  in 
1688,  his  celebrated  son  was  born.  Opposite  the  old-fashioned  gate  of  the  Church 
of  St.  Edmund  the  Martyr  is  a  narrow  court,  leading  to  a  Quakers'  Meeting-house 
where  Penn  and  Fox  frequently  preached"  (Cunningham's  Handbook). 

The    house  in   which    Pope  is  said  to  have  been   born  is  that  at  the  end  of 
Plough  Court. 


I04  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Between  the  Church  of  St.  Edmund  and  the  west  end  of  the  street  were  two 
mansions  formerly  belonguig,  one  to  William  de  la  Pole,  Knight  Banneret,  and 
"King's  Merchant"  in  the  reign  of  Edward  III.,  and  afterwards  to  his  son, 
Michael  de  la  Pole,  Earl  of  Suffolk,  and  the  other  to  Sir  Martin  Bowes,  mayor, 
1545.  Here  also  was  the  Cardinal's  Hat  Tavern,  one  of  the  oldest  of  the  City 
taverns,  mentioned  in  1492. 

The  modern  street  gives  a  general  impression  similar  to  that  of  Cornhill. 
Everywhere  we  are  confronted  by  solid  banks  and  insurance  offices,  which  seem 
to  divide  the  ground  between  them. 

George  Yard  contains  the  imposing  building  of  the  Deutsche  Bank  in  London, 
as  well  as  a  couple  of  large  houses  let  in  flats,  and  presents  a  decidedly  dignified 
appearance.  The  Bank  is  an  immense  building,  with  a  granite-columned  portico, 
and  rusticated  stonework  round  it. 

Of  the  two  churches  now  remaining  in  this  street,  one  is 

ST.    EDMUND,    KING    AND    MARTYR 

This  church  was  anciently  called  by  some  St.  Edmund  Grass-Church,  because  of  its  proximity  to  the 
grass  market.  It  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire  and  rebuilt  by  Wren  in  1690.  In  1864  and  1880  the 
church  was  restored.  After  the  Great  Fire,  the  parish  of  St.  Nicholas  Aeon  was  annexed.  The  earliest 
date  of  an  incumbent  is  1150. 

The  patronage  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Prior  and  Convent  of  Holy  Trinity,  London,  but 
Henry  ^'III.  seized  it  and  granted  it  to  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  in  1545,  in  whose  successors 
it  continues. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  240. 

The  present  church  measures  59  feet  in  length,  40  feet  in  breadth,  and  57  feet  9  inches  in  height. 
It  is  singular  from  its  standing  north  and  south,  but  this  was  forced  upon  Wren  by  the  position  of  the 
ground  at  his  disposal.  There  are  no  aisles.  The  steeple,  which  rises  at  the  south,  consists  of  a  three- 
storied  tower  and  octagonal  lantern  and  spire,  and  a  pedestal  supporting  a  finial  and  vane.  The  lantern  is 
ornamented  at  the  angles  by  flaming  urns,  in  allusion  to  the  Great  Fire.  A  projecting  clock  is  attached 
to  the  face  of  the  second  story  and  is  a  prominent  feature  in  Lombard  Street.  The  total  height  is 
136  feet. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  :  By  Thomas  Wyllys  for  himself  and  Christian  his  wife,  whose  endowment 
fetched  ;^24  in  1548,  when  Richard  Auncell  was  chaplain;  by  and  for  Matilda  at  Vane,  relict  of  John 
Atte  Rose,  dedicated  to  SS.  John,  Peter,  and  Thomas  the  martyr,  to  which  John  Reynes  was  admitted 
chaplain  on  the  resignation  of  William  Belgrave,  September  25,  1382  ;  by  Richard  Toky  for  himself  and 
Matilda  his  wife,  to  which  William  Howes  de  Blackolm  was  admitted  chaplain,  October  20,  1362;  by 
John  Longe,  whose  endowment  fetched  £t,S  in  1548,  when  William  Myller  and  Edward  Mamyn  or 
Hamonde  were  chaplains. 

The  old  church  contained  a  monument  to  John  Shute,  a  painter-stainer,  who  wrote  one  of  the  earliest 
English  works  on  Architecture.  He  died  in  1563.  On  the  east  wall  a  monument  commemorates  Dr. 
Jeremiah  Milles,  Dean  of  Exeter,  President  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  and  rector  of  the  united  parishes, 
who  died  in  1 784. 

Addison  was  married  in  this  church  to  the  Dowager  Countess  of  \Var\vick  and  Holland  in  17 16. 

This  parish  was  not  rich  in  charitable  gifts.  Some  of  the  donors  were  :  Richard  Jaie  of  45s.  for  bread, 
etc.,  for  the  poor;  Mrs.  Joan  Lowen  of  52s.  ;  Mrs.  Anne  Whitmore,  ^5. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  105 

ALLHALLOWS,    LOMBARD    STREET 

This  church  went  by  the  name  of  Allhallows  "  Grasse  Church  "  from  its  proximity  to  the  grass  and 
hay  market.  It  was  consumed  by  the  Great  Fire,  but  subsequently  rebuilt  and  completed  by  Wren  in 
1694.  The  parish  of  Allhallows  was  one  of  the  thirteen  "  Peculiars"  of  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  in 
the  City  of  London.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1279. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  Brihterus,  citizen  of  London,  who  in  1052  gave 
it  to  the  Prior  and  Convent  of  Christ  Church,  Canterbury ;  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Canterbury,  in  whose 
successors  it  continued,  who  first  presented  to  it  in  1552. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  300. 

The  interior  of  the  church  is  constructed  on  a  rectangular  plan,  without  aisles,  and  with  only  one 
pillar,  rising  at  the  centre  of  the  west  gallery.  It  is  84  feet  in  length,  52  feet  in  breadth,  and  the  height 
30  feet.  The  church  contains  much  good  woodwork,  the  carved  oak  altar-piece  being  especially  fine.  The 
stone  tower,  which  rises  at  the  south-west,  is  divided  into  three  stories,  the  lowest  of  which  has  a  large 
doorway  at  its  south  face ;  the  second  is  pierced  by  a  circular-headed  window,  and  the  third  by  square 
openings  with  louvres,  each  surmounted  by  a  cornice.  The  height  of  the  tower  is  about  85  feet.  The 
church  is  entered  by  a  porch  and  vestibule  through  a  doorway  in  the  tower. 

Chantries  were  here  founded  by :  John  Chircheman,  citizen,  and  Richard  Tasburgh,  late  parson  of 
Heylesdon  County,  Norfolk,  July  15,  1392  (Pat.  16  Richard  II.  p.  i.  m.  25);  John  Buck,  whose  endow- 
ment yielded  ;^40  :  6s.  in  1548;  John  Maldon,  whose  endowment  yielded  ;£^2o  :  3  : 4  in  154S,  when 
Edward  Hollonde  was  priest ;  William  Trystor,  who  endowed  it  with  ;^6  : 6  :  8  in  1548. 

The  most  notable  of  the  monuments  in  this  church  is  to  the  memory  of  Simon  Horsepoole,  Sheriff 
of  London  in  1591. 

The  sole  donor  of  charities  seems  to  have  been  this  same  Simon  Horsepoole,  who  appointed  to 
this  parish  £4  :  4s.  per  annum. 

The  original  church  was  indebted  for  its  south  aisle,  steeple,  and  other  sections  to  John  Warner, 
Robert  Warner,  and  the  Pewterers. 

Clothes  were  found  for  forty  boys,  as  well  as  books,  and  the  boys  were  put  out  as  apprentices 
by  a  Society  of  Langbourn  Ward. 

The  most  notable  rectors  were  :  Robert  Gilbert,  Bishop  of  London,  1436;  Thomas  Langton  (d.  1501), 
Bishop  of  St.  David's  and  Sarum,  and  of  AVinchester  ;  Francis  Dee  (d.  1638),  Bishop  of  Peterborough. 

At  the  corner  formed  by  the  junction  of  Lombard  and  King  WilHam  Streets 
stands  the  Church  of 

ST.   MARY   WOOLNOTH 

"  The  church  was  founded  by  Wulfnuth,  son  of  Earl  Godwin,  about  the  time  of  the  Confessor.  This 
name  was  corrupted  into  Woolnoth  "  (Rev.  J.  M.  S.  Brooke,  Rector).  It  was  rebuilt,  according  to  Newcourt, 
from  its  very  foundations  about  1438.  Though  damaged  by  the  Great  Fire,  it  was  not  destroyed, 
and  Wren  repaired  and  rebuilt  various  parts  in  1677.  In  17 16  the  building  was  pulled  down  and  the 
present  church,  the  work  of  Nicholas  Hawksmoor,  was  commenced  and  finished  in  1727.  The  earliest 
date  of  an  incumbent  is  1252. 

The  patronage  of  the  church,  before  1252,  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Prioress  and  Convent  of 
St.  Helen's,  London;  then  Henry  VUL,  who  seized  it  and  granted  it  to  Sir  Martin  Bowes,  Alderman 
and  Mayor  of  London,  whose  son  and  heir,  Thomas  Bowes,  sold  it  to  William  Pelhani,  December  19, 
1 571;  Robert  Viner  Miles,  and  several  other  persons,  the  last  being  Sir  George  Broke-Middleton,  who 
presented  to  it  in  1883. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  300. 

The  interior  of  the  church  is  almost  square.     It  contains  twelve  Corinthian  columns,  placed  at  the 


io6  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

angles  in  groups  of  three,  and  supporting  an  entablature  prolonged  to  the  walls  by  means  of  pilasters. 
There  is  a  clerestory  above,  pierced  on  its  four  sides  by  semicircular  windows.  The  tower,  which  rises 
at  the  west,  contains  the  doorway  in  its  basement  story ;  the  cornice  is  surmounted  by  a  pedestal 
supporting  composite  columns,  and  the  summit  is  divided  into  two  turrets  with  balustrades  above.  The 
north  front  has  three  niches,  each  enclosing  two  Ionic  columns  on  pedestals  ;  the  south  front  is  plain. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by:  Gregory  de  Rokeslie,  Mayor  of  London,  1275-81,  for  himself  and 
Amicia  his  wife,  to  which  John  de  Pory  was  admitted  chaplain,  July  15,  1333  ;  Thomas  Noket,  for  himself 
and  for  Alice,  wife  of  Gregory  de  Norton,  called  atte  Shire,  at  the  Altar  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary  and 
St.  Anne,  in  the  south  side  of  the  church,  to  which  William  Weston  was  admitted  chaplain,  January  28, 
1400-1401  ;  the  endowment  fetched  ^13  :  6  :  8  in  1548,  when  William  Wentors,  or  Ventrys,  and  Richard 
Browne  were  chaplains;  Henry  Brige,  Knt,  whose  endowment  yielded  ^13:  13:4  in  1548,  when  John 
Meres  was  priest. 

Sir  Hugh  Brice,  keeper  of  the  King's  Exchange  under  Henry  VIl.,  was  buried  in  this  church  ; 
he  built  a  chapel  here  called  the  "Channel  ";  also  Sir  Thomas  Ramsey,  Lord  Mayor  in  1577  ;  William 
Hilton,  Merchant  Taylor  and  Taylor  to  Henry  VHL,  and  Sir  ALirtin  Bowes,  patron  of  the  church  for  over 
thirty  years. 

Among  the  later  monuments.  Stow  records  one  in  memory  of  Sir  William  Phipps,  who  discovered 
a  sunken  Spanish  ship  in  1687  containing  silver  to  the  value  of  ;^3oo,ooo  sterling,  and  one  commemorating 
Sir  Thomas  Vyner,  goldsmith,  and  Mayor  of  London,  who  died  in  1665. 

The  list  of  legacies  and  bequests  was  too  long  for  insertion,  Stow  says,  but  was  to  be  seen  by  any  one 
in  the  Parish  Book.  He  records  a  gift  of  ;iCi  :  6s.  per  annum  from  Sir  Nicholas  Rainton,  and  one  of 
y^3  :  15  :  8  paid  by  the  Merchant  Taylors. 

Richard  Rawlins  (d.  1536),  Bishop  of  St.  David's,  was  rector  here;  also  John  Newton,  author  of 
"  Olney  Hymns." 

King  William  Street  contains  few  associations  of  interest,  having  been  built, 
as  its  name  implies,  in  the  reign  of  the  fourth  monarch  of  that  name,  whose  statue  on 
a  pedestal,  which  outrivals  every  other  in  the  City  on  the  score  of  weight  alone,  stands 
at  the  south  end.  This  is  the  work  of  \V.  Nixon  and  was  set  up  in  December  1844. 
The  figure  is  15  feet  3  inches  high,  and  the  whole  statue  weighs  20  tons.  Special 
arrangements  had  to  be  made  for  carrying  the  Metropolitan  Railway  beneath  it. 
The  statue  is  on  the  site  of  the  Boar's  Head  Tavern,  noted  in  old  days  as  a  famous 
rendezvous,  and  familiar  to  readers  of  Shakespeare  from  Falstaff's  frequent  resort 
thither.  Goldsmith  and  Washington  Irvine  have  written  on  the  Boar's  Head 
Tavern,  which  rose  again  after  the  Fire  :  the  sign  of  the  later  house  is  preserved  in 
the  Guildhall  Museum. 

King  William  Street  was  cut  through  various  lanes,  which  are  now  dealt  with. 
At  the  north  end  in  Gresham  Place  is  Gresham  Club,  which  was  built  in  1S44  ;  the 
architect  was  Henry  Flower.  It  is  for  merchants  and  City  men  ;  the  entrance  fee 
is  twenty  guineas,  annual  subscription  eight  guineas,  and  the  membership  is  limited 
to  500.  It  is  a  grey  stone  building  with  triangular  stone  pediments  projecting  over 
the  upper  windows. 

St.  Clement's  Lane  leads  to  St.  Clement's  Church.  I  find  a  reference  to  rents 
in  Clement's  Lane  in  1322.  In  1371  the  "good  folk"  of  Candelwyke  Street  and 
Clement's  Lane  petitioned  the  mayor  against  certain  plumbers  who  proposed  to  melt 


/':.!(.'>  /a/  A^t-iKy. 


ST.    MARV    W'OOLXurn 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  107 

their  lead  in  a  place  hard  by  called  the  Woodhaugh  ;  they  said  that  the  vapours  were 
noxious  and  even  fatal  to  human  life,  that  trustworthy  people  would  depose  to  the 
mischief  caused  by  inhaling  these  fumes,  and  that  the  shaft  of  the  furnace  was  too 
low.  In  the  end  the  plumbers  were  allowed  to  go  on  with  their  work,  provided 
that  they  raised  the  shaft.  In  the  lane  was  the  bank  in  which  Samuel  Rogers  was 
a  partner. 

In  Church  Court,  we  come  to  the  ancient  graveyard  of  St.  Clement,  a  minute 
space  with  one  great  shapeless  tomb  in  the  centre  of  the  asphalt  and  a  ftiw  small 
erect  tombstones  in  the  little  border  runninof  inside  the  railings. 

ST.   CLEMENT,   EASTCHEAP 

The  Church  of  St.  Clement  was  distroyed  by  the  Great  Fire,  but  rebuilt  by  Wren  in  i6S6,  when 
St.  Martin's  Orgar  was  annexed  to  it.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1309. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Abbot  and  Convent  of  Westminster,  1309  ; 
then  Henry  VIII.,  who  seized  it  and  gave  it  to  the  Bishop  of  Westminster  in  1540;  next  the  Bishop  of 
London,  by  Mary,  March  3,  1553-54,  in  whose  successors  it  continues. 

Houseling  peojile  in  1548  were  271. 

The  present  building  measures  64  feet  in  length,  40  feet  in  breadth,  and  34  feet  in  height.  It  has 
one  aisle  on  the  south  side,  separated  from  the  rest  of  the  church  by  two  high-based  columns.  The 
square  tower  at  the  south-west  is  built  of  brick,  with  stone  dressings,  and  contains  three  stories,  with  a 
cornice  and  balustrade  above.     The  total  height  is  SS  feet. 

Chantries  were  founded  here :  by  John  Chardeney  for  himself  and  Margaret  his  wife,  to  which 
William  Hocchepound  was  admitted  chaplain,  July  23,  137  i,  at  the  Altar  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary  ;  for 
William  Ivery. 

There  were  very  few  monuments  in  this  church  originally.  In  the  west  window  is  a  memorial  to 
Thomas  Fuller,  the  church  historian,  Bishop  Bryan  Walton,  and  Bishop  Pearson.  Fuller  and  Pearson 
were  lecturers  here  for  some  time  ;  the  preaching  of  Pearson  on  the  Creed  and  Thirty-nine  Articles  made 
him  famous.  Walton,  the  compiler  of  the  Polyglot  Bible,  was  created  Bishop  of  Chester,  1660.  The 
stained-glass  window  on  the  southern  side  was  erected  in  1872  by  the  Clothworkers'  Company  in  memory 
of  Samuel  Middlemore,  who  died  in  1628,  leaving  a  charitable  bequest  to  the  parish.  Henry  Purcell  and 
Jonathan  Battishill,  the  musical  composers,  who  were  organists  at  the  church,  are  commemorated  by 
brass  tablets. 

There  were  several  gifts  belonging  to  the  parish,  but  the  names  of  the  donors  are  not  recorded 
by  Stow. 

Sir  Thomas  Gooch  (1674-T754),  Bishop  of  Bristol,  of  Norwich  and  of  Ely,  was  rector  here. 

St.  Nicholas  Lane,  also  one  of  the  most  ancient  lanes  in  London.  In  1258 
we  find  that  one  Ralph  was  chaplain  in  the  Church  of  St.  Nicholas  Aeon.  In  1275 
the  church  is  endowed  with  a  small  rent;  in  1279,  a  testator  bequeaths  his  "Stone 
house  "  in  the  lane  ;  and  in  many  subsequent  entries  the  lane  is  mentioned.  Tlie 
dedication  of  the  church  may  possibly  indicate  the  date  of  its  foundation.  It  was 
in  the  eleventh  century  that  the  bones  of  St.  Nicholas  were  brought  from  Myra  in 
Asia  Minor,  then  in  the  hands  of  the  Mohammedans,  to  Bari  on  the  Adriatic,  where 
they  still  lie.  There  grew  up  quite  suddenly  an  extraordinary  belief  in  the  power  of 
this  saint.      Pilgrimages  were  instituted,   in  which  thousands  flocked  to  his  tomb  ; 


io8  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

miracles  were  multiplied  at  the  sacred  spot ;  the  churches  without  end  were  dedicated 
to  his  name  of  Nicholas.  In  England  372  churches  are  said  to  be  named  after  him. 
It  would  be  interesting  to  learn  the  date  of  this  dedication.  May  we,  however, 
connect  this  saint  of  Italian  pilgrimage  with  the  coming  of  Italian  merchants 
to  London?  St.  Nicholas  was  the  protector  of  sailors,  virgins,  and  children. 
Cunningham  calls  him  also  the  protector  of  merchants,  but  of  merchants  as  sailors. 
His  emblem  was  the  three  purses,  round  and  filled  with  gold,  or  the  three  golden 
balls.  We  may  therefore  at  least  assume  that  this  was  the  church  of  the  "  Lombards  " 
and  the  financiers  from  Italy.  The  churchyard  still  remains,  a  square  patch  of 
ground,  railed  in,  very  similar  to  the  generality  ot  such  quiet  little  spaces.  It  has 
asphalt  paths  running  in  and  out  of  stunted  evergreen  bushes.  Nicholas  Passage 
runs  on  the  south  side,  and  near  is  the  Acorn  public-house,  an  old  house,  with  its  sign 
of  a  huge  gilt  acorn  hanging  over  the  door. 

St.  Nicholas  Aeon  was  situated  on  the  west  side  of  Nicholas  Lane,  near  Lombard  Street  ;  it 
was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire,  and  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being  annexed  to  that  of  St.  Edmund  the 
King  and  ALtrtyr,  and  its  site  turned  into  a  burying-ground.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1250. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  Godwin  :  and  Thurand  his  wife  gave  it  in  1084  to 
the  Abbot  and  Convent  of  ALalmesbury  ;  Henry  VIIL  seized  it,  1542,  and  so  it  continued  in  the  Crown 
up  to  1666,  when  it  was  annexed  to  St.  Edmund  the  King;  since  then  the  patronage  is  alternately  in  the 
Crown  and  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  154. 

Johanna  Macany,  who  left  large  legacies  to  the  parish  about  1452,  was  buried  in  this  church,  also 
John  Hall,  Master  of  the  Company  of  Drapers  ;  he  died  in  1618. 

No  legacies  or  gifts  are  recorded  by  Stow  except  that  of  Johanna  ALicany,  of  which  he  gives  full  details. 

Maurice  Griffith,  Bishop  of  Rochester  in  1554,  was  rector  here. 

Of  Birchin  Lane  Stow  says  it  should  be  Birchover  Lane.  It  is  also  spelt 
Berchernere  and  Borcherveres  Lane.  It  is  frequently  mentioned  in  the  Calendar  of 
Wills.  In  1260  there  is  "land"  in  the  lane;  in  12S5  there  is  a  mansion  house; 
there  are  a  bakehouse  and  shops  in  1319  ;  in  1326.  a  tenement;  twenty  years  later, 
other  tenements  ;  in  1358,  a  place  called  "  la  Belle  "  ;  in  1363,  lands  and  a  tenement ; 
and  in  1372,  tenements  in  "  Berchers"  Lane.  In  1386  and  the  following  century  we 
have  it  spelled  Birchin  Lane.      In  1348,  Riley  quotes  the  name  as  Bercherners  Lane. 

In  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries  the  lane  was  inhabited  by  "fripperers," 
i.e.  old  -  clothes  men.  Here  was  Tom's  Coffee-house,  frequented  by  Garrick. 
Chatterton  wrote  a  letter  to  his  sister  from  this  house.  In  a  court  leading  out  of 
Birchin  Lane  is  the  George  and  Vulture,  a  well-known  tavern,  which  still  preserves 
the  custom  of  serving  chops  and  steaks  on  pewter. 

Abchurch  Lane  gives  its  name  to  the  church  of  St.  Mary  Abchurch,  which, 
according  to  Stow,  is  also  Upchurch  (see  below).  The  parish  of  Abchurch  or 
Abbechurch  is  mentioned  as  early  as  1272  and  1282,  and  tenements  in  Abbechurch 
Lane  are  devised  by  a  testator  of  the  year  1297. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


109 


ST.   MARY    ABCHURCH 

The  additional  name  signifies  "Up-church,"  and  is  accounted  for  by  the  position  of  the  edifice  on 
rising  ground.  The  church  was  burnt  down  by  the  Great  Fire  and  rebuilt  in  1686  from  the  designs  of 
Sir  Christopher  Wren,  when  the  parish  of  St.  Lawrence  Pountney  was  annexed.  The  earliest  date  of  an 
incumbent  is  1323. 

.    11  u 


AI.TAR    OF    ST.    MAKY    AUCllUKCll 


The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Prior  and  Convent  of  St.  Mary  Overy, 
Southwark,  who  exchanged  it  to  the  Master  and  Wardens  of  Corpus  Christi  College  near  St.  Lawrence 
Pountney,  1448;  Henry  VIIL,  who  seized  it  in  1540,  and  so  continued  in  the  Crown  till  Elizabeth,  in 
1568,  granted  it  to  Corpus  Christi  College,  Cambridge,  with  whom  it  continued.  Elizabeth's  grant  was 
procured  by  Archbishop  Parker,  who  gave  her  the  rectory  of  Penshurst  in  Kent,  in  order  that  he  might 
make  over  the  patronage  of  a  London  living  to  his  old  college. 

Houscling  people  in  1548  were  368. 

The  church  is  almost  square,  measuring  63  feet  in  length  and  60  feet  in  breadth,  and  is  surmounted 


no  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

by  a  cupola  51  feet  in  height  supported  by  pendentives  attached  to  the  walls:  the  latter  is  decorated  with 
painting  by  Sir  James  Thornhill.  The  altar-piece  is  adorned  with  carving,  which  is  considered  to  be 
some  of  Gibbon's  finest  work.  The  steeple  consists  of  a  tower  of  four  stories,  finished  by  a  cornice,  and 
surmounted  by  a  cupola,  lantern,  and  lead-covered  spire,  with  ball  and  cross ;  the  total  height  is  about 
140  feet.     The  building  is  of  red  brick  with  Portland  stone  dressings. 

Chantries  were  founded  here :  By  and  for  Simon  de  Wynchecombe,  citizen  and  armourer,  in  the 
chapel  of  Holy  Trinity,  to  which  Robert  de  Bruysor  Chesterson  was  admitted,  November  18,  1401 — a 
licence  was  granted  by  the  King  to  found  this,  July  26,  1359  ;  by  John  Lyttelton  ;  by  Simon  Wryght. 

The  church  formerly  contained  monuments  to  Sir  James  Hawes  and  Sir  John  Branch,  mayors  in 
1574  and  1580;  and  to  Master  Roger  Mountague,  "illustrious  Precedent  of  Bounty  and  pious  Industry." 
Against  the  eastern  wall,  there  is  a  large  monument  to  Sir  Patience  Ward,  mayor  in  1680,  and  senior 
member  for  the  City  of  London  in  the  Convention  Parliament  of  1688-89. 

The  parish  had  no  legacies  or  charitable  gifts  of  any  considerable  amount.  Mrs.  Hyde  gave  ^3  :  i8s. 
for  bread.     The  Merchant  Taylors  Company  (the  gift  of  several  benefactors)  gave  ^16  :  19  :  6  for  coal. 

Sherborne  Lane. — Stow  asserts  that  originally  Langbourn  Water,  "  breaking 
out  of  the  ground  in  Fenchurch  Street,  ran  down  the  same  street,  Lombard  Street, 
to  the  west  end  of  St.  Mary  Woolnoth's  church,  where,  turning  south  and  breaking 
into  small  shares,  rills,  or  streams,  it  left  the  name  of  Share-borne  Lane,"  or  as 
he  had  also  read  it,  South-borne  Lane,  "because  it  ran  south  to  the  river  Thames." 
W'heatley  thinks  that  Scrieburne,  from  scir,  a  share  {sciran,  to  divide),  is  the  more 
likely  etymology.  This  "  long  bourne  of  sweet  water,"  Stow  further  relates,  "  is  long 
since  stopped  up  at  the  head,  and  the  rest  of  the  course  filled  up  and  paved  over, 
so  that  no  sign  thereof  remaineth  more  than  the  names."  The  existence  of  the 
stream  indeed  is  more  than  problematical.  The  lane  is  narrow,  and  now  occupied 
wholly  by  business  premises  more  or  less  modern.  The  back  of  the  City  Carlton 
Club  shows  on  the  west  side,  and  near  the  north  end  is  the  narrow  way  into 
St.  Swithin's  Lane  at  the  south  end  of  the  street  (possibly  Plough  Alley) ;  and  the 
back  way  into  the  old  General  Post  Office  "by  the  sign  of  the  Cock"  (east  side, 
north  end),  both  shown  in  Strype's  1754  map,  have  vanished.  The  former  is  built 
up  ;  the  latter  is  occupied  by  King  William  Street,  which  was  cut  clean  through 
St.  Mary  Woolnoth's  churchyard  and  the  old  General  Post  Office  (formerly  the 
residence  of  Sir  Robert  Vyner,  Lord  Mayor,  1675).  Before  the  Fire  the  General 
Postmaster  lived  "  at  his  house  in  Sherburne  Lane  neere  Abchurch,"  and  hither 
"  The  Carriers  Cosniographie,  by  John  Taylor,  the  Water  Poet,"  written  in  1637, 
bids  repair  all  who  desired  to  send  letters  abroad  or  to  various  parts  of  the  kingdom. 

The  name  occurs  as  early  as  a.d.  1300,  and  is  very  frequently  referred  to  in  the 
Calendar  of  Wills,  but  under  quite  another  form,  viz.  as  "  Shiteburn  Lane."  Stow's 
derivation  of "  Sharebone  "  or  "  Southbone  "  Lane  will  not,  therefore,  hold. 

St.  Swithin's  Lane. — Oxford  Court  in  this  lane  was  so  called  from  John  de 
Vera,  i6th  Earl  of  Oxford,  who  died  here  in  1562. 

As  early  as  1277  we  find  houses  in  St.  Swithin's  Lane.  In  13 10  we  find 
turners  of  St.  Swithin's  Lane. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  m 

The  houses  are  of  modern  brick  and  stone,  some  of  them  are  finished  with  pohshed 
granite  piers.  The  great  richly  wrought  iron  gates  before  the  courtyard  of  Salters' 
Hall  immediately  attract  attention.  The  hall  itself,  built  in  1823,  is  painted  and 
stuccoed,  and  has  a  fine  Ionic  portico.  Salters'  Hall  was  used  as  a  Presbyterian 
chapel  in  the  reign  of  William  HI. 

THE    SALTERS   COMPANY 

The  first  evidence  of  the  existence  of  the  Company  is  a  Patent  Roll  of  17  Richard  II.,  1394  ;  but  from 
documents  in  their  possession,  there  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  the  Company  had  a  much  earlier  existence. 

In  1454  Thomas  Beamond,  citizen  and  Salter  (at  one  time  sheriff  in  London),  left  to  the  wardens 
of  the  brotherhood  and  y;uild  of  the  Body  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  in  the  Church  of  All  Saints,  Bread 
Street,  London,  and  their  successors  for  ever,  land  in  Bread  Street,  whereon  had  recently  been  erected  the 
"  Salters'  Hall,"  together  with  other  property,  out  of  the  rents  and  profits  of  which  he  directed  that  the  hall 
should  be  repaired  or  rebuilt  as  occasion  might  require.  This  will  also  gave  directions  for  certain  religious 
observances,  and  for  the  support  of  poor  Salters  in  almshouses,  etc. 

At  some  time  subsequently  to  1454  an  attempt  was  made  to  prove  that  the  religious  guild  and  the 
Company  of  Salters  were  distinct  corporations,  and  that  Mr.  Beamond  intended  to  bequeath  the  property 
mentioned  in  his  wmII  to  the  spiritual  body  exclusively,  but  the  legal  decision  was  that  the  religious  guild 
and  the  Salters  Company  were  identical. 

In  the  reign  of  Edward  IV.,  1465,  ordinances  were  made  for  the  good  government  of  the  "  Company 
of  Salters  " ;  and  in  a  suit  presented  by  Lord  Arundel  against  the  Company  (about  the  same  time)  it  was 
proved  that  the  Company  of  Salters  and  the  guild  or  fraternity  mentioned  in  the  Patent  Roll  of  Richard 
II.  were  identical  corporations. 

1507. — Ordinances  were  confirmed  by  the  Lord  Chancellor,  the  Lord  Treasurer,  and  the  two  Lord 
Chief  Justices,  to  the  wardens  and  fellowship  of  the  mystery  and  craft  of  Salters  in  the  City  of  London, 
and  keepers  of  the  fraternity  of  Corpus  Christi  in  the  Church  of  Allhallows,  Bread  Street. 

1530. — Arms  were  granted  to  the  Company  by  Thomas  Benolt,  Clarencieux.  This  deed  of  grant  is 
in  the  Company's  possession. 

1539. — The  hall  in  Bread  Street  was  burnt  down,  and  rebuilt  by  the  Company. 

1551. — In  consideration  of  a  large  payment  made  by  them  King  Edward  VI.  reconveyed  to  the 
Company  of  Salters  the  whole  of  the  annual  payments  issuing  out  of  their  property  in  respect  of  superstitious 
uses,  which  had  been  held  forfeited  to  the  Crown  at  the  time  of  the  abolition  of  chantries  in  the  reign 
of  Henry  Vm.  (1545). 

1559. — First  charter  of  incorporation  granted  by  Queen  Elizabeth  to  the  "Keepers  or  Wardens  and 
Commonalty  of  the  art  or  mystery  of  Salters,  London."  About  the  same  time  some  new  ordinances  were 
drawn  up  and  doubtless  sanctioned  by  the  proper  authorities,  which  make  provision  for  the  government 
of  the  guild,  and  prescribe  oaths  for  its  various  members  and  officers ;  and  also  conferred  the  right  of  search 
in  the  premises  of  persons  using  the  art  or  mystery  of  Salters  in  the  City  of  London  and  suburbs  thereof, 
for  unwholesome  merchandise  and  false  weights  and  measures. 

1607-1609. — Acts  of  Parliament  passed  in  the  reign  of  James  I.,  confirming  to  the  Company  all 
their  property. 

In  these  years  a  fresh  charter  and  statutes  were  granted  by  the  King. 

16 13  to  1619. — The  Company's  Irish  estate  was  acquired  by  payment  to  the  Crown  of  the  sum 
of  ;^5ooo  (being  the  twelfth  part  of  ;^6o,ooo  raised  by  the  twelve  chief  companies)  with  the  object  of 
planting  an  English  and  Scotch  Protestant  colony  there. 

1641. — Oxford  House  (with  gardens),  which  formerly  stood  on  the  present  site  of  the  Company's 
hall  and  offices,  was  purchased  with  corporate  funds  of  the  Company,  and  used  as  their  hall :  this 
was  the  third,  that  left  by  Mr.  Beamond  (1454)  having  been  destroyed  by  fire  and  rebuilt  about  1539. 


112  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

1666. — The  whole  of  the  Company's  estate  in  London  and  the  greater  part  of  their  archives  were 
destroyed  by  the  "  great  fire,"  whereby  heavy  losses  were  entailed  on  them. 

1684,  1685.  —  King  James  II.  granted  the  Company  another  charter,  but  the  whole  of  these 
proceedings  were  rendered  void  by  an  Act  passed  in  the  following  reign,  William  and  Mary,  under 
which  the  Salters  Company,  amongst  others,  were  restored  to  their  ancient  rights,  privileges,  and  franchises. 

1821,  1827. — The  hall  of  the  Company,  erected  after  the  Fire  in  1666,  was  taken  down,  and  the 
existing  building  was  erected,  being  the  fifth  hall  of  the  Company. 

The  application  of  salt  to  the  preservation  of  food,  and  particularly  of  fish  for  consumption  in 
winter,  must  have  given  rise  to  a  distinct  trade  for  that  purpose  in  the  earliest  times ;  and,  as  civilization 
advanced,  the  term  "  Salter "  no  doubt  became  more  extended  in  its  commercial  interpretation,  until  it 
included,  as  in  the  present  day,  all  persons  trading  wholly  or  partially  in  salt,  such  as  oilmen,  drysalters, 
and  druggists. 

Salt  manufacturers  and  merchants,  oilmen,  druggists,  and  grocers  (who  made  salt  one  of  their  trading 
commodities)  have  been  and  are  largely  represented  on  the  guild. 

The  number  of  liverymen  is  given  as  183;  the  Corporate  Income  is  ^^20,000;  the  Trust  Income 

is  ;^2000. 

The  only  advantage  incident  to  the  position  of  a  freeman  is  a  claim  for  relief,  if  in  pecuniary  distress. 

Liverymen  are  entitled  to  vote  at  the  election  for  the  office  of  renter  warden,  of  assistant,  of 
master  and  of  wardens ;  and,  if  free  of  the  City  of  London,  for  candidates  for  the  office  of  Lord  Mayor, 
and  for  some  officers  of  the  corporation  ;  also,  if  free  of  the  City,  and  resident  within  a  radius  of  twenty-five 
miles,  for  members  of  Parliament  for  the  said  City.  All  liverymen  not  in  receipt  of  pecuniary  assistance 
are  invited  to  entertainments  of  the  Company,  and  have  a  claim  for  relief  should  they  fall  into  misfortune. 

The  present  Salters'  Hall  and  garden,  with  some  adjoining  land,  occupies  the 
site  of  the  "fair  and  large  built  house"  which  Sir  Robert  Aguylum  devised  in 
1285-86  to  the  priors  of  Tortington  in  Sussex  for  their  town  inn  or  mansion.  The 
Dissolution  brought  it  to  the  Crown,  and  Henry  VHI.,  in  1540,  gave  it  to  John  de 
Vere,  Earl  of  Oxford.  Then  it  became  known  as  Oxford  Place  or  House.  Mary 
probably  restored  it;  at  all  events  Elizabeth  regranted  it  in  1573  to  the  Earldom 
of  Oxford,  then  held  by  Edward,  grandson  of  John  de  V^ere  above  named.  The 
new  tenant  apparently  resided  here  in  good  style.  Stow  quaintly  tells  of  his  pomp. 
"  He  hath  been  noted  within  these  forty  years  to  have  ridden  into  this  City,  and  so 
to  his  house  by  London  Stone,  with  80  gentlemen  in  a  livery  of  Reading  tawny, 
and  chains  of  gold  about  their  necks,  before  him,  and  one  hundred  tall  yeomen  in 
the  like  livery  to  follow  him,  without  chains  but  all  having  his  cognisance  of  the  blue 
boat  embroidered  on  their  left  shoulder."  He  appears  not  to  have  remained  here 
long,  for  Sir  Ambrose  Nicholas,  Salter,  kept  his  mayoralty  here  in  1575,  and  Sir 
John  Hart  dwelt  here  as  Lord  Mayor  in  1589.  Hart  bought  the  place  from  the 
Earl,  who  was  then  dissipating  his  great  estates  from  motives  of  pique  and  indignation 
against  his  father-in-law,  Cecil,  Lord  Burleigh. 

The  house  was  sold  to  the  feofees  of  the  Salters  Company  in  1641.  The 
Great  Fire  of  1666  probably  destroyed -only  a  part  of  the  great  house  (Wilkinson  in 
Londina  Illustrata  goes  too  far  in  maintaining  that  the  building  wholly  escaped, 
but  is  probably  nearer  right  than  those  who  say  it  was  quite  destroyed),  statements 
to  the  contrary  notwithstanding,  for,  at  the   request  of  the   Bishop  of  London,  the 


7"A<'J.  H.  Sktphtrd. 


114  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

parishioners  of  St.  Swithin's  assembled  in  the  long  parlour  for  worship  whilst  their 
church  was  building,  and  several  of  the  companies  held  their  courts  here  until  their 
halls  had  risen  from  the  ashes.  The  destroyed  portion,  perhaps  indeed  the  whole, 
and  the  wall  of  the  great  garden,  and  some  adjoining  houses,  were  rebuilt  about  this 
time  by  the  Company  and  their  tenants.  The  history  of  the  Salters'  Hall  has 
already  been  told. 

In  1687  a  congregation  of  "protestant  dissenters"  took  from  the  Company, 
on  moderate  terms,  a  lease  of  certain  ground  on  which  part  of  Oxford 
House  had  stood  before  the  Fire.  Here  they  built  their  meeting-house, 
where  Mr.  Mayo  preached  until  his  death  in  1695,  drawing,  by  his  eloquence, 
congregations  so  large  that  it  is  said  even  the  windows  were  crowded  when  he 
preached.  William  Long,  writer  for  Matthew  Henry's  Commentary,  was  minister 
in  1702.  In  1 716  he  and  Mr.  John  Newman,  popular  with  the  congregation, 
became  co-pastors.  In  17 19  the  general  body  of  dissenting  ministers  met  here 
to  discuss  means  for  stopping  the  spread  of  Arianism.  "  You  that  are  against 
subscribing  to  a  declaration  as  a  test  of  orthodoxy,  come  upstairs,"  cried  the  Arians 
and  the  private-judgment  men  of  a  stormy  synod.  "  And  you  that  are  for  declaring 
your  faith  in  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity,  stay  below,"  replied  Mr.  Bradbury  of 
New  Court.  A  count  showed  fifty-seven  to  have  gone  up,  and  fifty-three  to  have 
remained  down,  giving  the  "scandalous  majority"  of  four.  Arianism  meanwhile 
had  become  the  coffee-house  topic  of  the  town.  In  March  1726  Long 
died,  and  Newman  became  sole  pastor  till  his  death  in  1741.  In  the  reign  of 
William  III.,  Robert  Bragge  started  a  "Lord's  Day  evening  lecture,"  popular 
for  many  years,  but  afterwards  removed  by  the  originator  to  his  meeting-house  in 
Lime  Street.  The  celebrated  Thomas  Bradbury  shortly  afterwards  revived  it  at 
Salters'  Hall  Chapel,  and  for  more  than  twenty  years  delivered  it  to  crowded 
audiences.  Samuel  Baker  continued  it  on  Bradbury's  resignation  in  1725. 
Presbyterians  of  some  eminence  followed  him,  as  Dr.  William  Prior,  Dr.  Abraham 
Rees,  Dr.  Philip  Furneaux,  and  Hugh  Farmer  (1761),  the  writer  of  an  exposition  on 
demonology  and  miracles,  which  aroused  sharp  controversy.  When  the  Salters 
determined  to  rebuild  their  hall,  they  gave  the  congregation  notice  to  quit  by  Lady 
Day  182 1.  Whereupon  the  congregation  acquired  premises  in  Oxford  Court,  upon 
the  site  of  which  they  erected  a  handsome  new  meeting-house  completed  in  1822. 
But  the  glory  of  the  place  as  a  dissenting  centre  was  departing,  and  the  Presbyterians 
abandoned  it.  Then  came  some  erratic  fanatics  who  called  themselves  "The 
Christian  Evidence  Society,"  and  their  meeting-house  was  "Areopagus."  Their 
leader  went  bankrupt  and  the  experiment  collapsed.  In  1827  the  Baptists  reopened 
the  place,  and  remained  there  for  some  years,  but,  shortly  before  1870,  removed  to 
Islington,  where  to  this  day  the  "  Salters'  Hall "  Chapel  in  the  Baxter  Road 
preserves  the   memory   of  the  struggles,   quarrels,   and    triumphs  of  the  old   City 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  115 

meeting-house.  In  Tom  Brown's  Laconics  (1709)  is  this  allusion:  "A  man  that 
keeps  steady  to  one  party,  though  he  happens  to  be  in  the  wrong,  is  still  an  honest 
man.  He  that  goes  to  a  Cathedral  in  the  morning,  and  Salters'  Hall  in  the 
afternoon,  is  a  rascal  by  his  own  confession." 

In  Hudibras  Redivivus  (1706)  this  is  found  : 

I  thumb'd  o'er  many  factious  Reams, 
Of  canting  Lies,  and  Poets'  Dreams, 
All  stuffed  as  full  of  Low-Church  Manners, 
As  e'er  was  Salters'  Hall  with  Sinners. 

On  the  south  side  of  St.  Swithin's  Lane  is  Founders'  Hall.  The  hall  is  on  the 
first  floor,  and  there  are  shops  below.  The  building  is  of  stone  with  pilasters 
running  up  the  front,  and  the  coat-of-arms  is  over  the  door,  which  has  a  very 
projecting  cornice.  The  hall  was  rebuilt  1877.  On  the  north  side  of  .Salters'  Hall 
is  New  Court  showing  through  behind  a  covered  entry.  The  opposite  side  of 
St.  Swithin's  Lane  seems  to  contain  the  offices  of  an  absolutely  unlimited  number 
of  companies.  The  court,  opening  out  of  it,  consists  of  uninteresting  earth  brick 
houses  shut  in  by  an  iron  gate.  The  City  Carlton  Club  is  in  Nos.  28  and  29. 
It  is  a  Conservative  Club,  with  fifteen-guinea  entrance  fee,  and  eight-guinea  sub- 
scription. The  building  is  of  stone  with  a  porch  over  the  door.  There  are  bay 
windows  with  polished  granite  columns.      Richard  Roberts  was  the  architect. 

THE    FOUNDERS    COMPANY 

The  Founders  Company  existed  as  a  "Mistery"  prior  to  the  year  1365,  as  appears  from  a  petition 
to  the  City  of  London  from  the  "(Jood  Men  of  the  Mistery  of  the  P'ounders  of  the  City  of  London." 
This  petition  is  to  be  found  in  the  Letter  Books  at  Guildhall,  and  the  entry  is  also  evidence  that 
ordinances  were  granted  on  the  29th  July,  39  Edward  IIL  The  Company  possesses  no  copy  of  these 
ordinances. 

In  the  year  1389  (Riley,  Afeniorials,  p.  512),  certain  "good  folks  of  the  trade  of  Founders"  made 
plaint  to  the  mayor  and  aldermen  as  to  the  bad  work  put  into  candlesticks,  stirrups,  buckles,  and  other 
things,  and  they  prayed  that  certain  ordinances  which  they  submitted  should  be  accepted  by  the  mayor 
and  made  law.  Among  these  ordinances  was  one  to  the  effect  that  two  or  three  masters  should  be  chosen 
and  sworn  to  guard  and  oversee  the  trade. 

In  Williams'  History  of  this  Company  (1867)  he  gives  the  above  petition  word  for  word  under  the 
date  of  1365.  It  is  certain  from  this  document,  as  with  many  other  Companies,  that  as  yet  the  Fraternity 
of  Founders  had  no  power  or  authority  to  enforce  good  work  on  pains  and  penalties. 

They  were  incorporated  January  1,1614,  for  a  master,  2  wardens,  15  assistants,  and  100  liverymen. 
At  present  the  number  of  the  livery  is  79;  their  Corporate  Income  is  ;^i855;  their  Trust  Income  is 
;^i02;  and  their  Hall  is  in  St.  Swithin's  Lane.  The  original  home  of  the  Founders  was  that  part  of 
London  north  of  Lothbury. 

The  name  of  Founders'  Court  marks  the  site  ;  this  was  formerly  the  lane  which  led  through  the 
Company's  buildings  to  a  garden  beyond  ;  the  buildings  stretched  from  St.  Margaret  Street  to  Coleman 
Street,  Moorgate  Street  not  then  existing.  This  hall  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire  and  rebuilt. 
The  Company  let  off  portions  of  their  hall,  and  in  1853  let  the  whole  on  a  long  lease  and  bought  a  house  in 
St.  Swithin's  Lane,  on  the  site  of  which  they  built  their  present  hall  in  1877. 


ii6  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

ST.   SWITHINS  CHURCH 

St.  Swithin,  to  whom  this  church  is  dedicated,  was  Bishop  of  Winchester  and  Chancellor  to 
King  Egbert.  Formerly  the  usual  designation  of  the  church  was  St.  Swithin's  in  Candlewick  Street, 
but  Newcourt  (1708)  states  that  St.  Swithin,  London  Stone,  was  becoming  the  more  common  title.  The 
stone  at  that  time  stood  on  the  south  side  of  the  road  opposite  to  the  church.  No  record  exists  of  the 
original  foundation  of  the  church.  Probably  it  was  built  soon  after  the  death  of  St.  Swithin  in  862,  or  at 
any  rate  before  a.d.  iooo.  It  is  mentioned  in  the  taxation  book  of  Pope  Nicholas  IV.  in  1291.  The  first 
rector  given  by  Newcourt  is  Robert  de  Galdeford,  who  resigned  in  1331.  In  1420  licence  was  obtained 
to  rebuild  and  enlarge  the  church  and  steeple,  and  Sir  John  Hend,  Lord  Mayor,  1391  and  1404,  was,  says 
Stow,  "an  especial  benefactor  thereunto,  as  appeareth  by  his  arms  in  the  glass  windows,  even  in  the  tops 
of  them."  The  hall  of  the  Drapers  Company  was  at  that  time  Sir  John  Hand's  house  in  St.  Swithin's 
Lane.  The  church  thus  rebuilt  consisted  of  a  chancel  and  a  nave  separated  from  the  north  and  south  aisles 
by  pillars.  There  was  a  chapel  of  St.  Katherine  and  St.  Margaret.  From  the  date  of  rebuilding  it  is 
evident  that  the  style  of  the  architecture  was  Early  Decorated.  The  maps  of  Aggas  (1560)  and  Newcourt 
(1658)  agree  in  showing  a  small  battlemented  church,  with  a  square  battlemented  tower  (without  spire)  at 
the  west  end  and  level  with  the  street.  In  1607- 1608  the  church  was  "  fully  beautified  and  finished  at  the 
cost  and  charge  of  the  parishioners."  It  was  again  repaired  shortly  before  the  Great  Fire,  when  ;£^iooo 
was  spent  upon  it.  The  church  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire,  and  rebuilt  by  Wren  in  167S,  when  the 
neighbouring  parish  of  St.  Mary  Bothaw  was  annexed.       In  1869  and  1879  it  was  entirely  ''rearranged." 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  Sir  Robert  Aguylum,  Knt.,  who  gave  it  by  will 
dated  February  28,  1285,  to  Richard,  Earl  of  Arundel,  who  has  licence  from  the  King  to  assign  it  to  the 
Prior  and  Convent  of  Tortington,  June  21,  1367;  the  Prior  and  Convent  of  Tortington,  Susse.\,  in 
whose  successors  it  continued  up  to  1538,  when  Henry  VIII.  seized  it  and  granted  it  June  8,  1536,  to 
John  de  Vere,  Earl  of  Oxford,  who  sold  it,  1561,  to  John  Hart,  citizen  and  alderman  of  London,  who 
gave  it  to  George  Bolles  (his  son-in-law),  citizen  of  London,  from  whose  descendants  it  was  purchased 
about  1683;  the  Salters  Company,  in  whose  successors  it  continued  up  to  1666,  when  the  parish  of 
St.  Mary  Bothaw  was  annexed,  and  the  patronage  shared  alternately  with  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of 
Canterbury;  Elizabeth  Beachcroft  presented  to  it  in  1765,  the  Salters  Company  having  parted  with  their 
share  of  the  patronage. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  320. 

The  church  measures  61  feet  in  length,  42  feet  in  breadth,  and  41  feet  in  height.  It  is  surmounted 
by  an  octagonal  cupola,  divided  by  bands,  and  powdered  with  stars  on  a  blue  ground.  The  tower,  which 
rises  at  the  north-west,  is  square  but  contracted  at  the  top  into  an  octagonal  shape.  Above  this  a  simple 
spire  rises  with  a  ball  and  vane.     The  total  height  is  150  feet. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  :  By  Roger  de  Depham  at  the  Altar  of  SS.  Katherine  and  Margaret,  to 
which  William  de  Kyrkeby  was  presented,  November  5,  1361 — in  1548  the  mayor  and  commonalty  of 
London  paid  to  carry  out  the  object  of  Roger  de  Depham's  will,  ^^5  :  6 :  8  ;  by  William  Newe,  who 
endowed  it  with  lands,  etc.,  which  fetched  ^17  : 8  : 4,  when  John  Hudson  was  priest;  by  James  de  Sancto 
Edmund,  who  left  five  marks  per  annum  for  an  endowment  in  131 2;  by  Geoffrey  Chittick,  who  gave 
lands  to  endow  it  which  fetched  ;^i3:6:8  in  154S,  w^hen  Sir  Roger  Butte  was  priest ;  by  John  Betson, 
who  endowed  it  with  all  his  lands  in  this  parish,  which  yielded  ^13  :  6  :  8  in  1548,  when  Richard  Hudson 
was  priest. 

Sir  John  Hart  and  Sir  George  Bolles,  patrons  of  the  church,  were  both  buried  here,  but  their 
monuments  perished  in  the  Great  Fire.  There  is  a  large  tablet  affixed  to  a  column  on  the  north  side  of 
the  church  commemorating  Michael  Godfrey,  first  deputy  governor  of  the  Bank  of  England ;  he  was  slain 
in  1695  by  a  cannon  ball  at  Namur,  whither  he  was  sent  on  business  to  King  William's  camp. 

In  1663  Dryden  was  married  here  to  Lady  Elizabeth  Howard. 

Only  two  charities  are  recorded  by  Stow:  i2d.  per  week  in  bread,  50s.  per  annum  in  coals  for  the 
poor,  the  gift  of  Henry  Hobener ;  ^10  :  los.  for  a  weekly  lecture,  the  gift  of  Thomas  Wetnal. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  117 

The  parish  churchyard  is  situated  in  Salters'  Hall  Court,  by  which  it  is  separated 
from  the  church.  It  is  elevated  above  the  court  and  contains  two  trees,  two  or 
three  bushes  and  shrubs,  and  a  few  tombstones.  Across  it  is  a  right-of-way  to  the 
premises  of  the  National  Telephone  Company,  to  which  it  has  the  appearance  of 
being  a  garden. 

George  Street  was  anciently  Bearbinder  Lane.  Riley  notes  "  Berbynderslane  " 
in  the  City  records  so  early  as  1358.  It  was  renamed  George  Street  within  the 
nineteenth  century.  If  Charlotte  Row,  west  of  the  Mansion  House,  was  so  called  in 
honour  of  Queen  Charlotte,  surely  this  was  rechristened  in  honour  of  George  III., 
whom  she  married  in  1761.  It  is  quite  small  compared  with  its  former  e.xtent,  for 
it  once  ran  from  Walbrook  past  the  south  side  of  St.  Mary  VVoolchurch  into 
St.  Swithin's  Lane,  and  also  had  a  northern  limb,  passing  the  west  end  of  Dove 
Court,  into  Lombard  Street.  Now  the  Mansion  House  stands  upon  all  the  old 
course  west  of  Walbrook  churchyard,  and  the  northern  limb  is  built  over.  This  was 
the  fatal  spot  where  the  plague  of  1665  first  made  its  appearance  within  the  City. 
Defoe,  in  his  history  of  the  dire  disease,  relates  how  a  Frenchman  living  in  Long 
Acre,  near  the  plague-stricken  houses,  moved  hither  "for  fear  of  the  distemper." 
Alas !  he  was  already  stricken,  and  in  the  beginning  of  May  he  died,  the  first  victim 
within  the  City  walls.  Strype  calls  Bearbinder  Lane  "a  place  of  no  great  account 
as  to  trade:  well  inhabited  by  merchants  and  others."  In  his  time  about  thirty 
yards  at  the  east  end  were  reckoned  in  Langbourn  ward,  and  apparently  also  most  of 
the  northern  arm.  It  now  belongs  wholly  to  Walbrook  ward,  and  is  merely  a 
narrow  passage  containing  no  houses  older  than  the  nineteenth  century. 

We  now  take  Walbrook,  leaving  Cannon  Street  to  be  dealt  with  subsequently. 
The  memory  of  the  stream  of  the  Walbrook  coming  down  from  the  heights  to 
the  north  is  preserved  in  the  name  of  this  short  street. 

In  1279  and  in  1290  we  find  that  there  were  houses  on  the  banks  of  the  stream. 
In  the  year  1307,  there  was  one  William  le  Marischale  living  beside  the  stream.  It 
must  have  been  almost  impossible,  even  then,  to  live  near  the  stream,  because  it 
was  a  common  open  sewer  with  latrines  built  over  it.  These  were  farmed  by  certain 
persons.  Part  of  the  stream,  however,  was  covered  over  by  the  year  1 300  ;  it  was 
not  till  the  close  of  the  sixteenth  century  that  it  was  completely  covered  over. 
Empson  and  Dudley,  the  instruments  of  Henry  VI I. 's  e.xtortions,  lived  in  Walbrook  ; 
and  later  Sir  Christopher  Wren  is  said  to  have  lived  here  at  the  house  afterwards 
No.  5. 

The  modern  street  is  chiefly  composed  of  ordinary  stone-faced  business  houses. 
But  on  the  west  side  are  three  charming  seventeenth-century  buildings  of  mellow 
red  brick,  Nos.  10,  11,  and  12.  On  the  centre  one  is  a  stone  tablet  supported  by 
brackets,  and  covered  by  a  projecting  cornice  ;  this  bears  date  1668.  A  little  farther 
up  on  the  opposite  side  an  eighteenth-century  brick  house  stands  over  the  entry  to 


ii8  -SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Bond  Court.  The  doorway  immediately  opposite  the  entry  is  a  nice  piece  of 
woodwork.  There  are  also  one  or  two  doorways  of  different  designs  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  court.  These  belong  to  old  houses,  though  those  buildings  on  the  west 
facing  them  are  quite  modern. 

Returning  to  the  street,  the  ornamental  front  of  the  City  Liberal  Club,  founded 
1874,  draws  attention  to  itself  The  front  is  of  light  stone  with  the  windows  and 
doorway  framed  in  granite.  Farther  north  on  the  same  side  is  Ye  Olde  Deacons 
Tavern,  next  door  to  Bell  Court,  a  narrow  passage  of  no  particular  interest.  Repre- 
sentations of  almost  every  trade  occupy  the  street ;  it  contains  two  great  houses  let  in 
flats,  one  of  which,  Worcester  House,  seems  to  be  especially  given  up  to  the  offices 
of  company  promoters. 

ST.   STEPHEN,    WALBROOK 

St.  Stephen,  Walbrook,  stands  at  the  back  of  the  Mansion  House.  It  was  formerly  often  called 
St.  Stephen-upon-Walbrook,  from  the  fact  that  its  first  site  was  actually  upon  the  bank  of  the  stream  so 
named.  There  is  only  one  other  church  in  the  City  dedicated  to  St.  Stephen,  viz.  St.  Stephen,  Coleman 
Street.  The  date  of  its  foundation  is  not  known,  but  it  dates  back  at  least  as  far  as  the  reign  of 
Henry  I. ;  Eudo  Dapifer's  gift  of  it  to  his  Abbey  of  St.  John,  Colchester,  in  1096,  being  the  earliest 
reference  to  it.  It  was  rebuilt  early  in  Henry  VI. 's  reign,  chiefly  through  the  agency  of  Robert 
Chicheley,  Lord  Mayor  in  141 1  and  1421.  It  was  totally  consumed  by  the  Fire,  and  rebuilt  by 
Wren  in  1672,  when  the  neighbouring  parish  of  St.  Benet  Sherehog  was  annexed.  The  earliest  date 
of  an  incumbent  is  1315. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  Eudo,  Steward  to  Henry  I.,  who  gave  it  to  the 
Abbot  and  Convent  of  St.  John,  Colchester,  who  held  it  up  to  1422  ;  John,  Duke  of  Bedford,  who  sold  it 
in  1432  to  Sir  Robert  Whytingham,  Knt.,  who  gave  it  to  Richard  Lee  in  1460,  who  gave  it  in  1502  to 
the  Grocers  Company,  in  whose  successors  it  continued. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  250. 

This  church  is,  after  St.  Paul's  Cathedra],  considered  Wren's  masterpiece.  It  is  oblong  in  shape, 
traversed  by  four  rows  of  Corinthian  columns,  which  divide  it  into  five  aisles,  of  which  the  central  is  the 
broadest ;  it  is  crowned  by  a  circular  dome  supported  on  eight  arches.  The  effect  thus  produced  of  the 
circle  springing  from  an  octagonal  base  is  especially  graceful.  The  building  measures  82^  feet  in  length, 
59I  feet  in  width,  and  the  height  to  the  dome  is  63  feet,  to  the  ceiling  of  the  side  aisles  36  feet.  The 
tower  contains  four  stories  ;  upon  it  the  steeple  is  placed,  tapering  to  a  spirelet  with  finial  and  vane ;  the 
total  height  is  about  130  feet.  Against  the  wall  of  the  north  transept  is  a  picture  of  St.  Stephen  being 
carried  from  the  scene  of  his  martyrdom;  this  is  by  Benjamin  West,  P.R.A.,  and  is  generally  considered 
his  best  work;  it  was  presented  by  the  rector.  Dr.  Wilson,  and  put  up  in  1776,  though  it  then  stood 
over  the  reredos. 

Chantries  were  founded  here:  By  Lettice  Lee,  whose  endowment  fetched  ;^i4:ios.  in  154S;  by 
William  Adams,  who  left  ^126  :  13  : 4  as  an  endowment  for  a  priest  to  sing  for  his  soul  "as  long  as  the 
money  would  endure" — this  in  1548  was  in  the  hands  of  one  named  Myller  of  Lynn,  Norfolk. 

The  church  originally  contained  a  monument  in  memory  of  Sir  Thomas  Pope,  the  founder  of  Trinity 
College,  O.xford.  The  oldest  monument  is  one  in  memory  of  John  Lilbourne,  citizen  and  grocer  of 
London,  who  died  in  1678.  On  the  north  wall  two  physicians  are  commemorated — Nathaniell  Hodges, 
who  wrote  a  treatise  on  the  Plague,  and  died  in  1688;  and  Percival  Gilbourne,  who  died  1694.  In  1726 
Sir  John  Vanbrugh  the  architect  was  interred  here ;  he  was  also  a  playwright. 

According  to  Stow,  the  parish  possessed  ;^ioo  per  annum,  employed  in  repairing  the  church,  etc., 


o 
o 

X 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  119 

the  exact  uses  of  which  were  unknown.     He  records  a  legacy  of  £20  per  annum  for  charitable  uses  left 
by  one  named  Dickenson. 

Henry  Chicheley,  LL.D.  (d.  1443),  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  was  a  rector  here;  also  Thomas 
Wilson  (1703-84),  author  of  the  History  of  St.  Margaret's;  John  Kite  (d.  1537),  Archbishop  of  Armagh; 
and  Thomas  Howell  (1588-1646),  Bishop  of  Bristol. 

The  Church  of  St.  Stephen  stood  on  the  west  side  of  the  original  course  of 
Walbrook  stream.  Over  the  new  course  of  the  stream  a  "  coverinaf "  or  small 
bridge  was  made  for  access  to  the  church,  and  in  1300  the  parishioners  were  found, 
by  inquisition  before  the  mayor,  to  be  under  the  obligation  of  repairing  it.  Little  is 
known  of  this  building  ;  that  it  possessed  a  belfry  is  shown  from  an  entry  in  the 
coroner's  roll  of  1278,  which  records  the  death  of  one  William  le  Clarke,  who, 
having  gone  pigeon-nesting  in  the  belfry,  accidentally  fell  as  he  was  climbing  the 
beams,  and  so  ruptured  and  crushed  his  body  on  one  of  them  that  he  died.  The 
fatal  beam  was  thereupon  "appraised  at  four  pence,  and  two  neighbours  nearest  to 
the  church  were  attached,  each  by  two  sureties,  to  see  the  fine  or  deodand  paid  " 
(Riley's  Memorials  of  London,  p.  13). 

The  "  parsonage  house,"  before  the  Great  Fire,  stood.  Stow  tells  us,  on  the 
site  of  the  first  church,  next  to  the  course  of  the  Walbrook.  It  was  rebuilt  by  one 
Jerome  Raustorne  (or  Rawstorne)  upon  a  lease  of  forty  years,  commencing  1674, 
and  by  this,  Newcourt  says,  was  "reserved  to  the  parson  ^17  a  year  ground-rent." 
The  parish  at  this  time  enjoyed  an  income  of  ^100  a  year,  and  with  part  of  this, 
supplemented  by  sums  of  money  received  from  leases,  and  from  compensations  for 
encroachments  and  new  "lights"  made  upon  the  churchyard  at  the  rebuilding  of  the 
City  after  the  Fire,  the  Vestry  determined  to  build  a  new  rectory  house.  The  leave 
of  the  Grocers  Company,  as  patrons,  and  a  faculty  from  the  Bishop  of  London, 
dated  1692-93,  having  been  obtained,  the  new  house  was  built  (between  1693  and 
1708)  adjoining  the  west  end  of  the  church  by  the  tower  on  a  piece  of  ground, 
about  20  feet  square,  previously  occupied  by  a  portion  of  the  ante-Fire  edifice.  It 
was  considered  that  the  rector  had  a  title  to  some  portion  of  the  ground,  and  to  half 
the  compensation  money  paid  for  new  lights,  and  accordingly  it  was  provided  that  in 
case  the  rector  or  any  of  his  successors  should  find  it  inconvenient  or  inadvisable  to 
live  in  the  house,  then  the  Vestry  should  let  the  same  from  year  to  year,  the  parish 
to  have  two-thirds  of  the  rental,  and  the  remaining  third  to  go  to  the  rector.  This 
house  is  still  standing,  but  is  let  out  for  offices,  the  rector  living  at  Brockley. 
It  is  a  quaint  and  small  house,  which  almost  touches  the  church  wall  at  the  back. 
Two  of  its  rooms  stand  over  the  church  porch.  The  original  staircase  and  panelled 
walls  remain.  It  is  the  only  old  house  standing  on  the  east  side  of  Walbrook.  The 
churchyard  is  situated  at  the  east  end  of  the  church.  It  has  a  round  tlower-bed  in  the 
centre,  two  trees,  and  several  bushes,  and  is  kept  in  excellent  order.  It  is  entered 
from  Church  Row  by  an  iron  gate,  and  from  the  church  by  the  door  in  the  east  wall. 


I20 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


The    Mansion    House    occupies    the    sites    of    Stocks    Market    and    St.    Mary 
Woolchurch  Haw. 

ST.   MARY  WOOLCHURCH   HAW 

This   church    was    situated   on    the  eastern    side    of  the    market.     It    probably    derived    its    name 
"Woolchurch"  from  the  fact  that  a  beam  was  erected  in  the  churchyard  for  the  weisrhinsr  of  wool.     It  was 


THE    MAN.S10N    HOUSE   AND   CHEAl'SIDE 


probably  built  about  the  time  of  William  I.  by  one  Hubert  de  Ria,  founder  of  the  Abbey  of  St.  John  in 
Colchester.  His  son  Eudo  Dapifer,  Steward  to  the  Conqueror,  endowed  his  newly-built  Abbey  and 
Convent  of  St.  John,  Colchester,  with  it.  The  charter  of  foundation  (1096)  calls  it  St.  Mary  de 
Westcheping,  or  Newchurch,  and  states  that  -Ailward  (iross  the  priest  held  the  living  by  gift  of  Hubert  de 
Ria.     The  exact  words  are  these,  and  constitute  the  earliest  mention  of  the  church  : 

Et  ecdesiam  S.  Marine  de  Westcheping,  London,  quae  vacatur  Niewecherciie,  concedente  Aikvardo 
Grosso,  presbytero  qui  in  eadem  ecclesia  et  donatione  atitecessoris  mei  Huberti  de  Ria  personatum  consecutus 
fiterat  (Newcourt  I.  p.  459). 

In   the  "Taxatio  Ecclesiastica "  of  Pope   Nicholas   IV.  (1291)  occurs  reference  to  ecclesia  Sancte 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  121 

Marie  de  Wokhurdie  hawe,  indicating  that  the  names  of  St.  Mary  de  Westcheping  and  Niewecherche 
had  alike  disappeared  to  give  place  to  a  title  in  some  way  derived  from  the  wool  staple  and  market.  This 
is  Stow's  etymology  of  the  name.  Mr.  J.  H.  Round  doubts  the  theory;  he  suggests  that  this  St.  Mary's 
was  a  daughter-church  to  St.  Mary  Woolnoth  {Athenceum,  August  17,  1889,  p.  223)  (Woollen-hithe- 
hatch,  or  haw).  This  would  give  as  the  full  and  new  name  of  our  "  Niewecherche  "  St.  Mary-in-Woollenhaw, 
Church-Haw,  and  by  contraction  St.  Mary  Woolchurch  Haw.  It  is  actually  styled  St.  Mary  Wolmaricherch 
in  1280-81,  which  certainly  appears  to  support  Mr.  Round's  theory. 

The  first  rector  given  by  Newcourt  is  John  Dyne,  who  resigned  in  1382.  By  licence  granted  1442  (20 
Henry  VI.),  the  church  was  rebuilt;  the  new  building  stood  farther  south  than  the  old,  in  accordance  with  a 
condition  imposed  by  the  licence,  which  ordained  it  to  be  15  feet  from  the  Stocks  Market  "for  sparing  of 
light  to  the  same."  The  foundation  stone  of  this  new  building  was  discovered  when  digging  the  foundations 
of  the  Mansion  House  in  1739. 

The  stone  was  drawn  by  R.  West,  engraved  by  Toms,  and  relegated  to  an  obscurity  from  which  it 
has  never  since  emerged  :  its  whereabouts  is  unknown.  The  new  church,  whose  foundation  was  laid  on 
May  4,  1442,  is  described  by  Stow  as  "reasonably  fair  and  large." 

The  church  was  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being  annexed  to  the 
neighbouring  one  of  St.  Mary  Woolnoth.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1349. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  Hubert  de  Ria,  father  of  Eudo,  Steward  of  the 
Conqueror's  household  ;  Abbot  and  Convent  of  St.  John,  Colchester,  being  the  gift  of  Eudo ;  Henry  VIII. 
seized  it,  and  thus  it  continued  in  the  Crown  until  the  church  was  burnt  down  and  the  parish  annexed  to 
St.  Mary  Woolnoth,  of  which  the  Crown  shares  the  alternate  patronage. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  360. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  :  Anne  Cawood,  at  the  Altar  of  St.  Nicholas,  whose  endowment 
fetched  ^8  in  154S,  when  Henry  Cockes  was  priest,  and  to  which  John  Chamberlayne  was  admitted  June  2, 
1525;  Roger  Barlow,  whose  endowment  fetched  ^^3  :  6  ;  8  in  1548,  which  was  spent  on  maintaining  the 
Cawood  chantry:  by  Godwine  le  Hodere  in  1313  for  himself  and  his  wife,  for  which  the  King  granted  his 
licence  July  8,  132 1. 

The  church  formerly  contained  monuments  to  several  benefactors,  amongst  whom  were  John 
Winger,  mayor  in  1504,  donor  of  .;^20  for  church  purposes;  Richard  Shaw,  sheriff  in  1505,  and  donor 
of  ^20. 

Stow  records  that  the  list  of  legacies  and  gifts  was  too  long  for  the  churchwardens  to  give  account  of 
in  their  parochial  visitation  of  1693,  but  that  it  could  be  seen  in  the  parish  registers. 

William  Fuller  (1608-75),  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  was  rector  here. 

Of  the  Wool  Haw  it  is  interesting  to  know  :  "  They  set  up  a  beam  for  the 
tronage  or  weighing  of  wool  in  the  churchyard  of  St.  Mary,  Westcheping,  which  was 
henceforth  known  as  the  Wool  Haw  or  yard,  and  became  a  wool  market.  The  date 
is  not  known,  but  it  was  before  1275  (' S.  Mary  de  Wolcherche '  occurs  in  a  will  of 
1265  (see  Calendar  of  Wills,  vol.  i.  p.  26)).  '  Les  Customes  de  Wolchirchaw  '  as 
ordained  in  the  reign  of  Edward  I.,  were  as  follows  [Lidcr  Aldus,  p.  216): — 'For 
one  pound  of  wool  (sold)  to  a  foreigner  (non-freeman)  one  halfpenny  ;  and  for  one 
sack,  only  one  halfpenny.  For  two  woolfels  and  more,  one  halfpenny,  and  for  one 
hundred  only  one  halfpenny.  For  one  pound  of  woolen  yarn,  one  halfpenny  ;  for 
one  hundred  only  one  halfpenny.  If  any  foreigner  brings  wool,  woolfels,  or  yarn 
through  the  city  for  sale,  to  the  value  of  ten  pence  and  more,  he  shall  pay  as  custom 
one  farthing.' 

"  The  weighing  of  wool  was  continued  here  until  1383(6  Richard  II.)  when  John 


122  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Churchman,  having  built  the  Custom  House  ujjon  Wool  Quay  (Tower  Ward)  the 
tronage  was  discontinued  in  this  spot  "  (Strype). 

When  the  watercourse  of  the  Walbrook  was  open,  there  was  a  bridge  over 
it  at  the  junction  of  Walbrook,  Broad  Street,  and  Cheap  wards.  At  the  east  side 
of  the  Mansion  House,  running  from  Mansion  House  Street  to  Church  Row,  is 
Mansion  House  Place.      It  contains  only  the  sides  of  buildings. 

Previously  to  the  erection  of  the  Mansion  House,  Mansion  House  Place  formed 
merely  the  east  side  of  Stocks  Market,  and  was  planted  with  rows  of  trees.  On 
the  east,  about  the  middle,  was  a  court,  and  in  it,  says  Strype  (1720),  "a  good  large 
house,  the  habitation  of  Godfrey  Woodward,  one  of  the  attorneys  of  the  Sherift's 
court."  Strype's  map  shows  the  position  of  the  court,  which  opened  into  a  fair-sized 
quadrangle. 

Stocks  Market. — In  Plantagenet  London  the  Westcheping  (Westcheping 
comprised  at  least  the  present  Cheapside,  Poultry,  and  Mansion  House  Street)  had 
an  open  space,  "  very  large  and  broad,"  where  the  Mansion  House  now  stands.  South 
of  the  space  was  St.  Mary  Woolchurch  Haw,  already  described  ;  in  the  space  itself  a 
pair  of  stocks  for  punishment  of  offenders.  By  patent  of  Edward  I.,  in  1282,  Henry 
Waley,  several  times  mayor,  built  sundry  houses  in  the  City,  whose  profits  were 
destined  for  the  maintenance  of  London  Bridge.  The  void  space  by  the  Woolchurch 
he  built  and  otherwise  turned  into  a  market,  known  as  "  Les  Stokkes,"  otherwise 
Stocks  Market,  sometimes  Woolchurch  Market.  He  appointed  it  a  market-place 
for  fish  and  flesh.  The  keepers  of  the  bridge  let  out  the  stalls  to  fishmongers  and 
butchers  for  term  of  their  lives,  until  13 12-13,  when  John  de  Gisors,  mayor,  and  the 
whole  commonalty  decreed  that  life-leases  should  not  be  granted  in  future  without 
the  consent  of  the  mayor  and  commonalty  (for  full  text  of  the  decree  see  Strype,  i  754 
ed.).  In  1322,  Edward  II.  sent  Letters  Patent  from  the  Tower  commanding  that  no 
one  should  sell  fish  or  flesh  save  in  the  markets  of  Bridgestreet,  Eastcheap,  Old  Fish 
Street,  St. Nicholas  Shambles,  and  Stocks  INIarket — a  first  offence  to  be  punished  by 
forfeiture  of  such  fish  or  flesh  as  was  sold,  second  offence  by  loss  of  freedom  ;  and  it 
was  accordingly  thus  decreed  by  the  mayor,  Hamo  de  Chigwell.  The  rents  of  the 
market  at  that  time  amounted  to  ^^46  :  13  :4  per  annum.  Foreigners,  z.e.  non-free- 
men, were  allowed  to  sell  in  this  "house  called  the  Stocks,"  but  under  conditions. 
None  might  cut  meat  after  2  p.m.  rung  at  St.  Paul's ;  meat  cut  and  remaining 
unpurchased  at  that  time  was  all  to  be  sold  by  vespers,  "without  keeping  any  back 
or  carrying  any  away."  In  1320  three  alleged  "foreigners"  were  accused  of  selling 
their  pork  and  beef  by  candlelight,  after  curfew  had  rung  at  St.  Martin's-le-Grand. 
One  did  not  appear  to  defend  himself,  one  acknowledged  his  offence  ;  the  meat  of 
both  was  forfeited.  The  third  contended  that  he  possessed  the  City  freedom,  and  his 
meat  was  returned  to  him  (Riley,  Jllemoria/s  of  London). 

The  "butchers  of  the  Stokkes"  were  jealous  of  their  honour.      In   1331   they 


THE   ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


12- 


petitioned  Sir  John  Pountney,  mayor,  and  the  aldermen,  that  ordinance  should  be 
made  against  certain  abuses.  Their  prayer  was  granted  ;  henceforth  no  butcher 
having  once  or  twice  failed  in  payment  should  trade  in  the  market  until  he  had  paid 
his  debts.  The  trade  had  evidently  got  into  bad  repute  owing  to  insolvent  butchers. 
Likewise  no  "foreigner"  was  to  sell  by  retail  in  the  market;  no  butcher  to  "take 
another's  man  "  except  such  man  had  paid  his  former  master  that  he  owed  him, 
otherwise  the  new  master  was  to  be  held  responsible  for  his  servant.  Also  that 
butchers  of  the  market  who  had  boug^ht  their  freedom  should  be  oblig-ed  to  live  in 
the   City.      Hitherto  some  of  them  had  dwelt  in  Stratford,  and  had  thus  avoided 


STOCKS    MARKET 


bearing  "  their  part  in  the  franchise  of  the  City."      Infringement  of  the  ordinance  was 
punishable  by  a  fine  of  40.S.  payable  to  the  Chamber  of  London  (Riley,  Ibid.). 

By  degrees  the  tlesh  and  fish  trade  centred  hereabouts  overfiowed  into  the  King's 
highway  from  Cheap  conduit  t(j  the  market,  and  became  an  obstruction.  The 
common  serjeant  complained  to  the  mayor  and  aldermen  in  1345.  As  a  result, 
ordinary  butchers,  poulterers,  and  fishmongers  were  to  confine  their  operations  to 
their  houses  and  shops  :  market  men  to  sell  within  the  market.  On  fish  days  the 
fishmongers  were  to  occupy  the  market  enclosure,  and  the  butchers  the  pent-house 
adjoining ;  on  flesh  days  the  enclosure  was  for  the  butchers,  and  the  pent-house  for 
the  fishmongers.     Obstruction  of  the  highway  henceforth  entailed  forfeiture  of  goods 


124  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

exposed  for  sale.     That  same  year  the  common  serjeant  found  three  butchers  selling 
from  stalls  in  the  highway  of  Poultry,  and  confiscated  their  meat  (Riley,  Ibid.). 

The  butchers  of  the  "  Stokkes  "  gave  ^i  7  to  Edward  1 1 1,  for  the  carrying  on  of 
the  French  Wars.  This  was  a  large  contribution,  showing  their  prosperous  condi- 
tion. Their  brethren,  St.  Nicholas  Shambles,  gave  only  ^9,  those  of  West  Cheap 
only  _;^S  ;  the  greater  Companies  ^20  to  ^40,  the  lesser  mostly  below  £•].  This 
old  market  was  under  strict  supervision.  In  1319  the  market  wardens  cited  one 
William  Sperlyng  for  offering  two  putrid  beef  carcases  for  sale.  A  jury  of  twelve 
pronouncing  the  carcases  putrid  as  alleged,  the  unhappy  man  was  ordered 
to  be  put  in  the  pillory  and  to  have  the  two  carcases  burned  beneath  him  (Riley),  as 
in  the  case  of  the  pork  butcher  already  mentioned.  In  135 1  one  Henry  de 
Passelewe,  cook,  was  cited  before  the  commonalty  on  a  charge  of  selling  at  the 
Stocks  a  pasty  in  which  the  two  capons  baked  therein  were  "  putrid  and  stinking, 
and  an  abomination  to  mankind  :  to  the  scandal,  contempt  and  disgrace  of  all  the 
City,"  and  the  manifest  peril  of  the  life  of  the  purchaser.  Passelewe  contended  that 
when  sold  the  capons  were  "good,  well-flavoured,  fitting  and  proper."  However, 
eight  good  and  trusty  cooks  pronounced  them  "  stinking  and  rotten,  and  baneful  to 
the  health  of  man."  So  poor  Passelewe  was  sentenced  to  the  pillory,  the  offensive 
pasty  to  be  carried  before  him,  and  a  proclamation  to  be  made  as  to  the  reason  of 
his  punishment. 

Considerable  prejudice  existed  against  non-freemen  using  the  market.  In  13S2 
Adam  Carlelle,  late  alderman  of  Aldgate,  approached  the  places  of  the  "foreign 
fishmongers"  and  "in  a  haughty  and  spiteful  manner  cursed  the  said  strangers, 
saying  that  he  did  not  care  who  heard  it  or  knew  of  it,  but  that  it  was  a  great 
mockery  and  badly  ordained  than  such  ribalds  as  those  should  sell  their  fish  in  the 
City,  and  further  that  he  would  rather  a  fishmonger  who  was  his  neighbour  in  the  City 
should  make  20s.  by  him,  than  such  a  ribald  barlelle  was  adjudged  to  have  thus  ex- 
pressed contempt  for  the  command  of  the  king  and  the  ordinance  of  the  City,  and  was 
excluded  from  ever  holding  any  offices  of  dignity  in  the  City  "  (Riley,  Memorials). 

In  1410  (2  Henry  IV.)  it  was  found  necessary  to  rebuild  the  market,  and 
the  work  was  completed  in  the  next  year.  The  annual  rents  were  valued  at 
;^56:i9:6  in  1507,  an  increase  of  ^10  on  185  years.  In  1543,  only  36  years 
later,  the  sum  reached  ^82  :  3s.  per  annum.  The  market  must  have  been  fully 
let  at  that  time:  fishmongers  had  25  stalls,  producing  ^34:13:4  in  rent;  the 
butchers  rented  18  stalls  at  ^41  :  16:4;  there  were  also  16  upper  chambers  rented 
^^  £5  •  13  •  4 — total  ^82  :  3s.  per  annum  (Stow's  Survey,  p.  243,  1754). 

In  1509  (i  Henry  VIII.)  the  dwellers  about  the  Stocks  obtained  leave  of 
the  Common  Council  to  substitute  for  a  leaden  water-pipe  at  the  south-east  of  the 
market  a  stone  conduit,  or,  as  it  is  called  in  the  petition,  "  a  portico  of  stone,  with 
a  cesterne  of  lead  therein"  from  which  water  was  "to  bee  drawne  out  by  cocks." 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  125 

Time  wrought  changes  in  the  market  and  its  uses.  After  the  Great  Fire,  the 
fishmongers  and  most  of  the  butchers  gave  place  to  the  sellers  of  fruits,  roots, 
and  herbs.  It  was  of  note,  says  Strype  (1720),  "for  having  the  choicest  in  the 
kind  of  all  sorts,  surpassing  all  other  markets  in  London."  The  post-Fire  market 
was  increased  by  the  addition  of  the  sites  of  St.  Mary  Woolchurch  Haw  and 
its  churchyard,  the  sites  of  three  houses  belonging  to  the  parish,  purchased  for 
^350,  and  of  the  site  of  the  rectory  house,  obtained  at  a  perpetual  rental  of  ;^io 
per  annum.  Thus  the  new  market  was  230  feet  from  north  to  south,  and  108 
feet  from  east  to  west,  measured  at  the  middle  ;  besides  the  open  roadways  or 
passages  on  the  west  and  east  sides.  The  eastern  side  was  planted  with  "rows 
of  trees,  very  pleasant."  The  market-place  itself  had  twenty-two  covered  fruit  stalls, 
most  of  them  at  the  north  side  ;  two  ranges  of  covered  butchers'  stalls,  with  racks, 
blocks,  and  scales,  in  the  south-east  corner ;  the  remaining  space  was  occupied  by 
gardeners  and  others  who  sold  "fruits,  roots,  herbs,  and  flowers"  (Strype,  1720). 
Well  might  Shad  well  ask  in  his  Bjiry  Fair  (16S9),  "Where  is  such  a  garden  in 
Europe  as  the  Stocks  Market  .'' "  Here  follows  an  amusing  description  of  it 
taken  from  a  paper  called  The  Wandering  Spy  (1705)  : 

"  I  saw  Stocks  Market,  all  garnished  with  nuts,  and  pears,  and  grapes,  and 
golden  pippins,  all  in  rank  and  file  most  prettily.  And  then  on  the  other  side 
for  physic  herbs  there  is  enough  to  furnish  a  whole  country,  from  the  nourishing 
Eringo,  to  the  destructive  Savine,  where  a  man  may  buy  as  much  for  a  penny  as 
an  apothecary  will  afford  for  half-a-crown,  and  do  a  man  twice  as  much  good  as 
their  specific  bolusses,  hipnotic  draughts,  sudorific  hausteses,  anodyne  compositions, 
and  twenty  other  flip-flops  with  hard  names,  which  only  disorder  the  body,  put 
nature  into  convulsions,  and  prepare  a  man  for  the  sexton.  But  here  a  man  may 
consult  a  female  doctor  in  a  straw  hat  without  fee,  have  what  quantity  he  pleases, 
of  what  herb  he  pleases,  be  his  distemper  what  it  will,  and  convert  it  into  a  juice, 
concoction,  syrup,  purge,  or  glister,  in  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  without  any  danger 
to  body  or  pocket"  (Malcolm,  Londinium  Rediviuni). 

Oak  Apple  Day,  1672,  was  a  gala  day  for  the  market.  Then  it  was  that 
Sir  Robert  Vyner  inaugurated  the  "nobly  great  statue  of  King  Charles  II.  on 
horseback "  which  he  had,  at  his  own  charge,  caused  to  be  set  upon  the  conduit 
at  the  north  end  of  the  same.  The  King  was  represented  in  armour,  his  head 
uncovered  ;  the  horse  trampled  beneath  its  feet  the  fallen  form  of  Oliver  Cromwell. 
The  whole,  which  was  of  white  marble,  stood  upon  a  freestone  pedestal  18  feet 
high,  carved  with  the  royal  arms  and  niches  containing  dolphins.  Handsome 
iron  gates  and  rails  enclosed  this  loyal  tribute  to  a  great  king.  That  day  the 
market  conduit  ran  with  wine ;  three  years  afterwards  Sir  Robert  Vyner  was 
Lord  Mayor.  Alas !  the  glory  of  the  statue,  as  of  the  monarch  it  portrayed,  was 
short-lived.      It   was   soon   criticised   as  a  clumsy  work,  and   the   revelation   of  its 


126  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

history  turned  it  into  a  laughing-stock.  Early  in  the  eighteenth  century  it  was 
discovered  that  the  loyal  Vyner  had  found  somewhere  abroad  a  statue  of  John 
Sobieski,  King  of  Poland,  conqueror  of  the  Turks  at  Choozim.  The  statue 
represented  the  King's  horse  trampling  on  a  Turk.  It  lay  on  the  sculptor's  hands. 
Sir  Robert,  seeing  the  means  of  paying  his  sovereign  a  compliment  without  great 
expense,  obtained  the  statue,  and  secured  Latham  to  substitute  the  head  of  Charles 
for  that  of  the  Pole.  The  downtrodden  Turk  was  christianised  into  Cromwell, 
only,  unfortunately,  Latham  omitted  to  alter  the  Turk's  turban,  which  remained 
intact  and  incongruous  upon  Oliver's  head,  and  served  as  a  confirmation  of  the 
story.  There  is  a  lampoon  on  the  statue  worth  quoting.  It  occurs  in  Lord 
Rochester's  History  of  the  Insipids  (1676)  : 

Could  Robert  \'ynei"  have  foreseen 
The  glorious  triumphs  of  his  master, 
The  Woolwich  Statue  gold  had  been, 
Which  now  is  made  of  alabaster  : 
But  wise  men  think  had  it  been  wood 
'Twere  for  a  bankrupt  king  too  good! 

When  Stocks  conduit  was  removed,  the  "  ridiculous  statue "  was  relegated  to  the 
rubbish  heaps  of  Guildhall;  finally  the  Common  Council  granted  it  to  Mr.  Robert 
Vyner,  a  descendant  of  Sir  Robert,  in  1 779,  and  it  was  taken  by  its  new  owner 
to  adorn  his  country  seat  at  Gantly  Park,  Lincolnshire.  The  year  1737  saw  the 
end  of  Stocks  Market  in  this  place.  On  March  12  the  sheriffs  petitioned  the 
House  of  Commons  to  remove  it  to  Fleet  Ditch,  and  to  erect  the  Mansion  House 
upon  its  site.  Their  prayer  was  granted  ;  the  market  was  removed  at  Michaelmas 
1737,  and  the  ancient  market-place  was  enclosed  with  a  broad  fence.  In  its  new- 
home  the  name  which  it  had  borne  for  255  years  was  lost,  and  it  became  known 
as  the  Fleet  Market.  At  Michaelmas  1829,  exactly  82  years  after  its  removal, 
it  was  closed  and  the  site  cleared  to  form  Farringdon  Street.  St.  Christopher  le 
Stocks,  so  called  from  its  proximity  to  the  market,  stood  on  part  of  the  site  of  the 
present  Bank  of  England.  Seven  streets  now  meet  before  the  Bank  and  pour 
forth  omnibuses,  cabs,  and  other  vehicles  in  an  endless  stream  of  traffic.  Below 
are  the  white  -  bricked  subways  of  the  electric  railway  which  form  a  safe  crossing 
for  those  who  cannot  ford  the  river  of  traffic. 

St.  Christopher  le  Stocks  stood  on  the  north  side  of  Threadneedle  Street  in  the  ward  of  Broad 
Street.  The  date  of  its  foundation  is  unknown.  The  building  was  much  injured  by  the  Great  Fire  and 
subsequently  repaired.  In  1780,  after  the  Gordon  Riots,  it  was  taken  down  and  its  site  is  now  covered 
by  part  of  the  Bank  of  England.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  12 So. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  family  of  Nevil  in  i  281  ;  the  Bishop  of  London, 
141 5,  in  whose  successors  it  continued  up  to  1783. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  221. 

The  church  originally  contained  monuments  to  Robert  Thome,  a  donor  of  ;^4445  to  the  parish 


■J. 

y. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  127 

for  charitable  uses  ;  William  Hampton,  mayor,  1472,  and  great  benefactor,  and  other  donors.  Few  of 
these  were  to  be  seen  after  the  Fire. 

Chantries  were  founded  here:  By  John  Walles,  mercer,  whose  endowment  fetched  ^10:13:4  in 
1548;  for  Thomas  Legg,  to  which  William  Swynbrok  was  admitted  chaplain,  January  10,  1370-71;  for 
John  Gedney,  Mayor  of  London,  1427,  at  the  Altar  of  Holy  Trinity;  for  Margerie  de  Nerford,  William  de 
Bergh,  cl.  and  Christian  Vaughan,  widow,  at  the  Altar  of  Holy  Trinity,  for  which  the  King  granted  his 
licence,  February  23,  1406-1407  :  the  endowment  was  valued  at  ^10  :  4s.  in  1548  ;  by  John  Plonkett,  whose 
endowment  fetched  ^13  :  17  :  8  in  1548  ;  by  Alice,  wife  of  Benedict  Harlewyn,  late  citizen  and  clothier, 
at  the  Altar  of  Holy  Trinity,  for  the  king,  John  Wenlok,  Knt.,  herself,  Richard,  Duke  of  York,  and 
Benedict  her  husband  ;  the  King  granted  his  licence,  March  20,  1461-62  :  the  endowment  fetched  ^5  :  13  :  4 
in  1548. 

Robert  Thome  was  donor  of  more  than  ^4445  to  the  parish.  John  Kendrick  was  also  a  great 
benefactor,  whose  will  is  recorded  in  full  by  Stow.  Sir  Peter  le  Maire  bequeathed  ;i^ioo  to  the  poor 
of  the  parish.     There  were  many  other  donors  of  smaller  amounts.  • 

Among  notable  vicars  were  John  Pearson  (1631-86),  Bishop  of  Chester,  the  theologian,  and  William 
Peirse,  Bishop  of  Peterborough  in  1630. 

The  site  of  the  Chufch  of  St.  Bartholomew  is  now  also  absorbed  by  the  Bank. 

St.  Bartholomew  Exchange,  formerly  called  Little  St.  Bartholomew,  stood  at  the  south-east  corner 
of  St.  Bartholomew  Lane,  over  against  the  Royal  Exchange.  The  date  of  its  foundation  is  unknown  but 
about  1438  it  was  rebuilt.  In  1840  it  was  sold,  and  possession  given  to  Kames  A\'illiam  Freshfield,  junr., 
for  the  Bank  of  England  ;  instead  thereof  the  Church  of  St.  Bartholomew,  Moor  Lane,  was  built.  The 
earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1331. 

The  patronage  was  in  the  hands  of:  Simon  Goddard,  citizen  and  draper  of  London,  who  bequeathed 
it  to  his  heir,  Johanna,  in  1273-74;  Edward  HI.  in  1364;  Richard  Pless)  ;  Abbot  and  Convent  of  St.  Mary 
Graces,  1374,  confirmed  February  19,  1422-23  ;    Henry  VHL,  and  continued  in  the  Crown. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  392. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  for  :  Richard  de  Plessis,  Dean  of  the  Arches,  who  died  1362,  when  John 
Radyng  was  admitted  chaplain  ;  Mary,  wife  of  Sir  John  Lepington. 

Sir  William  Capell,  mayor,  1509,  was  buried  here,  also  James  Wilford,  sheriff,  1499.  The  church 
originally  contained  a  monument  to  Ricliard  Croshawe,  Master  of  the  Company  of  Goldsmiths.  He  lived 
in  this  parish  for  thirty-one  years,  and  left  by  his  will  over  ^4000  for  the  maintaining  of  lectures,  relief 
of  the  poor,  and  other  charitable  uses.     There  are  no  other  gifts  recorded. 

Ralf  Brideoake  (1613-78),  Bishop  of  Chichester,  was  rector  here;  also  John  Sharp  (1645-1714), 
Archbishop  of  York,  and  Zachary  Pearce  (1690-1774),  Bishop  of  Rochester  and  Bangor. 

Threadneedle  Street. — The  derivation  of  this  extraordinary  name  is  very 
uncertain.  Stow  calls  it  Threeneedle  Street,  and  it  may  possibly  have  arisen  from 
some  tavern  with  the  sign  of  the  three  needles.  The  arms  of  Needlemakers  Company 
are  "three  needles  in  fesse  argent."  This  is  one  of  the  humbler  Companies  and  has 
no  hall. 

On  the  north  side  there  were  in  the  sixteenth  century  "divers  fair  and  large" 
houses,  after  which  came  the  Hospital  of  St.  Anthony,  close  to  the  Royal  Exchange. 

The  very  interesting  foundation  of  St.  Anthony  is  considered  elsewhere,  as  so 
long  an  account  would  interrupt  our  perambulation  unduly.  One  of  the  oddest 
customs  at  a  time  when  there  were  so  many  odd  customs,  was  that  the  pigs  belonging 
to   this   house  were  allowed  to  roam  about  the  City  as  they  pleased,  and   on   the 


128  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

i/th  January,  any  year,  had  the  privilege  of  going  into  any  house  that  was  open. 
But  in  1 28 1,  and  again  in  1292,  there  are  no  exceptions  made  to  the  rule  that  all 
pigs,  to  whomsoever  they  may  belong,  shall  be  killed,  if  found  in  the  street. 

An  open  concrete-covered  space  beyond  the  Royal  Exchange  lines  part  of  this 
street.  Here  there  is  a  fountain  erected  in  1878  by  the  exertions  and  donations  of 
an  alderman.  A  gilded  canopy  overhangs  a  stone  group  of  a  mother  and  two 
children.  The  pedestal  and  basins  are  of  granite.  On  the  east  there  is  a  seated 
figure  of  Peabody,  life  size.  The  buildings  on  the  north  side  of  the  street  do  not 
require  much  comment  ;  the  North  British  &  Mercantile  Insurance  Company  is  the 
most  noticeable,  because  the  horizontal  lines  are  broken  by  the  deeply  recessed 
windows.  The  Postal  Telegraph  Office  next  door  has  a  little  tower  on  the  summit, 
and  the  frontage  is  sprinkled  with  rather  conventional  stone  panels  and  has  a 
superfluity  of  stone  ornament.  The  Consolidated  Bank,  after  the  following  corner, 
has  a  plain  frontage,  which  makes  a  deep  frieze  across  the  upper  part  more  striking  ; 
this  is  an  allegorical  subject  in  a  stone  has  relievo  under  a  heavy  cornice.  The 
National  Bank  of  India  is  a  solid,  well-proportioned  building  with  symmetrical 
columns  of  polished  granite  running  up  the  front. 

St.  Benet  Finck  was  situated  on  the  south  side  of  Threadneedle  Street,  east  of  the  Royal  Exchange. 
It  was  dedicated  to  St.  Benedict  and  took  its  additional  name  from  its  founder,  Robert  Fincke.  The  date 
of  its  foundation  is  unknown.  It  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire,  and  rebuilt  by  Wren,  who  completed 
it  in  1673.  The  church  was  taken  dow^n  in  1842,  and  its  parish  united  with  that  of  St.  Peter-le-Poer. 
The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1323.  The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The 
family  of  Nevils  in  1281,  who  presented  to  it  as  a  Rectory;  Master  and  Brethren  of  the  Hospital  of 
St.  Anthony,  then  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Windsor,  1474,  up  to  ICS44,  when  it  was  annexed  to  St. 
Peter-le-Poer. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  300  and  above. 

Wren's  church  was  elliptical  in  shape,  and  measured  63  feet  by  48  feet.  It  was  traversed  by  six 
composite  columns,  which,  with  the  connecting  arches,  supported  the  roof.  The  steeple,  which  rose  to 
a  height  of  no  feet  roughly,  consisted  of  a  tower,  lead-covered  cupola,  and  lantern. 

The  original  church  contained  monuments  to  John  Wilcocks  and  Dame  Anne  Awnsham  (d.  1613), 
both  benefactors  of  the  parish.  After  the  Great  Fire  a  Table  of  Benefactors  was  set  up  to  the  memory  of: 
George  Holman,  donor  of  j[^\oqo  to  the  rebuilding  of  the  church  ;  Anne  Thriscrosse,  donor  of  .;^ioo  for 
apprenticing  poor  children,  and  several  other  donors.  On  a  table  in  the  organ  loft  there  was  an  inscrip- 
tion to  Mrs.  Sarah  Gregory,  donor  of  ;^6oo  for  various  charitable  purposes.  In  1662  Richard  Baxter,  the 
celebrated  Nonconformist  divine,  was  married  here. 

In  Threadneedle  Street,  at  the  corner  of  Bartholomew  Lane,  is  the  Sun  Fire 
Office  with  glittering  gilt  suns  over  the  corner  and  windows.  The  angle  has  been 
sliced  off  to  form  an  entrance.  A  heavy  wreath  of  foliage  in  stone  surrounds  the 
window  above.  The  architect  was  C.  R.  Cockerell.  A  graceful  new  building  in 
white  stone  with  engaged  pillars  fluted,  rising  from  the  top  of  the  ground-floor, 
contains  the  Life  Alliance  and  Fire  Office  in  Bartholomew  Lane.  Next  door  is 
Bartholomew  House  with  the  usual  stereotyped  stone  detail,  and  a  couple  of  some- 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


129 


what  cumbrous  stone  figures  reclining  over  each  side  window.     Capel  Court  leads  to 
the  Stock  Exchange. 

At  No.  40  Threadneedle  Street  is  a  paved  courtyard  shut  in  by  iron  gates  and 
behind  an  archway,  striking  because  of  its  size  and  the  massiveness  of  its  stonework. 
This  leads   to  entrances   of  the    National    Provincial    Bank    of   England,    and    the 


Dralt'ii  hy  G.  Shtth.r.l. 


i;i;m;t  finck 


Mercantile  Bank  of  India.  Beyond  it  is  the  Baltic  and  South  Sea  House.  This 
differs  from  all  the  preceding  buildings  because  it  belongs  to  the  eighteenth  century, 
as  the  deep  tinge  of  its  well-preserved  bricks  tells. 

The  centre  window  and  doorway  are  encased  in  stonework,  and  the  solidity  of 
the  whole  structure  is  in  contrast  with  its  "  bubble"  reputation.  It  is  now  occupied 
as  chambers  by  merchants,  brokers,  etc.,  and  the  secretary  of  the  Baltic  Company 
finds  lodging  here  among  others. 

9 


I30  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

On  the  south  side  of  Threadneedle  Street  we  have  the  Bank  of  Australasia. 
Then  two  great  doorways  with  an  interval  between  them.  These  bear  over  them 
the  arms  of  the  powerful  Merchant  Taylors  Company,  whose  hall  is  behind. 

MERCHANT    TAYLORS    COMPANY 

The  precise  date  of  the  foundation  of  the  Company  is  not  known,  but  one  of  the  earhest  civic  records 
inentioning  the  Taylors  as  a  separate  craft,  is  the  "  Chronicle  of  the  Mayors  and  Sheriffs  of  London,' 
which  narrates  their  dispute  with  the  Goldsmiths  in  November  1267. 

In  1299  Edward  I.  granted  them  his  licence  to  adopt  the  name  of  "Taylors  and  Linen  Armourers 
of  the  Fraternity  of  St.  John  the  Baptist."  Stow  says  that  on  St.  John  Baptist's  Day,  1300,  a  master 
(Henry  de  Ryall)  and  four  wardens  were  chosen,  the  master  being  then  called  "  the  pilgrim,"  as  travelling 
for  the  whole  Company,  and  the  warders  "the  purveyors  of  alms  or  quarterages,"  plainly  showing  that  the 
gild  was  originally  a  charitable  as  well  as  a  commercial  fraternity. 

In  March  1326  the  first  charter  was  granted  to  the  Company  by  Edward  III. 

In  1 37 1  the  Company,  under  this  charter,  made  an  ordinance  to  regulate  their  trade,  with  the  special 
object  of  recovering  damages  from  workmen  miscutting  the  cloth  entrusted  to  them. 

The  Company  acquired  that  portion  of  their  Threadneedle  Street  estate  upon  which  their  present 
hall  stands  in  1331. 

In  1 35 1  they  enrolled  their  first  honorary  inember  ;  and  about  1361  obtained  a  grant  of  a  chapel  at 
the  north  side  of  St.  Paul's,  in  honour  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  for  daily  service  and  prayers  for  "  the  pre- 
servation of  them  that  are  or  shall  be  of  the  fraternity." 

In  1480  the  Company  received  their  first  grant  of  arms,  taking  religious  emblems,  viz.  a  holy  lamb 
set  within  a  sun,  the  crest  being  within  the  pavilion.  Our  Blessed  Lady  St.  Mary  the  Virgin,  Christ  her 
Son  standing  naked  before  her,  holding  between  His  hands  a  vesture  {tunica  inconsu/ilis). 

In  1484  the  celebrated  controversy  for  precedence  in  processions,  etc.,  between  the  Taylors  and 
Skinners  arose,  which  was  settled  by  the  award  of  the  Lord  Mayor  that  each  Company  should  have 
precedence  in  alternate  years,  and  that  each  should  invite  the  other  to  dine  once  in  every  year.  This 
custom  has  been  ever  since  kept  up,  the  master  and  wardens  of  the  Taylors  dining  with  the  Skinners 
on  the  first  Thursday  in  December,  the  master  and  wardens  of  the  Skinners  with  the  Taylors  on 
the  14th  July. 

It  was  not  till  1502  that  the  Company  attained  to  the  full  privileges  which  they  afterwards  enjoyed. 
Under  Henry  VII. 's  charter,  not  only  were  the  Company  made  "  Merchant "  Taylors,  but  they  ceased  to 
be  exclusively  Taylors,  and  were  permitted  to  receive  others  into  their  fraternity. 

The  principal  object  of  the  guild  was  the  preservation  of  the  trade  or  calling  of  the  fraternity,  no  one 
being  permitted  to  work  in  London  as  a  "  tailor  "  unless  a  freeman  of  the  Company.  For  the  protection 
of  the  trade  the  right  of  search  was  vested  in  the  guild,  such  search  being  a  guarantee  to  the  public  that 
the  honest  usages  of  trade  were  observed,  and  to  the  fraternity  that  their  monopoly  was  not  infringed. 
Before  a  tailor's  shop  was  opened  a  licence  had  to  be  obtained  from  the  master  and  w-ardens  of  the 
Company,  and  they  granted  the  licence  only  when  satisfied  of  the  competency  of  the  freeman.  Until  the 
abolition  of  Bartholomew  Fair  in  1854,  after  an  existence  of  700  years,  the  beadle  of  the  Company  used 
annually  to  attend  the  fair  and  to  proceed  to  the  drapers'  shops,  taking  with  him  the  Company's  silver 
yard  stick  as  the  standard  by  which  to  test  the  measures  used  for  selling  cloth  in  the  fair. 

In  1555,  in  anticipation  of  the  foundation  of  Merchant  Taylors'  School,  Sir  Thomas  White,  a 
member  of  the  Court  of  the  Merchant  Taylors  Comjiany,  founded  St.  John's  College,  Oxford,  reserving 
forty-three  out  of  its  fifty  endowed  fellowships  for  scholars  from  the  school. 

The  Company's  school  was  founded  in  1561  on  Lawrence  Pountney  Hill. 

Great  Crosby  School,  near  Liverpool,  of  which  the  Company  are  sole  trustees  and  managers,  was 
founded  in  1618  by  John  Harrison. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


131 


In  1622  Dr.  Thomas  White  estabhshed  Sion  College,  giving  to  the  Company  the  nomination  to  eight 
of  the  twenty  almshouses  which  he  connected  with  the  college. 

In  1666  the  losses  sustained  by  the  Company  in  the  Fire  of  London  obliged  them  to  let  their  land  in  the 
City  upon  small  ground-rents  to  enable  their  tenants  to  rebuild,  and  their  resources  were  thus  much  crippled. 

The  number  of  the  livery  is  288.  The  Corporate  Income  is  ^37,000;  the  Trust  Income  is 
;^i 3,000.      Their  hall  is  at  30  Threadneedle  Street. 

Privileges  of  membership  : 

(1)  The  only  advantages  that  a  freeman  in  easy  circumstances  possesses  is  eligibility  for  the  livery,  and 
prospectively  for  the  court,  and  the  comfortable  assurance  that,  should  he  fall  into  poverty  by  misfortune  and 
maintain  his  respectability,  he  will  receive  a  pension  from  the  Company  varying  in  amount  from  ;^5  to  ;^40 
a  year,  and  that,  should  his  wife  and  daughters  be  left  in  poverty,  they  will  be  assisted  by  the  Company  to 
earn  a  living.     Freemen  are  eligible  for  certain  gifts  and  loans  of  rnoney  for  their  advancement  in  life. 


si'.    M.\RTIN   OUTWICII 


Poverty  from  ill-health,  old  age,  or  incapacity  to  earn  a  livelihood,  alone  constitutes  a  claim  to  a 
pension  or  donation. 

The  only  patronage  enjoyed  by  individual  members  of  the  court  is  the  power  of  presenting  boys  to 
the  Company's  school  in  London.  Each  member  of  the  court  has  two  or  sometimes  three  presentations 
annually,  according  to  vacancies. 

The  present  magnificent  hall  was  built  in  167  i  by  Jerman.  It  has  been  altered  and  improved,  but 
it  remains  much  the  same  as  when  Jerman  handed  it  over  to  the  Company. 

The  Company  has  almshouses  and  schools,  notably  the  great  school  on  the  site  of  the  Charter 
House.      It  also  gives  largely  to  the  City  and  Guilds  of  London  Technical  Institute. 

At  the  east  end  of  Threadneedle  Street,  where  it  meets  Bishopsgate  Street, 
stood  St.  Martin  Oiitwich. 

St.  Martin  OutWich  was  called  Oteswich  or  Outwich  from  four  brothers  of  that  name  who  founded 
it.      It  escaped  the  Great  Fire,  but  was  rebuilt  in   1796  by  the  Merchant  Taylors  Company.     In  1873  the 


132  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

parish  of  St.  Martin  Outwich  was  united  with  that  of  St.  Helen,  Bishopsgate,  and  the  former  church  pulled 
down  ;  the  Capital  and  Counties  Bank  stands  on  its  site.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1300. 

The  patronage  of  the  Church  was  in  the  hands  of:  Edward  III.,  who  granted  it  to  John  de  Warren, 
Earl  of  Surrey,  in  1328;  the  Oteswiches,  who,  by  their  trustee,  John  Churchman,  conveyed  it  to  the 
Merchant  Taylors  Company,  July  15,  1406,  who  presented  it  up  to  1S55. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  227. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  by  John  de  Bredstrete,  whose  endowment  for  this  and  other  purposes 
fetched  ^4  :  3  : 4  in  1548.     The  King  granted  his  licence  to  found  the  Guild  of  St.  Baptist,  July  15,  1406. 

Money  fetched  5  per  cent  in  1548,  for  one  John  Kyddermester  the  elder  by  his  will  bequeathed 
;!^2oo  to  purchase  ;£io  by  year  to  keep  an  obite,  etc.,  in  St.  Martin  Outwich. 

A  considerable  number  of  monuments  are  recorded  by  Stow.  Some  of  the  most  notable  are  those 
in  memory  of:  Matthew  Pemberton,  Merchant  Taylor,  donor  of  ^50  for  repairing  the  chapel  of  St. 
Lawrence;  Richard  Staper,  alderman,  1594,  and  greatest  merchant  of  his  day;  George  Sotherton, 
sometime  Master  of  the  Merchant  Taylors  Company,  and  M.P.  for  the  City  of  London,  who  died  in  1599. 
All  the  monuments  in  St.  Martin  Outwich  were  removed  to  St.  Helen,  Bishopsgate,  on  the  union  of  the 
parishes. 

No  detailed  account  of  the  charities  is  recorded  by  Stow.  The  benefactors  whose  names  are  given, 
were:  Sir  Henry  Rowe,  donor  of  ^^5  yearly;  Mrs.  Taylor,  donor  of  £^2  :  15s.,  for  two  special  sermons 
a  )ear. 

George  Gardiner  (d.  1589),  chaplain  to  Queen  Elizabeth  and  Dean  of  Norwich,  was  rector  here; 
also  Richard  Kidder  (1633-1703),  Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells;  Samuel  Bishop  (1731-95),  head  master 
of  Merchant  Taylors'  School. 

There  was  near  the  church  a  well  with  two  buckets  ;  this  was  afterwards  turned  into  a  pump. 

There  are  references  to  "rents"  in  Broad  Street  as  early  as  125S;  in  1278, 
Matthew  de  Hekham,  on  his  way  from  Broad  Street  to  the  Jewry,  was  murdered 
by  Jews;  in  1331  there  is  the  conveyance  of  a  very  large  and  substantial  house 
belonging  to  Edmund  Crepin,  citizen,  and  deed  of  hire  by  Sir  Oliver  Ingham, 
Knt.  In  1387,  the  parson  of  St.  Peter's,  Broad  Street,  brings  to  the  mayor 
and  aldermen  a  breviary  called  "  Portehers,"  2.c.  for  carrying  about,  bequeathed 
to  the  prison  of  Newgate  by  the  late  Hugh  Tracy,  chaplain,  so  that  priests  and 
clerks  there  imprisoned  might  say  their  service  from  it.  And  he  also  obtained 
permission  to  visit  the  prison  from  time  to  time  in  order  to  see  that  the  book  was 
well  kept. 

"  East  from  Currier's  row  is  a  long  and  high  wall  of  stone,  inclosing  the  north 
side  of  a  large  garden  adjoining  to  as  large  an  house,  built  in  the  reign  of  King 
Henry  VIII.,  and  of  Edward  \'I.,  by  Sir  William  Powlet,  lord  Treasurer  of 
England.  Through  this  garden,  which  of  old  time  consisted  of  divers  parts,  now 
united,  was  sometimes  a  fair  footway,  leading  by  the  west  end  of  the  Augustine 
Friars  church  straight  north,  and  opened  somewhat  west  from  Allhallows  church 
against  London  wall  towards  Moregate  ;  which  footway  had  gates  at  either  end, 
locked  up  every  night  ;  but  now  the  same  way  being  taken  into  those  gardens,  the 
gates  are  closed  up  with  stone,  whereby  the  people  are  forced  to  go  about  by  St. 
Peter's  church,  and  the  east  end  of  the  said  Friars  church,  and  all  the  said  great 
place  and  garden  of  Sir  William  Powlet  to  London  Wall,  and  so  to  Moregate. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  133 

"  This  great  house,  adjoining  to  the  garden  aforesaid,  stretcheth  to  the  north 
corner  of  Broad  Street,  and  then  turneth  up  Broad  Street  all  that  side  to  and 
beyond  the  east  end  of  the  said  Friars  church.  It  was  built  by  the  said  lord 
treasurer  in  place  of  Augustine  Friars  house,  cloister,  and  gardens,  etc.  The  F"riars 
church  he  pulled  not  down,  but  the  west  end  thereof,  inclosed  from  the  steeple  and 
choir,  was  in  the  year  1550  granted  to  the  Dutch  nation  in  London,  to  be  their 
preaching  place  :  the  other  part,  namely,  the  steeple,  choir,  and  side  aisles  to  the 
choir  adjoining,  he  reserved  to  household  uses,  as  for  stowage  of  corn,  coal,  and 
other  things  ;  his  son  and  heir.  Marquis  of  Winchester,  sold  the  monuments  of 
noblemen  (there  buried)  in  great  number,  the  paving-stone  and  whatsoever  (which 
cost  many  thousands),  for  one  hundred  pounds,  and  in  place  thereof  made  fair 
stabling  for  horses.  He  caused  the  lead  to  be  taken  from  the  roofs,  and  laid  tile  in 
place  whereof;  which  e.xchange  proved  not  so  profitable  as  he  looked  for,  but  rather 
to  his  disadvantage"  (Stow's  Survey,  p.  184). 

This  house  stood  on  the  north  side  of  what  was  afterwards  called  Winchester 
Street ;  the  garden  and  grounds  between  it  and  the  nave  of  Austin  Friars'  Church 
having  been  built  over.  The  beautiful  steeple  of  the  church,  in  spite  of  the  remon- 
strances of  the  parishioners  and  of  a  letter  of  remonstrance  addressed  to  the  Marquis 
by  the  mayor  and  aldermen,  was  pulled  down  in  1604.  The  letter,  the  earliest  in 
favour  of  the  preservation  of  ancient  monuments,  is  given  in  Strype,  vol.  i.  p.  442  : 

"  Right  Honorablk,  my  very  good  Lord — There  hath  been  offered  of  late, 
unto  this  Court,  a  most  just  and  earnest  Petition,  by  divers  of  the  chiefest  of  the 
Parish  of  St.  Peter  the  Poor,  in  London,  to  move  us  to  be  humble  Suitors  unto  your 
Lordship  in  a  Cause,  which  is  sufficient  to  speak  for  itself,  without  the  Mediation 
of  any  other,  viz.  : — for  the  Repairing  of  the  ruinous  Steeple  of  the  Church,  sometime 
called.  The  Augustine  Friars,  now  belonging  to  the  Dutch  Nation,  situate  in  the 
same  Parish  of  St.  Peter  the  Poor  :  The  Fall  whereof,  which,  without  speedy 
Prevention,  is  near  at  hand,  must  needs  bring  with  it  not  only  a  great  deformitie  to 
the  whole  City,  it  being,  for  Architecture,  one  of  the  beautifullest  and  rarest 
Spectacles  thereof,  but  also  a  fearful  eminent  danger  to  all  the  inhabitants  ne.xt 
adjoining.  Your  Lordship  being  moved  herein,  as  we  understand,  a  year  since,  was 
pleased  then  to  give  honorable  Promises  with  Hope  of  present  help,  but  the  effects 
not  following  according  to  your  honorable  intention,  we  are  bould  to  renew  the  said 
Suit  agayne  ;  eftsoons  craving  at  your  Lordship's  hands  a  due  consideration  of  so 
worthy  a  work,  as  to  help  to  build  up  the  House  of  God  ;  one  of  the  cheefest 
fountains,  from  whence  hath  sprung  so  great  glory  to  your  Lordship's  most  noble 
descendency  of  the  Powlets  ;  whose  steps  your  Lordship  must  needs  follow,  to 
continue,  to  all  posterity,  the  fame  of  so  bountiful  benefactors  both  to  Church 
and  Commonwealth. 


134  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

"  So  that  I  trust  we  shall  have  the  less  need  to  importune  your  Lordship  in  so 
reasonable  a  suite  ;  first,  Bycause  it  doth  principally  concern  your  Lordship,  being 
the  Owner  of  the  greatest  part  of  the  said  Speare,  or  Steeple ;  but  especially  that  by 
disbursing  of  a  small  sum  of  money,  to  the  value  of  50  or  60  _^s,  your  Lordship  shall 
do  an  excellent  work,  very  helpful  to  many,  and  most  grateful  to  all,  as  well  English 
as  strangers  ;  who,  by  this  means,  shall  have  cause  to  magnify  to  the  world  this  so 
honorable  and  charitable  an  action.  And  I  and  my  brethren  shall  much  rejoice  to 
be  releeved  herein  by  your  Lordship's  most  noble  disposition,  rather  than  to  i\y  to 
the  last  remedie  of  the  Law  of  the  Land  ;  which,  in  this  case,  hath  provided  a  Writ 
De  reparatione  facienda. 

"  Thus,  hoping  as  assuredlie  on  your  Lordship's  favour,  as  we  pray  incessantlie 
for  your  continual  Felicitie,  we  humbly  take  leaves  of  your  Lordship.  From 
London,  the  4th  of  August,  1600. 

"Your  Lordship's  humbly  to  be  commauned, 

Nycholas  Mosly,  Mayor.  Richard  Martvn, 
John  Hart,  Henry  Billingsly,  Stephen 
SoAME,  William  Ryder,  John  Garrard, 
Thomas  Bennett,  Thomas  Lowe,  Leonard 
Holiday,  Robert  Hamtson,  Ry.  Godard, 
John  Wattes,  Tho.  Smythe,  William 
Craven,  and   Humphrey  Weld." 

The  ancient  Church  of  Austin  Friars  was  given  by  Edward  \'l.  to  the  Dutch 
congregation,  in  whose  possession  it  still  continues.  All  that  remains  is  the  nave. 
In  1862  this  was  badly  damaged  by  fire,  but  was  carefully  restored,  the  window 
tracery  and  roof  dating  from  that  time  as  well  as  many  other  additions.  For  an 
account  of  the  Austin  Friars,  see  Mediaval  London,  vol.  ii.  p.  345. 

Gilbert  Talbot,  Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  lived  in  Broad  Street  in  Queen  Elizabeth's 
reign.  Lords  Weston  and  Dover  in  that  of  Charles  I. 

"  Here  was  a  Glass  House  where  Venice  Glasses  were  made'  and  Venetians 
employed  in  the  work  ;  and  Mr.  James  Howel  (author  of  the  familiar  Letters  which 
bear  his  name)  was  Steward  to  this  house.  When  he  left  this  place,  scarce  able  to 
bear  the  continual  heat  of  it,  he  thus  wittily  e.vpressed  himself,  that  had  he  continued 
still  Steward  he  should  in  a  short  time  have  melted  away  to  nothing  among  those 
hot  Venetians.  This  place  afterwards  became  Pinners'  Hall"  (Cunningham's 
Handbook). 

General  Monk  (February  1660)  took  up  his  quarters  at  the  Glass  House.  On 
the  north  side  was  the  Navy  Pay  Office,  on  the  south  the  Excise  Office. 

On  the  site  of  the  Excise  Office  was  Gresham  College.  Sir  Thomas  Gresham, 
who  died  in   1596,  bequeathed    his   dwelling-house   in    Bishopsgate   Street   for   the 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


135 


purposes  of  the  college,  besides  presenting  the  Corporation  of  the  City  of  London 
and  the  Mercers  Company  with  the  Royal  Exchange  on  the  condition  that  they 
carried  on  lectures  in  the  college  as  he  prescribed.  His  house  was  a  very  fine  one, 
well  suited  for  the  purpose  he  had  in  view.  After  the  death  of  his  widow  in  1596, 
lectures  on  seven  subjects  were  appointed  and  the  work  began.  The  house  escaped 
the  Great  Fire  of  1666,  and  the  mayor  took  the  college  for  courts  and  meet- 
ings ;  the  merchants  used  the  inner  court  for  their  Exchange,  and  temporary  shops 
were  put  up  for    the  use   of  those  who  had   been    burned   out  by   the  destruction 


GRESHAM   COLLEGE 


of  the   Exchange.       In   the  history  of  the  college  there  has  been  a  good  deal  of 
litigation,  the  full  story  of  which  may  be  found  in  Maitland  and  elsewhere. 

The    following  Regulations  are    given    in    Stow  and    Strype,  in    1720,   in  full. 
They  are  here  abridged  : 


1.  Precedency  of  the  Professors. 

The  three  Professors  of   Divinity,  Law,  and    Medicine  to  l)e  Governor  or  President  of  the 
College  in  turn. 

2.  The  Professors  to  live  in  the  College. 

3.  The  Professors  to  he  unmarried. 

4.  To  have  a  common  table,  and  not  to  entertain  friends  as  guests    at    more  than  three  meals 

in  one  month. 


136  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

5.  The  Year  to  consist  of  five  terms  : 

(i)  To  begin  on  the  Monday  before  Trinity  Term  and  to  continue  one  month. 
{2)  From  the  first  Monday  in  September  and  to  continue  a  fortnight. 

(3)  From  the  Monday  before  Michaelmas  Term  and  to  continue  to  the  end  of  that  Term. 

(4)  From  the  Monday  after  Epiphany  to  continue  two  months  or  sixty  days. 

(5)  From  the  Monday  seven  night  after  Easter  Day  to  the  end  of  Easter  Term. 

6.  The    Divinity  Lecture  to    be    read  on    Monday  and   Wednesday  at   8    a.m.  in    Latin    and    on 

Friday  in  English. 

7.  The  Divinity  Lecturer  to  deal  especially  with  the  controversies  which  affect  the  Church  of  Rome. 

8.  The  Law  and  Physick  Lectures  to  be  read,  like  the  Divinity  Lecture,  twice  in  Latin  and  once 

in  English. 

9.  The  other   lectures    in  Astronomy,  Geometry,   Rhetoric,  and  Music  to  be  read  alternately  in 

Latin  and  English. 

10.  The  Professors  to  wear  their  hoods  and  gowns. 

11.  A  keeper  of  the  House  to  be  appointed  by  the  Lord  Mayor. 

The  college  was  intended  to  be  a  rival,  in  some  sort,  to  Oxford  and  Cambridge. 
It  seems  never  to  have  succeeded  in  attracting  students.  Dr.  Johnson  attributed 
its  failure  to  the  fact  that  the  lectures  were  free,  and  that  what  is  given  is  not  valued. 
The  House  was  pulled  down  in  1768  and  the  Excise  Office  took  its  place.  The 
lectures  were  then  read  in  a  room  at  the  Royal  Exchange.  In  1843  the  present 
building  was  erected  and  the  college  entered  upon  a  new  course.  So  far,  however, 
it  does  not  seem  to  fulfil  the  intentions  of  the  Founder  as  a  great  educational  centre. 
Isaac  Barrow,  Robert  Hooke,  and  Christopher  Wren  have  been  Professors  in  the 
college.     The  Royal  Society  held  its  meetings  here  for  fifty  years  (1660- 17 10). 

ST.   PETER-LE-POER 

In  Broad  Street  at  present  still  stands  St.  Peter-le-Poer,  nearly  opposite  the  Excise  .Office.  It 
escaped  the  Great  Fire,  but  was  rebuilt  in  1791  from  the  designs  of  Jesse  Gibson.  In  1S42-44  St.  Benet 
Finck  was    demolished,  and   its  parish  was    united  with    this.     The    earliest    date  of  an    incumbent    is 

1356- 

So  far  as  there  is  any  record,  since  1181  at  least,  the  patronage  of  the  church  has  always  been  in  the 

hands  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  160  or  200. 

The  church  is  circular  in  shape,  with  a  recess  at  the  north  for  the  altar ;  a  gallery  originally  ran 
round  the  building,  but  in  18S8  the  greater  part  of  this  was  removed.  The  steeple  rises  at  the  south,  the 
only  side  on  which  the  exterior  is  visible,  owing  to  surrounding  buildings.  It  consists  of  a  square  tower, 
supporting  a  stone  cupola  which  is  terminated  by  a  vane. 

The  most  interesting  monument  which  the  present  church  contains  is  that  in  memory  of  Dr.  Richard 
Holdsworth,  rector  here  in  1623,  who  was  for  some  time  imprisoned  by  the  Long  Parliament.  He  was 
Master  of  Emmanuel  College,  Cambridge,  and  several  times  Vice-Chancellor  of  the  University.  The 
church  originally  contained  monuments  to  :  John  Lucas,  Master  of  the  Requests  to  Edward  VI.,  who  died 
1556  ;  Robert  Calthrop,  mayor,  1588  ;  Sir  William  Roche,  mayor,  1540  ;  and  Sir  William  Ciaraway,  at  whose 
expense  a  new  aisle  was  made  in  161 6,  costing  .^6400. 

Some  of  the  charities  given  yearly  to  the  poor  were  :  ^4,  the  gift  of  Lady  Ramsey ;  /^s>  ^^^  8'^  o^ 
John  Quarles,  for  bread  ;  ;^2o,  the  gift  of  Lady  Richard,  for  housekeepers  at  Christmas  time;  ;^3o,  the 
gift  of  Gerard  Vanheithuysens,  to  be  distributed  among  the  poor. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  137 

There  were  six  almshouses  in  Broad  Street,  the  gift  of  Sir  Thomas  Gresham. 

Richard  Holdsworth  (1590-1649),  Dean  of  Worcester,  was  rector  here;  also  Benjamin  Hoadley 
(1676-1761),  successively  Bishop  of  Bangor,  of  Hereford,  of  Saruni,  of  Winchester. 

Opposite  the  church  of  St.  Peter-le-Poer  stood  the  "old  "  South  Sea  House,  and 
behind  it  the  yards  used  by  the  Company.  This  was  the  back  of  South  Sea  House, 
the  front  of  which  was  at  the  east  end  of  Threadneedle  Street  where  it  runs  into 
Bishopsgate  Street.  The  City  of  London  Club  now  has  its  premises  here  ;  it  is  a 
large  building  with  a  massive  porch,  built  by  P.  Hardwick. 

Of  the  other  business  houses  in  this  street  there  is  nothing  to  say.  At  the 
corner  of  Winchester  Street  is  Winchester  House  (modern),  which  keeps  alive  the 
m.emory  of  old  Winchester  House,  standing  until  1839,  the  town  house  of  the 
marquises  of  Winchester. 

The  Pinners'  Hall  was  formerly  in  this  street  (see  Appendix). 

Wormwood  Street  is  a  continuation  of  London  Wall,  facing  it.  "  In  the 
street,"  says  Strype,  "  briefly,  there  be  divers  courts  and  alleys."  In  other  words, 
that  part  of  London  was  occupied  as  lately  as  1720  or  1750  by  a  population  of 
industrial  folk  not  yet  driven  out  by  the  increase  of  merchants'  offices  and  banks. 
There  appear  to  have  been  no  antiquities  in  this  street,  unless  we  reckon  a 
small  burial-ground  belonging  to  St.  Martin  Outwich,  which  lay  in  the  point  of 
the  wall. 

Of  London  Wall  we  have  already  spoken. 

Northward  are  three  stations,  Broad  Street,  Bishopsgate  Street,  and 
Liverpool  Street. 

There  are  dreary  rows  of  old  brick  houses  on  either  side  of  the  part  of  New 
Broad  Street  which  runs  east  and  west.  Towards  the  west  end  of  the  street  are 
one  or  two  well-built  business  houses.  The  site  of  the  Jews'  Synagogue  is  occupied 
by  Blomfield  House,  largely  inhabited  by  secretaries  of  companies  and  syndicates. 
When  we  turn  the  corner  into  the  part  of  New  Broad  Street  running  north  and 
south,  we  find  some  large  modern  buildings.  On  the  east  the  building  is  uniform 
for  a  considerable  way.  Broad  Street  House  occupies  all  the  frontage  between  the 
two  passages  of  St.  Botolph's  Churchyard.  It  is  stone  fronted  and  is  in  an  Italian 
style.  Dashwood  House  behind  it  covers  a  very  large  area  of  ground.  It 
is  of  ugly  design  in  red  brick  with  each  line  of  windows  in  a  different  style. 
Both  of  these  are  largely  occupied  by  agents,  engineers,  secretaries  of  companies, 
etc.  Dashwood  House  looks  out  on  the  churchyard.  This  is  an  uninviting 
strip  of  ground  surrounded  on  the  south  by  the  backs  of  warehouses.  A 
small  house  at  the  east  end  is  called  "  The  Old  Watchhouse,"  and  bears  an 
inscription  to  the  effect  that  it  was  rebuilt  in  1771  by  an  alderman  named 
James  Townsend. 

In    Blomfield    Street  was    formerly  the    Royal    London  Ophthalmic   Hospital, 


138  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

now  removed  to  the  City  Road.     The   Hospital  had  its  origin  in    1804  when  some 
gentlemen  founded  a  free  dispensary  for  eye  diseases. 

There  are  some  large  buildings  on  the  east  known  as  Blomfield  Buildings,  also 
the  London  Provident  Institution  Savings  Bank,  and  the  headquarters  of  the 
London  Missionary  Society.  The  bank  bears  an  inscription  to  the  effect  that  it  was 
erected  1835  and  enlarged  1875.  This  Society  was  first  formed  a  hundred  years  ago 
(January  15,  1795)  in  the  Castle  and  Falcon  Inn,  Aldersgate  Street,  and  it  now 
sends  missionaries  to  every  quarter  of  the  world.  Close  by  is  St.  Mary's  Roman 
Catholic  Chapel,  stucco-covered,  and  a  Roman  Catholic  School.  At  the  corner  of 
East  Street  is  a  fine  building  called  Finsbury  House,  with  grey  granite  columns 
of  considerable  strength  running  from  the  ground-floor  upwards.  It  is  well  pro- 
portioned and  has  a  well-finished  angle. 

Finsbury  Circus  is  surrounded  by  a  uniform  line  of  dull  brick  houses  having 
their  ground-floors  covered  with  yellow  stucco.  At  one  point  only  do  the  area 
railings  give  way,  and  that  is  at  the  London  Institution,  built  of  Portland  stone,  with 
a  heavy  portico  and  fluted  columns.  The  Institution  was  established  in  1806  in  Old 
Jewry  and  afterwards  removed  to  King's  Arms  Yard,  Coleman  Street.  It  was 
incorporated  a  year  after  its  establishment.  The  present  building  was  founded  in 
181 5  and  opened  four  years  later. 

A  great  many  solicitors  have  their  offices  in  the  Circus,  and  there  is  also  a 
sprinkling  of  surgeons,  accountants,  and  secretaries  of  companies.  The  centre  of  the 
Circus  is  occupied  by  a  wide  space  of  grass  surrounded  by  a  thick  shrubbery  of  trees. 

Northward  of  this  is  Finsbury  Square,  built  in  1789  by  George  Dance.  At 
the  junction  of  Finsbury  Pavement  and  Moorgate  Street  stood  Moor  Gate  from 
which  northwards  outside  the  walls  stretched  the  great  open  moor,  the  playground 
of  the  London  citizens  ;  this  is  now  all  built  over  with  the  exception  of  the  Square 
and  Circus  mentioned  above. 

Moorfields  so  frequently  occurs  in  documents  before  the  end  of  the  eighteenth 
century,  and  played  so  large  a  part  in  the  life  of  the  Londoner,  that  it  deserves  some 
notice.  The  earliest  mention  made  of  it  is  in  the  reign  of  Henry  II.,  and  w-as 
apparently  a  large  open  mere  or  marsh  on  which  water  lay  in  parts,  so  that  in  winter 
it  was  covered  with  ice,  and  formed  a  playground  where  the  young  citizens  practised 
a  primitive  kind  of  skating.  It  was  drained  in  1627,  and  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  time 
was  much  resorted  to  for  the  practice  of  archery.  It  was  also  used  as  a  general 
rendezvous  for  all  who  desired  to  meet  without  the  gates,  a  perpetual  fair,  a  drying 
ground,  a  preaching  place,  and  many  other  things.  It  is  generally  said  that  the 
houseless  people  assembled  here  after  the  Great  Fire  ;  but  Moorfields  could  have 
accommodated  but  a  tenth  part  of  them,  so  that  the  camps  must  have  extended 
northward  and  westward  far  beyond  the  limits  of  Moorfields  into  Finsbury  Fields 
northwards  and  to  Islington. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  139 

Various  attempts  were  made  from  time  to  time  to  enclose  parts  of  Moorfields 
and  build  on  the  space,  and  these  were  resisted  by  the  citizens  with  much  ardour  ;  but 
the  spreading  tide  heeds  not  resistance,  and  gradually  the  whole  area  was  built  over — 
even  in  the  seventeenth  century  the  fields  were  enclosed  and  surrounded  by  shops. 

Moor  Gate  was  rebuilt  in  1672,  and  the  central  gateway  made  higher  than  usual 
that  the  City  Trained  Bands  might  march  through  with  pikes  erect. 

From  end  to  end  Moorgate  Street  is  composed  of  comparatively  uniform  stucco- 
fronted  houses  in  a  hideous  Victorian  style,  with  little  projecting  pediments  and 
cornices  over  the  windows.  To  this  there  is  one  exception,  at  the  south-east  corner, 
in  the  British  and  Fire  Insurance  Office,  a  stone  and  grey  granite  building  of 
imposing  size. 

Great  Swan  Alley  is  a  narrow  entry  which  comes  out  just  beside  Ye  Old 
Swan's  Nest  public-house,  which  is  a  new  stone-faced  building.  At  the  north-east 
corner  are  Swan  Chambers,  designed  by  Basil  Champneys  in  1891. 

Moorgate  Court  (late  Coleman  Street  Buildings)  contains  the  Institute  of 
Chartered  Accountants,  a  very  fine  building  of  stone,  with  panels  of  female  figures  in 
relief;  on  each  panel  is  a  shield,  and  the  words  Arts,  Sciences,  Crafts,  Education, 
Commerce,  Agriculture,  Manufacture,  Mining,  Railways,  Shipping,  India,  Colonies, 
Building  are  inscribed  on  these  shields.  This  frieze  extends  across  the  whole 
frontage,  but  is  cut  up  by  intersecting  columns.  It  is  the  work  of  Hamo  Thorney- 
croft.  The  angle  at  the  corner  has  the  merit  of  being  thoroughly  unconventional. 
The  figure  of  Justice  surmounts  the  balcony.  The  building  was  designed  by  John 
Belcher,  1892.  Facing  south  is  a  red  brick  and  stone  building  known  as  Moorgate 
Court.  This  is  in  a  picturesque  style  of  Perpendicular  Gothic,  and  the  building  over 
the  projecting  porch  is  carried  up  to  the  roof,  giving  relief  to  the  frontage.  Altogether 
this  is  an  unexpectedly  picturesque  Court.  In  the  covered  entry  leading  to  it  from 
Moorgate  Street  are  two  old  doorways,  the  northern  one  fascinating,  with  grotesque 
faces  on  the  keystone  of  the  lintel,  and  vertical  Wrenian  ornaments  on  either  side. 
Looking  back  at  the  entry  from  the  street  we  see  that  these  doorways  belong  to  a 
very  old  plaster  house,  with  tiled  roof,  which  stands  back  from  the  street  line,  over- 
looking two  shops,  one  on  either  side  the  entry,  which  are  finished  with  parapets. 
The  windows  in  the  tiled  roof  also  peep  over  a  parapet.  This  is  the  only  picturesque 
bit  in  that  very  ugly  but  useful  thoroughfare — Moorgate  Street. 

Close  at  hand  the  Ocean  Accident  and  Guarantee  Corporation  have  fitted  up 
their  ground-floor  with  pink  terra-cotta  which  jars  with  the  yellow  plaster  above. 
Altogether,  to  the  east  of  Moorgate  Street  lie  an  amazing  number  of  quiet  courts, 
without  beauty,  but  lined  by  respectable  solid  brick-and-plaster  houses. 

Between  Moorgate  and  Old  Broad  Streets  east  and  west,  and  London  Wall  and 
Throgmorton  Street  north  and  south,  lies  a  typical  business  quarter. 

In  Copthall  Buildings  we  see  great  modern  houses.     The  Chambers  here  are 


I40  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

filled  by  stock-jobbers  and  stockbrokers.  Copthall  Avenue  is  made  up  of  fine  well- 
built  houses  and  little  old  ones.  Lanthorn,  Moorgate,  Throgmorton,  Copthall  Houses 
are  all  in  a  sensible  but  not  displeasing  style.  Some  are  of  the  lighter  red  brick  and 
light  stone  which  shows  up  well  in  a  London  Street,  others  in  grey  stone  and  granite. 
Copthall  House,  which  runs  round  the  corner  along  the  south  part  of  Sun  Court,  has 
windows  bayed  in  imitation  of  an  old  style.  Basil  Champneys  was  the  architect. 
For  the  old  houses,  Nos.  4  and  6  on  the  east  side  date  from  the  seventeenth 
century.  Nos.  10  and  12  are  of  about  the  same  date.  Nos.  22,  24,  and  26 
farther  northward  are  also  old,  and  are  perhaps  early  eighteenth  century  ;  their 
discoloured  bricks  and  the  bent  lines  of  the  windows  and  doorway  bear  testimony 
to  their  years. 

Of  Lothbury  there  is  not  much  to  say  ;  it  contains  the  Bank  of  Scotland,  and 
the  chief  office  of  the  London  and  Westminster  Bank,  and  numerous  companies  are 
promoted  and  worked  from  this  address. 

The  building  at  the  corner  of  Tokenhouse  Yard  is  in  the  style  known  as 
Venetian  Gothic.  It  is  harmoniously  carried  out.  There  is  a  somewhat  deeply 
recessed  doorway.  The  building  bears  a  frieze  or  panel  on  it  which  divides  an 
upper  window  into  two  parts.  It  was  designed  by  G.  Somers  Clarke  and  built  in  1866. 
No.  19,  the  Auction  Mart  in  Tokenhouse  Yard,  owns  the  same  architect,  and  is 
characterised  by  the  same  air  of  neatness  and  finish. 

ST.    MARGARET,    LOTHBURY 

St.  Margaret,  Lothbury,  was  probably  rebuilt  about  1440;  the  building  was  destroyed  by  the  Great 
Fire  ;  the  present  church  was  designed  by  ^^'ren  and  completed  in  1690.  It  serves,  besides  its  own  original 
parish,  for  6  other  parishes — those  of  St.  Christopher,  St.  Bartholomew  by  the  Exchange,  St.  Olave  Jewry, 
St.  Martin  Pomeroy,  St.  Mildred  in  the  Poultry,  and  St.  Mary  Colechurch.  The  earliest  date  of  an 
incumbent  is  1 181. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  the  Abbess  and  Convent  of  Barking,  Essex,  1303. 
Henry  VIII.  who  seized  it,  and  so  it  continues  in  the  Crown  to  the  present  time. 

Houseling  people  in  154S  were  279. 

The  church  measures  66  feet  in  length,  54  feet  in  breadth,  and  36  feet  in  height.  It  contains  a  nave, 
chancel,  and  one  aisle,  separated  by  Corinthian  columns.  The  south  aisle,  which  is  railed  off,  contains  a 
side-altar  at  the  east.  The  steeple  consists  of  a  three-storied  tower  and  cornice,  surmounted  by  a  lantern 
and  obelisk  with  finial  and  vane  ;  its  total  height  is  140  feet. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  :  John  le  Boteler,  sen.,  citizen,  for  himself  and  Matilda  his  wife,  for 
which  the  King  granted  his  licence,  August  2,  1321  ;  John  Julyan,  whose  endowment  fetched  ;£^  14:0  in 
1548,  when  John  Badye  was  priest;  John  Iforde,  whose  endowment  yielded  ^6:  13:4  in  1548,  when 
Patrick  Faber  was  priest. 

Reginald  Coleman,  son  of  Robert,  who  is  supposed  to  be  the  first  builder  of  Coleman  Street,  was 
buried  here  in  1483.  Also  John  Benet,  rector  of  the  parish  and  a  great  benefactor;  John  Dimocke,  who 
served  Henry  VHI.  and  Edward  Yl.  ;  Nicholas  Style,  Alderman  of  London,  who  died  in  1615. 

On  the  demolition  of  St.  Olave's,  a  monument  to  Alderman  John  Boydell,  the  engraver  (Lord  Mayor 
in  1790),  was  removed  to  this  church. 

Anthony  Bedingfield  gave  ^100  to  the  parish  ;  Mary  Barnes,  .;£ioo  :  Thomas  Bremley,  ^5  ;  Henry 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


141 


VIII.,  _^3  :  6  :  8  ;  John  Hanson.  _£^o  for  the  completion  of  the  church.      Many  other  names  are  recorded 
on  the  Table  of  Benefactors. 

Throgmorton  Street  takes  its  name  from  Sir  Nicholas  Throckmorton  who, 
tradition  says,  was  poisoned  by  Dudley,  Earl  of  Leicester,  Queen  Elizabeth's 
favourite.  Sir  Nicholas  Throckmorton  was  born  in  15 15  and  died  in  1570.  There  is 
nothing  to  warrant  the  statement  that  he  was  poisoned  by  Dudley,  with  whom  he  was 
on  friendly  terms.  What  was  the  name  of  the  street  before  the  life  and  death  of 
Sir  Nicholas  Throckmorton.''  Stow  simply  says  that  in  Throgmorton  Street, 
Thomas  Cromwell  built  a  large  house  in  the  place  of  certain  tenements.  The  house 
in  1 541  became  the  property,  and  the  second  hall,  of  the  Drapers  Company.  It 
could  hardly  have  been  named  after  a  man  at  that  time  only  twenty-six  years  of  age. 

There  were,  however,  other  Throckmortons  ;    the  name   in   the  Dictionary  of 
National  Biography  occupies  nearly  eight  pages.      Most  of  them  lived  a  good  deal 
in  London  ;  all  of  them  occupied  good  positions  ;  the  street,  formerly  part  of  Lothbury, 
may  have  received  its  name  from  one  or  other  of  the  family.      The  following  imperfect 
genealogy  of  the  family  will  illustrate  this  possibility  : 

sir  John  Throgmorton  (Under  Treasurer  of=  Alianora,  heiress  of  Sir  Guy  de  la  Spirn  of 


Chamberlain  of  Exchequer).       Lived   in 
London,  where  his  will  is  dated  (d.  1445). 


Coughton. 


Sir  Thomas  (d.  1472). 


John. 


Seven  daughters. 


Sir  Robert,  Privy  Councillor  Henrv  \'II. 
(d.  1518). 


Sir  George  =  Kathcrine,  daughter  of  Lord  \'aux. 


Thomas  (d.  161 4). 


Thomas,  Baronet, 

1642. 


Clement. 


Job  (1545-1601), 
Puritan  Controversialist. 


Sir  Nicholas 
(1515-1570). 


Etc. 


Sir  John  (Master  of  Requests, 
lived  in  London,  d.  1580). 


Francis,  Conspirator 
(b.  I  554,  executed  Aug.  1584). 


We  have  here  a  choice  of  four  generations  of  Throckmortons,  all  more  or  less 
intimately  connected  with  London,  any  one  of  whom  may  have  given  his  name  to 
the  street. 

The  courts  leading  out  of  Throgmorton  Street  on  the  north  were,  in  1750, 
Whalebone  Court,  Angel  Court,  Copt  Hall  Court,  Warnford  Court,  and  Austin  Friars. 
On  the  south  were  formerly  Bartholomew  Lane,  Bartholomew  Court,  Shorters  Court, 
and  Crown  Court.  All  of  these,  except  Whalebone  and  the  Bartholomew  Courts,  still 
exist. 

The  present  Throgmorton  Street  is  lined  by  the  usual  business  houses  in  a 


142  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF   LONDON 

decorative  style,  with  a  general  uniformity  pervading  all.     The  Drapers'  Hall  occupies 
a  great  part  of  the  northern  side  with  its  curving  frontage  and  highly  decorative  frieze. 


THE    DRAPERS    COMPANY 

The  association  from  wliich  the  Drapers  Company  derive  their  origin  appears  to  have  partaken  of 
the  nature  of  a  social  and  rehgious  as  well  as  a  commercial  guild.  The  exact  date  of  their  foundation 
cannot  be  ascertained,  but  they  undoubtedly  existed  as  a  brotherhood  at  a  very  early  period.  Madox 
{Hist.  Exch.  p.  391)  mentions  the  Gilda  Parariorum,  whereof  John  Maur  was  alderman,  among  the 
adulterine  guilds  amerced  in  the  26  Henry  II.  (1180).  The  Company  possess  a  certificate  by  William 
Camden,  Clarencieux  King-of-Arms,  certifying  the  arms  borne  by  Henry  Fitz  Alwin,  Lord  Mayor  1198- 
12 12,  and  that  he  was  a  member  of  the  Drapers  Company. 

The  earliest  charter  of  which  the  Company  have  any  record  is  the  Charter  of  Privileges  of  38 
Edward  III. 

The  earliest  ordinances  of  which  the  Company  possess  any  record  purport  to  be  a  revision  of  an 
earlier  set  made  in  1322.     The  revised  ordinances  were  made  in  14 18. 

The  earliest  accounts  in  the  possession  of  the  Company  are  those  of  the  wardens  for  the  year  1415. 
In  that  year  the  number  of  members  is  shown  to  exceed  100,  and  quarterage  was  received  from  83  persons, 
and  due  from  13  more. 

The  arms  of  the  Company  were  first  granted  by  Sir  William  Bruges,  Garter  King-of-Arms,  March  10, 
1439-40.  This  grant  was  confirmed  with  the  addition  of  crest  and  supporters  by  William  Harvey, 
Clarencieux,  July  10,  1561,  and  again  confirmed  with  a  slight  alteration  by  Sir  William  Segar,  Garter, 
June  6,  Jac.  I.  1613. 

In  1607  the  Company  obtained  an  entirely  new  charter  (4  Jac.  I.,  19th  January),  incorporating  them 
by  their  ancient  style  of  "  The  Masters  and  Wardens  and  Brethren  and  Sisters  of  the  Guild  or  Fraternity 
of  the  Blessed  Mary  the  Virgin  of  the  Mystery  of  Drapers  of  the  City  of  London,"  and  vesting  the  govern- 
ment in  the  master,  four  wardens  and  assistants.  Under  this  charter  the  government  of  the  Company  has 
been  carried  on  down  to  the  present  day. 

(i)  The  advantages  incident  to  the  position  of  a  freeman  of  the  Company  consist  of  the  eligibility 
to  participate  in  the  various  charitable  funds  held  by  the  Company  in  trust  for  their  members,  and  to 
become  liverymen  of  the  Company. 

(2)  Liverymen  of  the  Company,  as  such,  have  no  pecuniary  or  other  direct  advantages,  but  they 
constitute  the  class  from  which  the  governing  body  is  elected,  and  every  liveryman,  except  in  cases  of 
special  disqualification,  is  in  his  turn  placed  in  nomination  for  the  governing  body. 

(3)  The  master  is  entitled  to,  and  is  paid,  certain  small  bequests  which  amount  to  ;^2  :  13  :  4 
per  annum. 

The  wardens  are  also  entitled  to  certain  bequests  and  allowances  which  amount  on  an  average  to 
£,\o(>  :4  :  10  per  annum.  This  sum  is  not  paid  to  them,  but  goes  towards  the  cost  of  the  election  dinner 
in  August,  which  in  ancient  times  was  provided  by  the  wardens. 

The  members  of  the  governing  body,  as  such,  have  no  direct  pecuniary  or  other  advantages. 

Freemen  and  liverymen  of  the  Company  receive  no  fees. 

The  fees  paid  to  the  master,  wardens,  and  other  members  of  the  governing  body,  for  their  attendance 
at  courts  and  committees  during  the  last  ten  years,  average  ;^32  2S  :  12  :  6  per  annum. 

No  pensions  or  donations  are  paid  to  liverymen.  Liverymen  who  have  become  reduced  in  circum- 
stances, and  have  applied  for  and  received  the  return  of  their  livery  fine,  are  then  eligible  to  receive 
charitable  assistance  as  freemen. 

Assistance  by  way  of  pension  or  donation  is  not  granted  to  any  member  of  the  Company  except 
on  full  inquiry  into  his  circumstances,  to  ascertain  that  he  is  in  need  of  assistance,  and  that  his  necessity 
is  not  occasioned  by  his  own  improvidence  or  misconduct. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  143 

The  number  of  the  livery  of  the  Drapers  is  300;  their  Corporate  Income  is  ;^5o,ooo;  their  Trust 
Income  is  ;^2S,ooo. 

The  Drapers  have  had  several  places  of  meeting.  The  first  is  said  to  have  been  the  Church 
of  St.  Mary  Bethlehem  outside  Bishopsgate ;  the  ne.xt,  where  Nos.  19  to  23  St.  Swithin's  Lane  now 
is.  This  was  formerly  the  house  of  Sir  John  Hend,  draper,  Lord  Mayor  1391  and  1404,  who 
materially  assisted  towards  the  rebuilding  of  St.  Swithin's  Church  in  1420.  In  1479  the  Company's 
annals  have  this  entry  respecting  tithes  :  "  Paid  to  the  parson  of  St.  Swythin  for  our  place  for  a  year  Vis. 
Vnid.,"  implying  that  it  had  now  regularly  passed  into  the  Company's  hands.  Herbert,  in  his  History  of 
the  London  Livery  Companies,  has  sifted  out  information  regarding  this  hall,  which  tells  much  concerning 
its  apartments,  and  the  brave  feasts  held  therein  on  election  days  and  other  occasions.  The  great  hall 
was  strewed  with  rushes  and  hung  mostly  with  tapestry,  but  the  upper  end,  above  the  dais  for  the  high  table, 
with  blue  buckram.  It  must  have  been  of  large  dimensions,  capable  of  dining  two  to  three  hundred 
persons,  and  here  assembled  bishop  and  prior  and  parson,  Lord  Mayor  and  Mayoress,  to  feast  with  the 
master  and  wardens  and  brethren  and  sisters  of  the  Drapers  Company  all  seated  at  table  in  due  order  of 
rank.  The  sisters  had  a  dining-room  of  their  own,  "  the  ladies'  chamber,"  and  there  was  a  "  chekker 
chamber "  laid  with  mats  and  set  apart  for  "  maydens,"  but  both  married  and  unmarried  ladies  usually 
dined  in  hall  with  the  brothers  of  the  fraternity.  Besides  the  refectory,  there  was  a  large  kitchen  with  its 
three  fire-places,  and  there  were  buttery  and  pantry,  a  store-house  for  cloth,  and  "  a  scalding  yard  " ;  also  a 
court-room,  a  "great  chamber"  or  livery-room,  and  parlours  hung  with  tapestry  or  painted  green,  and  all 
contained  beneath  the  shelter  of  leaded  roofs.  The  Drapers  continued  to  feast  and  transact  their  business 
here  until  1541,  when  they  bought  the  house  in  Throgmorton  Street  which  had  belonged  to  Thomas 
Cromwell,  Earl  of  Esse.x. 

The  Earl  had  suffered  attainder  under  Henry  VIII.  This  estate  formed  the  finest  hall  that  any 
City  Company  had  hitherto  obtained.  It  contained,  besides  the  buildings,  a  large  garden  at  the  back. 
This  garden  was  still  preserved  until  a  few  years  ago,  when  the  greater  part  of  it  was  sold  and  converted 
into  offices. 

The  hall,  after  the  Fire,  was  rebuilt,  but  a  hundred  years  afterwards,  in  1774,  it  was  greatly 
damaged  by  another  fire.  The  present  hall  was  altered  and  remodelled,  with  the  addition  of  a  screen, 
in  1866-70. 

In  February  1660  General  Monk  made  Drapers'  Hall  his  headquarters.  The  Company  point 
to  many  illustrious  members.  The  Pulteneys,  Earls  of  Bath  ;  the  Capels,  Earls  of  Essex ;  the  Brydges, 
Dukes  of  Chandos  were  descended  from  members  of  the  Drapers  Company. 

What  was  said  of  the  Mercers  may  be  repeated  of  this  Company.  They  administer  their  great 
Trust  IncotTie  in  the  endowment  of  hospitals,  schools,  and  almshouses ;  and  they  have  large  funds  for 
purely  charitable  and  philanthropic  purposes.  Of  late  the  Drapers  Company  have  taken  up  the  cause  of 
Technical  Education  ;  at  the  People's  Palace  they  have  a  Polytechnic  attended  by  thousands  of  students, 
with  classes  of  instruction  in  all  the  principal  trades. 

At  the  north  end  of  Throgmorton  Avenue,  near  London  Wall,  is  the 
Carpenters'  Hall. 

THE   CARPENTERS   COMPANY 

A  brotherhood  or  guild  of  carpenters  is  believed  to  have  existed  in  London  about  1350,  but  under 
what  circumstances  we  have  no  information.  The  first  charter  to  the  [jresent  Company  was  granted  in 
1477,  17  Edward  IV.  This  granted  to  certain  freemen  of  the  mystery  of  carpentry  of  the  City  of 
London,  that  they  or  any  of  them  might  establish  a  brotherhood  or  guild  within  the  City  to  remain  for 
ever,  to  consist  of  one  master,  three  wardens,  and  commonalty  of  freemen  of  the  mystery  of  carpentry 
abiding  in  the  City  of  London,  and  the  suburbs  and  precincts  of  the  same,  and  of  the  brethren  and  sisters 
of  the  freemen  of  the  said  mvsterv,  and  of  all  others  who  of  their  devotion  will  be  of  the  same  brotherhood 


144 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


or  guild  ;  and  that  the  same  master,  wardens,  and  commonalty  should  be  one  body  and  one  commonalty, 
incorporated  by  the  name  of  Master,  Wardens,  and  Commonalty  of  the  Mystery  of  Freemen  of  the 
Carpentry  of  the  City  of  London. 

This  charter  was  exemplified,  ratified,  and  confirmed  by  Philip  and  Mary  (a  Charter  of  Inspeximus), 
and  also  by  Elizabeth ;  the  latter  exemplification  being  dated  8th  November,  2  Elizabeth. 

James  I.,  by  charter  (dated  15th  July,  5  James  I.),  granted  to  the  master,  wardens,  and  commonalty 
of  the  mystery  of  freemen  of  the  carpentry  of  the  City  of  London,  that  they  should  exercise  the  powers  of 
search,  correction,  and  government  of  all  the  freemen  of  the  art  or  mystery  of  Carpenters  of  the  City, 
or  using  or  exercising  the  said  art  or  mystery  within  the  said  City  or  the  suburbs  of  the  same,  or  within 
two  miles  thereof,  together  with  powers  for  the  inspection  of  timber,  and  regulation  of  matters  relating  to 
the  trade. 


CARI'E.N'TERs'     HALL,     LONDON    WALL,     1630 


Charles  I.,  by  charter  (dated  17th  Jul)-,  16  Charles  L),  reciting  the  preceding  charters,  and  that 
various  frauds  and  deceptions  were  practised  in  the  trade,  granted  to  the  master,  wardens,  and 
commonalty  of  the  Company,  that  the  master,  wardens,  and  assistants  for  the  time  being,  to  the  number 
of  twelve  or  more,  of  which  the  master  and  wardens  for  the  time  being  to  be  four,  being  met  together  upon 
summons  to  be  made  for  that  purpose,  should  have  full  power  and  authority  to  appoint,  constitute,  and  make 
ordinances,  decrees,  and  constitutions  in  writing  for  the  good  rule  and  government  of  the  master,  wardens, 
and  commonalty  of  the  mystery,  and  of  all  other  persons  being  free  of  the  art  or  mystery,  or  using  the 
same  art  or  mystery  within  the  City  of  London,  or  liberties  of  the  same,  and  for  declaring  in  what  manner 
the  master,  wardens,  and  commonalty,  and  all  such  persons  as  aforesaid,  should  behave  themselves,  and 
use  the  occupation  of  the  said  art  or  mystery. 

Charles  IL,  by  charter  (dated  20th  October,  26  Charles  IL),  reciting  and  confirming  the  preceding 
charters,  granted,  upon  the  humble  petition  of  the  master  and  wardens  of  the  Company,  the  oversight  and 
government  of  all  and  singular  persons,  whether  freemen  of  the  said  mystery,  or  using  or  occupying  the 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  145 

same  within  the  City  of  London,  or  within  four  miles  of  the  same,  together  with  very  extensive  powers 
and  privileges  for  exercising  the  oversight,  search,  and  measurement-  of  all  and  all  manner  of  timber, 
timber  stuff,  and  materials,  and  the  works  and  workmanship  thereto  within  the  before-mentioned  limits. 

In  1666  an  Act  of  Parliament  was  passed  ordering  brick  building  in  place  of  wood,  and  all  carpenters, 
etc.,  not  freemen  of  the  City  employed  in  the  building  were,  for  the  space  of  seven  years,  to  be  allowed 
the  liberty  of  working  as  freemen,  and  all  who  should  so  help  for  seven  years  were  to  enjoy  the  same 
liberty  for  their  lives.  In  1693  an  Act  of  Common  Council  was  passed  by  which  all  persons  carrying 
on  the  trade  of  carpentry  in  the  City  of  London  were  compelled  to  bind  their  apprentices  to  the 
Carpenters  Company. 

The  Company  is  now  governed  by  a  master,  tliree  wardens,  and  a  varying  number  of  assistants. 

The  livery  numbers  15c.  The  hall  in  Throgmorton  Avenue  was  built  when  the  old  hall  at 
London  Wall  was  taken  down  in  1876.  The  Corporate  Income  of  the  Company  is  ;^i6,ooo  and  the 
Trust  Income  is  ;^ii8o. 


GROUP    IV 

The  next  group  is  a  triangle,  of  which  Bishopsgate  Street  and  Fenchurch  Street 
are  two  sides.  It  is  a  part  of  very  considerable  interest,  though  not  so  full  of  history 
as  Cheapside  or  Thames  Street.  It  contains  the  great  market  of  Leadenhall  Street, 
which  is  itself  a  continuation  of  that  market  which  extended  eastward  from  West 
Chepe  to  the  Poultry,  to  Cornhill,  to  Gracechurch  Street  or  Grass  Street,  and  so  to 
Leadenhall,  the  distributing  market  of  London,  and  from  London  to  the  country. 
Its  financial  centre  was  Lombard  Street  before  the  Exchange  was  built.  At  two 
points  it  had  a  City  gate  ;  it  had  three  monastic  houses,  St.  Helen's,  The  Papey, 
and  the  Holy  Trinity  ;  it  has  been  for  three  hundred  years  especially  a  Jewish 
quarter;  it  had  the  East  India  Houses  one  after  the  other,  and  it  has  within  its 
borders  the  most  ancient  church  in  the  City,  that  of  St.  Ethelburga,  with  three  other 
churches  which  were  not  destroyed  by  the  Fire. 

Fenchurch  Street. — The  origin  of  the  name  has  been  generally  accepted 
as  from  a  supposed  situation  in  a  marsh  or  fen.  According  to  Stow,  "of  a  fenny  or 
moorish  ground,  so  made  by  means  of  this  borne" — "  Langborne."  We  may 
admit  the  fenny  ground,  but  we  are  not  obliged  to  admit  the  existence  of  a  stream 
here.  Maitland,  who  loves  to  be  precise,  says  that  the  stream  rose  in  a  place  called 
Magpie  Alley  close  to  St.  Katherine  Coleman,  and  ran  down  Fenchurch  Street 
and  Lombard  Street  as  far  as  the  west  end  of  St.  Mary  Woolnoth,  where  it  turned 
south  at  Sherborne  Lane  (whence  the  name)  and  divided  into  many  rivulets, 
where  it  fell  into  the  Thames.  Now,  no  trace  of  any  such  stream  has  ever 
been  found.  Moreover,  though  the  levels  of  the  streets  have  been  raised  by  many 
feet,  they  have  been  raised  in  proportion,  and  if  such  a  stream  now  ran  along 
Fenchurch  Street,  it  would  run  up-hill  for  half  its  course.  Further,  the  name 
Sherborne  does  not  mean  what  Maitland  thinks  at  all.  Its  real  meaning  may 
be  found  in  the  Calendar  of  ]Vills  (vol.  i.  p.  147,  and  on  many  other  pages). 
Langborne  appears  as  Langford  in  an  early  list.  Somewhere  near  the  end  of 
Sherborne  Lane  was  the  wall,  and  perhaps  the  fosse  of  the  Roman  citadel.  But 
Stow,  and  Maitland  after  him,  call  the  ward  Langborne  and  Fennie  About. 
Langborne  was  one  part — that  of  which  Lombard  Street  is  the  principal  part — and 

Fennie  About  the  other,  in  the  marshy  ground. 

146 


THE  ANTIQUITIES'  OF  THE  CITY  147 

The  ward  is  mentioned  in  a  murder  case  (Riley's  Memorials)  in  1 276.  Reference 
to  the  parish  occurs  repeatedly  between  1276  and  \i\c)  {Calendar  of  Wills).  There 
are  mentioned  messuages,  rents,  tenements,  shops,  a  brew-house,  etc.,  in  the  parish. 
The  street  is  mentioned  separately  later.  In  the  fourteenth  century  there  are 
dwelling-places,  tenements,  mansion-houses,  brew-houses,  bake-houses,  and  shops. 
But  there  are  no  si^ns  of  a  fen  in  or  about  the  street.  It  is  sueeested  that  as 
Gracechurch  Street  is  the  street  of  Grass,  so  Fenchurch  Street  is  Foin-church,  the 
street  of  Hay,  both  streets  belonging  to  the  market  of  hay,  grass,  and  corn.  But 
Professor  Skeat  replies  to  this  suggestion  :  "  It  is  impossible  to  derive /^«  from  the 
French  Join.  No  French  oi  becomes  e  in  English.  But  it  might  be  derived  from 
the  Anglo-French /t'/«,  which  is  the  corresponding  word  to  the  French /om  and  had 
the  same  sense.  In  this  case  it  ought  to  be  possible  to  find  the  spelling  fciji. 
Otherwise  fen  can  only  mean  fen.  Note  that  the  English  fen  may  be  spelt  also 
fenne.  But  the  Anglo-French  fein  could  not  take  either  n  or  ne  at  the  end  of  it. 
I  suspect  Stow  is  right.      I  see  no  evidence  to  the  contrary." 

Again,  writing  later,  Professor  Skeat  says:  "  I  think  we  can  get  at  Fenchurch 
now,  by  help  of  the  history. 

"  Fen  was  an  extremely  common  word  in  Middle  English,  not  merely  in  the 
sense  of  morass,  but  in  the  sense  of  the  modern  word  nmd.  '  Mud'  is  quite  a  late 
word,  but  I  presume  that  the  thing  was  known  in  the  City  even  in  the  earliest  times, 
and  the  name  of  it  was  'fen.'  This  being  so,  it  is  tolerably  certain  that  if  the  name 
originally  was  anything  that  could  be  readily  turned  into  fen,  that  would  soon  become 
the  pronunciation  and  the  '  popular '  etymology. 

"  If  we  start  from  the  idea  of  Hay,  we  proceed  through  the  Norman  form  which 
was  not  foin  (this  could  never  have  given  us  fen),  but  feiji  or  fayn,  or  fain,  pro- 
nounced as  modern  English  fain  (the  nasal  n  in  Norman  being  of  little  account 
except  after  the  simple  vowels  a  and  e).  But  the  corresponding  verb  'to  cut  hay' 
was  actually  '  fener.'  The  phrase  '  Li  fain  estoient  fene  '  is  quoted  from  Froissart 
in  Godefroy's  Old  French  Dictionary,  s.v.  Fener.  And  the  yurh  fener  \s  still  in  use 
in  Burgundy. 

"It  is  easy  to  see  how  the  word  fain  could  thus  be  associated  with  a  pro- 
nunciation fen,  and  Englishmen  who  knew  no  French  (there  were  plenty  of  them) 
may  very  well  have  imagined  in  their  hearts  that  the  reference  was  to  the  mud  in  the 
streets.     That  there  zvas  mud  may  be  taken  for  granted.     There  is  some  left  still. 

"There  was  also  a  remarkable  adjective  feneresse,  whence  the  word  feneresse, 
a  female  seller  of  hay.  And  there  was  a  word  fenerie  which  meant  a  barn  for  hay. 
And  feneron,  a  hay  maker." 

Professor  Skeat  later  repeats  that  if  the  word  for  hay  is  used  by  itself  in  London, 
it  will  be  in  the  form  of  fein-fain.  The  spelling  Fanchurch  is  especially  valuable  ;  in 
fact,  it  settles  it,  iorfan  may  be  short  {or  fain  whereas ya«  cannot  be  another  form  oifen. 


148  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

There  are  extant  many  ancient  deeds  connected  with  this  street.  Here  was  a 
brew-house  called  Le  George  super  le  Hoop. 

Roman  remains  have  been  found  here,  vases,  things  in  bronze,  and  an 
iron  candlestick. 

At  No.  119  Fenchurch  Street  is  a  tavern  known  as  the  Elephant.  It  stands 
on  the  site  of  a  house  called  the  Elephant  and  Castle.  In  the  Great  Fire  this 
house,  being  built  of  stone,  resisted  the  flames,  and  offered  shelter  to  many  homeless 
people.  Is  the  same  thing  related  of  the  churches  ?  They,  too,  were  built  of  stone. 
Why  did  not  they  resist  the  flames .'' 

Wallace  was  taken,  on  his  arrival  in  London  as  a  prisoner,  to  the  house  of 
William  de  Leyre  in  Fenchurch  Street. 

At  the  King's  Head  Tavern,  Queen  Elizabeth  was  regaled  with  pork  and  peas 
on  a  certain  visit  to  the  City. 

In  Fenchurch  Street  at  present,  on  the  south  side,  the  building  numbered  3  and 
4,  which  contains  the  Castle  Mail  Packet  Company,  is  well  designed,  with  wide, 
deeply-recessed  windows  enriched  by  mouldings.  The  ground-floor  is  encased  in 
grey  polished  granite.  Langbourn  Chambers  is  a  huge  mass  of  building.  Down  the 
side  of  the  street  are  various  plain  brick  buildings  of  different  ages  interspersed  with 
modern  erections,  stone  fronted. 

The  huge  building  at  the  west  corner  of  Mark  Lane  running  round  into 
Fenchurch  Street  is  so  covered  with  stone  ornamentation,  statues,  etc.,  that  the  red 
brickwork  is  hardly  to  be  seen.  This  is  the  London  Tavern,  and  contains  the  City 
Glee  Club.  Both  Mark  and  Mincing  Lanes  abound  in  great  commercial  buildings. 
Fen  Court  has  an  old  stuccoed  house  over  the  tunnel-like  entrance,  but  in  itself  is 
all  composed  of  flat-windowed  expressionless  offices.  These  look  down  on  the 
ancient  graveyard,  a  very  large  space  for  one  of  the  City  churches.  It  is  surrounded 
by  railings,  and  divided  down  the  centre  by  a  flagged  path.  Several  flat  tombstones 
lie  in  the  middle,  and  one  or  two  altar  tombs  complete  the  quiet  picture,  over  which 
the  leaves  of  the  wych-elms  throw  shadows.  Those  who  have  read  Mrs.  Riddell's 
tragic  story  George  Geith  of  Fen  Court  will  remember  her  description  of  the  Court. 
Beyond  Fen  Court  is  the  Spread  Eagle  Bread  Company,  a  fine  old  house  of  the 
beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century.  The  gilt  eagle  spreads  its  wings  in  front  of  a 
square  red-brick  block  with  antiquated  windows,  and  a  general  tint  of  age. 

The  Ironmongers'  Hall,  a  large  building,  faces  Fenchurch  Street. 

THE   IRONMONGERS   COMPANY 

The  earliest  notice  of  the  craft  is  in  135 1.  The  first  charter  incorporating  the  Company  was 
granted  by  Edward  IV.  in  the  year  1463,  but  it  appears  that  a  voluntary  company  or  fraternity  of 
members  of  the  iron  trade  had  existed  for  many  years  previous  to  that  date. 

There   followed    an    Inspeximus    Charter    of    Philip    and    Mary,    dated    June    20,    1558,    which 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


149 


confirmed  the  charter  of  Edward  IV. ;  Letters  Patent  of  the  second  year  of  Queen  Elizabeth, 
dated  November  12,  1560,  by  which  the  charter  of  Edward  IV.  was  further  confirmed.  James  I., 
by  Letters  Patent  dated  June  25,  1605,  confirmed  the  privileges  and  possessions  of  the  Company.  He 
also,  in  1620,  confirmed  the  Company  in  the  possession  of  certain  lands  and  tenements  therein  mentioned, 
in  consideration  of  ^100  paid  to  him.  James  II.,  by  charter  dated  March  18,  1685,  confirmed  all  their 
privileges  and  granted  new  and  additional  privileges,  and  by  Letters  Patent,  dated  November  19,  1688, 
he  confirmed  the  last-mentioned  charter. 

Stow  merely  mentions  the  Hall,  which  occupied  the  area  between  Fenchurch  and  Leadenhall 
Streets.  It  existed  in  1494  and  was  rebuilt  in  1587.  The  present  Hall  was  erected  in  1748-50  on  the 
site  of  an  Elizabethan  house  which  had  escaped  the  Fire. 

The  number  of  liverymen  varies ;  it  is  now  thirty-seven.  The  Corporate  Income  is  ;^i2,ooo;  the 
Trust  Income  is  ^11,000. 


IKO.N.MO.NGERS     11AI.I.    I.N    Till;    EIGHTEENTH    CENTURY 

1.  Freemen  are  invited  to  two  dinners  yearly,  and  they,  their  wives,  and  children  are  entitled  to  the 
benefit  of  the  various  charities  bequeathed  for  their  use  by  members  of  the  Company  or  others,  particulars 
of  which  are  furnished  to  them  on  admission  to  the  freedom. 

2.  Liverymen  form  the  court  and  receive  fees  for  their  attendance  on  courts  and  committees  for 
transacting  the  business  of  the  Company  and  the  charities.  The  amount  of  fees  paid  to  members  of  the 
Company  for  their  attendances  at  courts  and  committees  during  the  last  ten  years  averages  ;^73S 
for  each  year.     No  fees  are  paid  out  of  the  trust  estates. 

3.  The  master  and  wardens  have  no  privileges  beyond  the  other  liverymen,  and  no  liveryman  receives 
any  money  from  the  charities. 

ST.   KATHERINE   COLEMAN 

St.  Katherine  Coleman  stands  on  the  south  side  of  Fenchurch  Street,  fiirther  east.  Its  second 
name  is  derived  from  its  pro.ximity  to  a  garden,  anciently  called  "Coleman's  Haw."     In  1489  Sir  William 


ISO  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

White,  Draper  and  Lord  Mayor,  enlarged  the  church  ;  it  was  further  enlarged  in  1620  and  a  vestry  built  in 
1624.  It  escaped  the  Great  Fire  of  1666,  but  by  the  subsequent  elevation  of  Fenchurch  Street  its 
foundations  were  buried.  In  1734  the  building  was  pulled  down  and  the  present  one  erected  from  the 
designs  of  an  architect  named  Home.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1 346. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Dean  and  Canons  of  St.  Martin's-le-Grand 
since  1346,  then  the  Abbot  and  Convent  of  Westminster,  1509;  Thomas,  Bishop  of  Westminster,  by 
grant  of  Henry  VIII.,  January  20,  1540-41  ;  Bishop  of  London  by  grant  of  Edward  \T.  in  1550,  confirmed 
by  Queen  Mary,  March  3,  1553-54,  in  whose  successors  it  continued.  The  present  building  is  of  brick, 
with  stone  dressings.     The  tower  rises  at  the  west. 

Sir  Henry  Billingsley,  Lord  Mayor  of  London,  was  buried  here  in  1606.  A  few  monuments  are 
recorded  by  Strype,  but  the  individuals  commemorated  are  of  little  note.  The  finest  monument  still  pre- 
served is  that  to  Lady  Heigham  (d.  1634),  wife  of  Richard  Heigham,  gentleman  pensioner  to  King 
Charles  I. 

Sir  H.  Billingsley  left  ^200  for  the  poor  at  his  death,  but  his  heirs  did  not  carry  out  his  instructions. 
Jacob  Lucy  was  donor  of  ;^ioo;  Thomas  Papillon  of  £i>i.  Other  names  also  were  recorded  on  the 
Table  of  Benefactors  erected  in  16S1.     There  was  a  workhouse  belonging  to  the  parish. 

St.  Gabriel,  Fenchurch,  was  situated  in  the  middle  of  Fenchurch  Street  between  Rood  Lane  and 
Mincing  Lane.  It  was  burnt  down  by  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being  annexed  to  St. 
Margaret  Pattens  by  Act  of  Parliament.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  132 1. 

The  patronage  of  this  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Prior  and  Convent  of  Holy  Trinity,  1321-1519  ; 
the  Crown  from  1540  up  to  1666,  when  the  church  was  burnt  down  and  the  parish  annexed  to  St. 
Margaret  Pattens. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  200. 

For  Rood  Lane,  Mincing  Lane,  and  the  otlier  streets  south  of  Fenchurch 
Street  leading  to  Thames  Street,  see  Group  V. 

Billiter  Street,  not,  as  Stow  says,  from  its  first  owner  Belzetter,  but  from  being 
the  quarter  in  which  stood  the  Bell  Founders.  Agnes,  sister  of  Thomas  a  Becket, 
had  land  in  Bellzetter  Lane,  parish  of  St.  Michael,  Aldgate.  The  lane  is  mentioned 
in  the  Calendar  of  Wills  in  1298,  and  on  many  occasions  afterwards.  Strype,  in  1720, 
calls  it  a  lane  of  very  ordinary  account,  the  houses  being  very  old  and  of  timber 
(the  place  escaped  the  Fire),  the  inhabitants  being  "inconsiderable,  as  small 
brokers,  chandlers,  and  the  like."  But  the  chief  "ornament"  of  this  place  was 
Billiter  Square,  which  was  then  newly  built  with  good  brick  houses  "well  inhabited." 

Lime  Street  runs  between  Fenchurch  and  Leadenhall  Streets. 

In  1576  a  passage  was  constructed  at  the  north-east  corner  of  this  street; 
in  the  necessary  excavation  was  discovered  what  Stow  calls  a  "hearth"  made  of 
Roman  tiles,  every  tile  half  a  yard  square  and  two  inches  thick.  It  was  six  feet 
under  ground,  corresponding  in  depth  with  Roman  remains  found  on  Cornhill. 
The  passage  was  duly  set  up  and  was  standing. 

The  name  of  the  street  occurs  in  the  Calendar  of  Wills  for  the  year  i  298.  We 
are  now  approaching  that  imaginary  belt  of  the  City  lying  between  the  markets  and 
Thames  Street,  in  which  the  merchants  and  the  nobles  mostly  had  their  houses. 
Stow  enumerates  a  long  list  of  the  great  houses  in  Lime  Street : 

"In   Lime  Street  are  divers  fair  houses  for  merchants  and  others  ;  there  was 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  151 

sometimes  a  mansion-house  of  the  kings,  called  the  King's  Artirce,  whereof  I  find 
record  in  the  14th  of  Edward  I.,  but  now  grown  out  of  knowledge.  I  read  also  of 
another  great  house  in  the  west  side  of  Lime  Street,  having  a  chapel  on  the  south  and 
a  garden  on  the  west,  then  belonging  to  the  Lord  Nevill,  which  garden  is  now  called 
the  Green  yard  of  the  Leaden  hall.  This  house,  in  the  9th  of  Richard  1 1.,  pertained  to 
Sir  Simon  Burley,  and  Sir  John  Burley  his  brother  ;  and  of  late  the  said  house  was 
taken  down,  and  the  forefront  thereof  new  built  of  timber  by  Hugh  Offley,  alderman. 
At  the  north-west  corner  of  Lime  Street  was  of  old  time  one  great  messuage  called 
Benbrige's  inn;  Ralph  Holland,  draper,  about  the  year  1452  gave  it  to  John  Gill, 
master,  and  to  the  wardens  and  fraternity  of  tailors  and  linen-armourers  of  St.  John 
Baptist  in  London,  and  to  their  successors  for  ever.  They  did  set  up  in  place 
thereof  a  fair  large  frame  of  timber,  containing  in  the  high  street  one  great  house, 
and  before  it  to  the  corner  of  Lime  Street  three  other  tenements,  the  corner  house 
being  the  largest,  and  then  down  Lime  Street  divers  proper  tenements ;  all  which 
the  merchant-tailors,  in  the  reign  of  Edward  VI.,  sold  to  Stephen  Kirton,  merchant- 
tailor  and  alderman  :  he  gave,  with  his  daughter  Grisild,  to  Nicholas  Woodroffe  the 
said  great  house,  with  two  tenements  before  it,  in  lieu  of  a  hundred  pounds,  and 
made  it  up  in  money  ^366  :  13  :4.  This  worshipful  man,  and  the  gentlewoman  his 
widow  after  him,  kept  those  houses  down  Lime  Street  in  good  reparations,  never 
put  out  but  one  tenant,  took,  no  fines,  nor  raised  rents  of  them,  which  was  ten  shillings 
the  piece  yearly  :  but  whether  that  favour  did  overlive  her  funeral,  the  tenants  now 
can  best  declare  the  contrary. 

"  Next  unto  this,  on  the  high  street,  was  the  Lord  Sowche's  messuage  or 
tenement,  and  other  ;  in  place  whereof,  Richard  Wethell,  merchant-tailor,  built  a 
fair  house,  with  a  high  tower,  the  second  in  number,  and  first  of  timber,  that  ever  1 
learnt  to  have  been  built  to  overlook  neighbours  in  this  city. 

"This  Richard,  then  a  young  man,  became  in  a  short  time  so  tormented  with 
gouts  in  his  joints,  of  the  hands  and  legs,  that  he  could  neither  feed  himself  nor  go 
further  than  he  was  led  ;  much  less  was  he  able  to  climb  and  take  the  pleasure  of  the 
height  of  his  tower.  Then  is  there  another  fair  house,  built  by  Stephen  Kirton, 
alderman  ;  Alderman  Lee  did  then  possess  it,  and  again  new  buildeth  it  ;  but  now  it 
is  in  the  custody  of  Sir  William  Craven. 

"  Then  is  there  a  fair  house  of  old  time  called  the  Green  gate ;  by  which  name 
one  Michael  Pistoy,  a  Lumbard  held  it,  with  a  tenement  and  nine  shops  in  the  reign 
of  Richard  II.,  who  in  the  15th  of  his  reign  gave  it  to  Roger  Corphull,  and  Thomas 
Bromester,  esquires,  by  the  name  of  the  Green  Gate,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Andrew 
upon  Cornhill,  in  Lime  Street  ward  ;  since  the  which  time  Philip  Malpas,  sometime 
alderman,  and  one  of  the  sheriffs,  dwelt  therein,  and  was  there  robbed  and  spoiled  of 
his  goods  to  a  great  value  by  Jack  Cade,  and  other  rebels,  in  the  year  1449. 

"Afterwards,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VII.,  it  was  seised  into  the  King's  hands, 


152  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

and  then  granted,  first,  unto  John  Alston,  after  that  unto  William  de  la  Rivers,  and 
since  by  Henry  VHI.  to  John  Mutas,  a  Picarde  or  Frenchman,  who  dwelt  there, 
and  harboured  in  his  house  many  Frenchmen,  that  kalendred  wolsteds,  and  did 
other  things  contrary  to  the  franchises  of  the  citizens  ;  wherefore  on  evil  May-day, 
which  was  in  the  year  151 7,  the  apprentices  and  others  spoiled  his  house;  and  if 
they  could  have  found  Mutas,  they  would  have  stricken  off  his  head.  Sir  Peter 
Mutas,  son  to  the  said  John  Mutas,  sold  this  house  to  David  Woodroffe,  alderman, 
whose  son,  Sir  Nicholas  Woodroffe,  alderman,  sold  it  over  to  John  Moore,  alderman, 
that  then  possessed  it. 

"  Next  is  a  house  called  the  Leaden  porch,  lately  divided  into  two  tenements  ; 
whereof  one  is  a  tavern,  and  then  one  other  house  for  a  merchant,  likewise  called 
the  leaden  Porch,  but  now  turned  to  a  cook's  house.  Next  is  a  fair  house  and  a 
large,  wherein  divers  mayoralties  have  been  kept,  whereof  twain  in  my  remembrance  ; 
to  wit.  Sir  William  Bowyerand  Sir  Henry  Huberthorne"  {Stow' s  Survey,  pp.  162-163). 

In  modern  Lime  Street  the  first  thing  that  attracts  attention  is  an  old  iron 
gateway  leading  to  a  little  paved  yard  where  once  stood  St.  Dionis  Backchurch. 
Laid  in  a  horizontal  row  are  nine  tombstones,  on  which  one  can  look  down.  A 
steep  flight  of  stone  steps  leads  up  to  the  parish  offices,  and  the  backs  of  business 
houses  surround  the  court.      At  No.   15  is  the  Pewterers'  Hall. 

THE    PEWTERERS   COMPANY 

The  earliest  information  respecting  the  Coniijany  is  found  in  the  records  of  the  City  of  London, 
22  Edward  III.,  a.d.  1348,  when  the  mayor  and  aldermen  are  prayed  by  the  good  folk  of  the  trade  to  hear 
the  state  and  points  of  the  trade,  to  provide  redress  and  amendment  of  the  defaults  thereof  for  the  common 
profit,  and  to  ordain  two  or  three  of  the  trade  to  oversee  the  alloys  and  workmanship. 

In  the  year  1443  (22  Henry  VI.),  in  consequence  of  the  complaints  of  "the  multitude  of  tin  which 
was  untrue  and  deceyvable  brought  to  the  City,  the  defaults  not  being  perceptible  until  it  comes  to  the 
melting,"  the  mayor  and  aldermen  granted  to  the  Company  the  right  to  search  and  assay  all  the  tin  which 
was  brought  into  the  City  of  London. 

Edward  IV.  (1473-74)  incorporated  the  Company  by  royal  charter. 

This  power  was  recognised  and  confirmed  by  charters  granted  successively  by  Henry  VIII.,  Philip 
and  Mary,  Queen  Elizabeth,  James  I.,  and  Queen  Anne. 

An  .Act  of  Parliament  confirming  the  Company's  powers  to  search  for  bad  wares  was  passed  in  1503- 
1504,  19  Henry  VII.  c.  6.,  confirmed  by  other  Acts,  4  Henry  VIII.  c.  7.,  1512-13;  25  Henry  \'III. 
c-   9-1  1533-34;  aid  a  statute  33  Henry  VIII.  c.  4.,  1541-42,  prohibited  the  hawking  of  pewter. 

The  maintenance  of  the  good  faith  of  the  trade  appears  to  have  been  one  of  the  primary  considera- 
tions in  the  proceedings  of  the  Company. 

In  1555  it  was  resolved  that  any  member  buying  metal  of  tylors,  labourers,  boys,  women,  or 
suspected  persons,  or  between  six  at  night  and  six  in  the  morning,  if  the  metal  should  prove  to  have  been 
stolen,  should  not  only  be  dismissed  the  Company,  but  stand  to  such  punishment  as  the  Lord  Mayor  and 
aldermen  might  direct. 

The  Company  appear  to  have  furnished  a  certain  number  of  men  with  arms  for  the  defence  of  the 
City,  and  to  have  kept  at  the  Hall  equipments  for  them — calyvers,  corslets,  bills,  pikes,  etc. — and  to  have 
appointed  an  armourer  to  preserve  them  in  good  condition. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  153 

The  Company  used  to  cast  into  bars  such  tin  as  was  to  be  transported  out  of  the  reahn,  whereby  the 
poor  of  the  Company  were  wont  to  provide  for  part  of  their  hving  ;  but  after  these  bars  were  made  by 
strangers  beyond  the  sea,  the  poor  were  greatly  "  hindered."  A  petition  was  presented  to  Queen  Elizabeth 
in  1594,  and  after  a  delay  of  four  years  Letters  Patent  were  granted  to  the  Company,  giving  permission  for 
a  small  charge  to  be  made  on  the  smelting  and  casting  of  bars  of  tin. 

The  fellowship  of  the  craft  and  mystery  of  Pewterers  of  London  and  elsewhere  represented,  before 
Henry  VIIL's  reign,  one  of  the  best  handicrafts  within  the  realm. 

The  master  and  wardens  appear  at  the  commencement  of  the  seventeenth  century  to  have  exercised 
the  right  to  nominate  the  casters  of  tin  in  London,  and  the  Company  received  a  small  royalty  on  the 
casting,  which  was  distributed  to  the  poor  of  the  Company.  They  also  appear  to  have  had  from  the 
Council  of  the  Revenue  of  the  Prince  of  Wales  an  allotment  of  certain  proportions  of  the  tin  produced  in 
Cornwall,  and  to  have  derived  some  profit  from  the  privilege.  In  fact,  the  pewter  trade  in  London  was 
supplied  with  tin  from  Cornwall  through  the  Company,  and  frequent  disputations  are  recorded  between 
the  Company  and  the  Prince's  Council  as  to  the  rate,  which  was  sometimes  said  to  be  so  high  that  the 
poor  of  the  Company  could  not  live  thereby. 

At  a  later  period  the  Company,  in  order  to  prevent  the  public  from  imposition,  and  to  sustain  the 
credit  of  the  pewterers'  trade,  appointed  the  standard  assays  of  the  various  wares  and  the  weight  of 
metal  for  each  article. 

The  Hall  stands  upon  a  piece  of  ground  presented  to  the  Company  by  W.  Smallwood,  Master,  1487". 
The  first  building  was  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire  and  the  i)resent  one  is  that  which  replaced  it. 

The  Company  now  have  a  livery  of  103;  a  Corporate  Income  of;^54oo;  and  a  Trust  Income  of^233. 

The  Ordinances  of  the  Pewterers  were  submitted  to  the  mayor  and  aldermen  in  1348.  They  may 
be  found  in  Riley  (A/eworui/s,  241).  They  contain  clauses  similar  to  those  in  the  ordinances  of  other 
trades,  including  the  power  of  appointing  overseers  of  their  own  body.  Two  years  later  we  find  a  Pewterer 
named  John  de  Hiltone  brought  before  the  mayor  on  the  charge  of  making  "  false  "  salt-cellars  and 
"potels."  The  "  false  "  vessels  were  forfeited.  The  use  of  pewter  for  domestic  purposes  was  universal. 
Dishes,  plates,  basins,  drinking  cups,  measures  were  all  made  of  pewter.  There  are  luncheon-rooms  in  the 
City  at  the  present  day  where  steaks  and  chops  are  served  on  pewter  :  at  Lincoln's  Inn  the  dishes  are  still 
of  pewter  ;  in  the  last  century  children  and  servants  took  their  meals  off  pewter.  These  facts  explain  the 
flourishing  condition  of  the  Company  and  its  large  income. 

St.  Dionis  Backchurch  was  situated  at  the  south-west  corner  of  Lime  Street  behind  Fenchurch 
Street,  from  which  position  it  probably  derived  its  name  of  Backchurch.  It  was  burnt  down  by  the  Great 
Fire,  and  rebuilt  by  Wren  in  1674,  and  the  steeple  added  in  1684.  In  1878  this  building  was  pulled 
down  by  an  Order  in  Council.  Part  of  the  money  obtained  from  the  site  was  given  to  the  foundation  of  a 
new  church  of  St.  Dionis  at  Parsons  Green  erected  in  1885.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1288. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  In  1248,  the  Prior  and  Chapter  of  Christ  Church, 
Canterbury ;  then  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Canterbury  1552,  in  whose  successors  it  continued  up  to  1878, 
when  the  church  was  demolished  and  the  parish  annexed  to  AUhallows,  Lombard  Street. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  405. 

Chantries  were  founded  here:  By  John  Carby,  Alderman  of  London,  whose  endowment  fetched  ^^13 
in  1548,  when  James  Servaunt  was  priest;  by  Maude  Bromeholmc,  whose  endowment  yielded  ^5:7:4 
in  1548  ;  by  John  Wrotham,  whose  endowment  was  ^^15  :  7  : 4,  when  Nicholas  Metcalfe  was  chaplain. 

The  church  originally  contained  a  considerable  number  of  monuments,  the  most  notable  of  which 
were  in  memory  of  John  Hewet  of  the  Clothworkers  Company  and  benefactor  of  the  parish  ;  Sir  Robert 
Jefifreys,  Knt.,  Alderman  and  Lord  Mayor  of  the  City,  who  died  in  1703;  and  Edward  Tyson,  M.D. 

Some  of  the  donors  of  charitable  gifts  were :  Dame  Elizabeth  Clark,  ^^30  ;  Robert  Williams,  ^25, 
towards  a  bell ;  James  Church,  ^10.     Many  others  gave  various  fittings  for  the  church. 

Lionel  Gatford  (d.  1665),  Archdeacon  of  St.  Alban's,  was  rector  here  ;  also  Nathanial  Hardy  (1618- 
1670),  Dean  of  Rochester. 


154 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


Leadenhall  Street  was  so  named  after  the  Leadenhall,  i.e.  the  hall  covered 
with  lead,  which  stood  at  the  corner  of  that  street  and  Gracechurch  Street.  An  early 
reference  to  the  place  is  found  in  the  Calendar  of  Wills  in  the  year  1296,  when  certain 
"  rents  near  la  Ledenhalle  in  Gracechurch  Street"  are  mentioned.     The  next  reference 


^SQim£>^ 


A    REMARKABLE    OLD    HOUSE    IN    I.EADp;N  II  AI.I.    STREET 
From  a  drawing  by  S.  Rau-Ie.     Published  Januarj-  1801. 


does  not  occur  till  the  year  1369.  But  in  Riley's  Memorials,  we  are  told  that  on  the 
eve  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  June  24,  the  mayor  delivered  to  the  chamberlain  "one  silver 
mark  arising  from  a  certain  small  garden  annexed  to  Leden  Hall,  which  mark  was 
taken  ...  for  completing  the  pavement  belonging  to  the  Court  of  Leaden  Hall." 
Riley  gives  a  very  brief  history  of  the  place  : 

"At  the  beginning  of  the   14th  century,   it   was   occasionally  used   as  a  Court 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


155 


of  Justice  ;  see  the  MS.  Liber  de  Antiqu.  Legibus,  at  Guildhall,  fol.  61.  In 
October,  1326,  after  the  flight  of  Edward  II.,  the  Commons  of  London  met  there, 
when  making  terms  with  the  Constable  of  the  Tower"  (Riley,  Alcniorials,  p.  138). 

Stow  gives  a  long  account  of  the  various  hands  through  which  the  inaiior  of 
Leadenhall  passed,  confusing  the  hall  with  the  manor  on  which  it  was  built.  In  the 
year  141 1,  according  to  Stow,  the  manor  came  into  possession  of  the  City. 

"Then  in  the  year  1443,  the  21st  of  Henry  VI.,  John  Hatherley,  mayor, 
purchased  licence  of  the  said  king  to  take  up  two  hundred  fodder  of  lead,  for  the 
building  of  water  conduits,  a  common  granary,  and  the  cross  in  West  Chepe,  more 


itrtjuii  i'y  /A.'j.  //.  .SAr/Zi. 


I.EAIJENIIAI.I.    STREET 


richly,  for  the  honour  of  the  City.  In  the  year  next  following,  the  parson  and  parish 
of  St.  Dunstan,  in  the  east  of  London,  seeing  the  famous  and  mighty  man  (for  the 
words  be  in  the  grant,  nobilis  ct  potens  vir),  Simon  Eyre,  citizen  of  London,  among 
other  his  works  of  piety,  effectually  determined  to  erect  and  build  a  certain  granary 
upon  the  soil  of  the  same  city  at  Leadenhall,  of  his  own  charges,  for  the  common 
utility  of  the  said  city,  to  the  amplifying  and  enlarging  of  the  said  granary,  granted 
to  Henry  Frowicke,  then  mayor,  the  aldermen  and  commonalty,  and  their  successors 
for  ever,  all  their  tenements,  with  the  appurtenances,  sometime  called  the  Horsemili, 
in  Grasse  Street,  for  the  annual  rent  of  four  pounds,  etc.  Also,  certain  evidences 
of  an  alley  and  tenements  pertaining  to  the  Horsemili  adjoining  to  the  said  Leaden 


156  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

hall  in  Grasse  Street,  given  by  William  Kingstone,  fishmonger,  unto  the  parish 
church  of  St.  Peter  upon  Cornehill,  do  specify  the  said  granary  to  be  built  by  the 
said  honourable  and  famous  merchant,  Simon  Eyre,  sometime  an  upholsterer,  and 
then  a  draper,  in  the  year  1419.  He  built  it  of  squared  stone,  in  form  as  now  it 
showeth,  with  a  fair  and  large  chapel  in  the  east  side  of  the  quadrant,  over  the  porch 
of  which  he  caused  to  be  written,  Dextra  Domini  cxaltavit  me  (The  Lord's  right 
hand  exalted  me).  Within  the  said  church  on  the  north  wall,  was  written,  Honorandus 
famosus  mercator  Simon  Eyre  kujus  opcris,  etc.  In  English  thus:  'The  honour- 
able and  famous  merchant,  Simon  Eyre,  founder  of  this  work,  once  mayor  of  this 
City,  citizen  and  draper  of  the  same,  departed  out  of  this  life,  the  iSth  day  of 
September,  the  year  from  the  incarnation  of  Christ  1459,  and  the  38th  year  of  the 
reign  of  King  Henry  VL'"  (Stow's  Survey,  p.  162). 

Before  the  middle  of  the  fourteenth  century  Leadenhall  had  become  a  market 
for  poultry.  In  1345  it  was  ordered  that  strange  folk,  i.e.  people  from  outside  the 
City,  bringing  poultry  for  sale  should  no  longer  hawk  it  about  from  house  to  house, 
but  should  take  it  to  the  Leaden  Hall,  and  should  there  sell  it,  and  nowhere  else. 
Also  that  citizens  who  sell  poultry  should  ofter  it  on  the  west  side  of  the  Tun  of 
Cornhill  (Riley,  pp.  220,  221). 

The  market  was  not,  however,  confined  to  the  sale  of  poultry,  as  is  proved  by 
the  following  request  of  the  commons  of  the  City,  in  the  year  1503  : 

"  Please  it,  the  lord  mayor,  aldermen  and  common  council,  to  enact,  that  all 
Frenchmen  bringing  canvass,  linen  cloth,  and  other  wares  to  be  sold,  and  all 
foreigners  bringing  wolsteds,  sayes,  Stamins,  Kiverings,  nails,  iron  work,  or  any 
other  wares,  and  also  all  manner  of  foreigners  bringing  lead  to  the  city  to  be  sold, 
shall  bring  all  such  their  wares  aforesaid  to  the  open  market  of  the  Leaden  Hall, 
there  and  no  where  else  to  be  sold  and  uttered,  like  as  of  old  time  it  hath  been  used, 
upon  pain  of  forfeiture  of  all  the  said  wares  showed  or  sold  in  any  other  place  than 
aforesaid  ;  the  show  of  the  said  wares  to  be  made  three  days  in  the  week,  that 
is  to  say,  Monday,  Tuesday,  and  Wednesday  ;  it  is  also  thought  reasonable  that 
the  common  beam  be  kept  henceforth  in  the  Leaden  Hall,  and  the  farmer  to  pay 
therefore  reasonable  rent  to  the  chamber  ;  for  better  it  is  that  the  chamber  have 
advantage  thereby  than  a  foreign  person  ;  and  also  the  said  Leaden  Hall,  which 
is  more  chargeable  now  by  half  than  profitable,  shall  better  bear  out  the  charges 
thereof;  also  the  common  beam  for  wool  at  Leaden  Hall,  may  yearly  pay  a  rent 
to  the  chamber  of  London,  toward  supportation  and  charges  of  the  same  place  ;  for 
reason  it  is,  that  a  common  office,  occupied  upon  a  common  ground,  bear  a  charge 
to  the  use  of  the  commonalty  ;  also,  that  foreigners  bringing  wools,  felts,  or  any 
other  merchandises  or  wares  to  Leaden  Hall,  to  be  kept  there  for  the  sale  and 
market,  may  pay  more  largely  for  the  keeping  of  their  goods  than  free  men  "  (Stow's 
Survey,  p.  164). 


SKIN    MARKET,    LEADENIIAI.T  ,    1S25 


158  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

A  granary  was  kept  at  Leaden  Hall,  the  use  of  which  depended  entirely  on 
the  forethought  of  the  mayor.  Thus,  in  151 2,  Roger  Acheley,  the  mayor,  found 
that  there  were  not  one  hundred  quarters  of  wheat  in  all  the  garners  of  the  City. 
He  took  immediate  steps,  and  not  only  imported  wheat  for  present  necessities,  but  also 
filled  the  granaries  of  the  City.  Stow  adds  a  note  as  to  the  activity  of  the  mayor  : 
"  He  kept  the  market  so  well,  that  he  would  be  at  the  Leaden  Hall  by  four  o'clock 
in  the  summer  mornings  ;  and  thence  he  went  to  other  markets,  to  the  great  comfort 
of  the  citizens." 

In  1529  a  petition  was  presented  by  the  Commons  to  the  Common  Council  on 
the  uses  to  which  Leaden  Hall  might  be  put.  It  should  not  be  let  out  to  farm  to 
any  person  or  to  any  Company  incorporate  for  any  time  of  years,  and  they  pro- 
ceeded to  give  their  reasons. 

About  the  year  1534  an  effort  was  made  to  convert  Leadenhall  into  a  Bur.se. 
This  failed,  and  the  Burse  continued  to  be  held  in  Lombard  Street  until  the  building 
of  the  Royal  Exchange.  This  is  interesting,  because  it  shows  that  Gresham  was 
not  alone  in  desiring  to  have  a  convenient  building  for  the  meeting  of  the  merchants. 

"The  use  of  Leaden  Hall  in  my  youth  (says  Stow)  was  thus: — In  a  part  of 
the  north  quadrant,  on  the  east  side  of  the  north  gate,  were  the  common  beams  for 
weighing  of  wool  and  other  wares,  as  had  been  accustomed  ;  on  the  west  side  of  the 
gate  were  the  scales  to  weigh  meal ;  the  other  three  sides  were  reserved  for  the  most 
part  to  the  making  and  resting  of  the  pageants  showed  at  Midsummer  in  the  watch  ; 
the  remnant  of  the  sides  and  quadrants  was  employed  for  the  stowage  of  wool 
sacks,  but  not  closed  up  ;  the  lofts  above  were  partly  used  by  the  painters  in  working 
for  the  decking  of  pageants  and  other  devices,  for  beautifying  of  the  watch  and 
watch-men  ;  the  residue  of  the  lofts  were  letten  out  to  merchants,  the  wool  winders 
and  packers  therein  to  wind  and  pack  their  wools  "  (p.  166). 

The  market  in  1754  is  thus  described  by  Strype  : 

"  Leadenhall  is  a  very  large  building  of  Free-stone,  containing  within  it  three 
large  Courts  or  Yards,  all  encompassed  with  buildings,  wherein  is  kept  a  market,  one 
of  the  greatest,  the  best,  and  the  most  general  for  all  provisions  in  the  City  of 
London,  nay  of  the  Kingdom  ;  and,  if  I  should  say  of  all  Europe,  I  should  not  give 
it  too  great  a  praise.  The  building  hath  flat  battlements  leaded  at  the  top  ;  and, 
for  the  conveniency  of  People's  coming  to  this  great  market,  which  is  kept  every  day 
of  the  week,  except  Sundays,  for  one  thing  or  the  other,  besides  the  principal  entrance 
out  of  Leadenhall  Street,  there  are  two  or  three  others,  one  out  of  Lime  Street,  and 
the  rest  out  of  Gracechurch  Street. 

"  Of  the  three  Courts  or  Yards  that  it  consists  of,  the  first  is  that  at  the  north-east 
corner  of  Gracechurch  Street,  and  opens  into  Leadenhall  Street ;  this  court  or  yard 
contains,  in  length,  from  north  to  south,  one  hundred  and  sixty-four  feet,  and,  in  breadth, 
from   east   to  west,  eighty  feet ;    within  this  court  or  yard,  round  about  the  same. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  159 

are  about  one  hundred  standing  stalls  for  butchers  for  the  selling  only  of  beef,  and 
therefore  this  court  is  called  the  Beef  Market,  many  of  which  stalls  are  eight,  ten, 
or  twelve  feet  long,  and  four,  five,  or  six  feet  broad,  with  racks,  hooks,  blocks, 
and  all  other  conveniences  for  the  sale  of  their  meat :  All  which  stalls  are  either  under 
warehouses  above  head,  or  sheltered  from  the  weather  by  roofs  over  them.  This 
yard  is,  on  Tuesdays,  a  market  for  leather,  to  which  the  tanners  do  resort.  On 
Thursdays  the  waggons  from  Colchester,  and  other  parts,  come  with  Baiz,  etc., 
and  also  the  Felmongers  with  their  wool ;  and  on  Fridays  it  is  a  market  for  raw 
hides,  besides  Saturdays  for  Beef,  as  also  other  provisions. 

"The  second  market-yard  is  called  the  Green  yard,  as  being  once  a  green  Plat 
of  Ground.  Afterwards  it  was  the  City's  Store-yard  for  Materials  for  building, 
and  the  like,  but  now  a  market  only  for  veal,  mutton,  lamb,  etc.  This  yard  is  one 
hundred  and  seventy  feet  in  length,  from  east  to  west,  and  ninety  feet  broad  from 
north  to  south  :  It  hath  in  it  one  hundred  and  forty  stalls  for  the  butchers,  all 
covered  over,  and  of  the  bigness  of  those  in  the  beef-market.  In  the  middle  of 
this  Green  yard  Market,  north  to  south,  is  a  row  of  shops,  with  kitchens,  or  rooms 
over  them,  for  fishmongers  ;  and,  also,  on  the  south  side  and  west  end,  are  houses 
and  shops  also  for  fishmongers.  Towards  the  east  end  of  this  yard  is  erected  a 
fair  market-house,  standing  upon  columns,  with  vaults  underneath,  and  rooms  above, 
with  a  bell-tower  and  a  clock,  and  under  it  are  butchers'  stalls.  The  tenements 
round  about  this  yard  are,  for  the  most  part,  inhabited  by  cooks,  victuallers,  and 
such-like ;  and,  in  the  passages  leading  out  of  the  streets,  into  this  market,  are 
fishmongers,  poulterers,  cheesemongers,  and  such-like  traders  for  provision. 

"The  third  market  belonging  to  Leadenhall  is  called  the  Herb  Market,  for  that 
herbs,  roots,  fruits,  etc.,  are  only  there  sold.  This  market  is  about  one  hundred  and 
forty  feet  square  ;  the  west,  east,  and  south  sides  have  walks  round  them,  covered 
over  for  shelter,  and  standing  upon  columns  ;  in  which  walks  there  are  twenty-eight 
stalls  for  gardeners,  with  cellars  under  them.  There  is  also,  in  this  yard,  one  range 
of  stalls  covered  over  for  such  as  sell  tripe,  neats-feet,  sheeps-trotters,  etc.,  and,  on 
the  south  side,  the  tenements  are  taken  up  by  Victuallers,  Cheesemongers,  Butchers, 
Poulterers,  and  such-like. 

"  The  rooms  in  the  stone  building  about  the  beef-market,  which  is  properly 
Leadenhall,  are  employed  for  several  uses,  as  the  west  side  was  wholly  used  for  the 
stowage  of  wares  belonging  to  the  East- India  Company  ;  on  the  east  side  is  the 
meal-warehouse  and  the  Wool-hall  ;  on  the  south  end  is  the  Colchester  Baiz-hall, 
and  at  the  north  end  is  the  warehouse  for  the  sealing  of  leather. 

"The  general  conflagration  of  this  city,  in  1666,  terminated  in  that  part  of  the 
City  near  adjoining  to  this  hall  ;  all  the  houses  about  it,  and  within  the  yards 
belonging  to  it,  being  destroyed,  there  did,  of  this  fabric,  only  remain  the  stonework  ; 
since  which,  the  Courts  and  yards  belonging  to  this  building,  and  some  other  adjacent 


i6o 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


grounds  purchased  by  the  City,  are  wholly  converted  into  a  market  for  the  City's 
use ;  the  place  for  the  reception  of  Country  butchers,  and  others  who  brought 
provisions  before  to  the  City,  being  then  only  in  Leadenhall  Street,  between 
Gracechurch  Street  and  Lime  Street,  which  was  very  incommodious  to  the  market 
people,  as  well  as  to  the  passengers." 

Leadenhall  Market  is  in  four  rays  of  varying  lengths  ;  the  longest  is  about 
80  feet,  the  shortest  about  30.     These  are  covered  in  by  a  wide  arched  roof  of  glass. 


LEADENHALL    CllAl'EL    IN    lSl2 


supported  by  girders,  and  are  about  30  feet  wide.  At  each  entrance  there  is  a  similar 
design.  On  either  side  a  couple  of  massive  fluted  columns  are  surmounted  by 
griffins,  which  support  the  arch.  These  are  decorated  with  gilt.  Over  the  entry  is 
an  arch  of  great  height,  with  a  stone  relief,  and  on  the  frieze  below  the  words 
"Leadenhall  Market."  The  market  was  built  in  18S1,  designed  by  Sir  Horace 
Jones,  and  is  occupied  to  a  very  great  extent  by  poulterers  and  butchers.  There  are 
roughly  about  fifty  holdings  and  two  taverns,  the  Lamb  and  the  Half  Moon. 

There  was  a  chapel  in  the  market,  to  which  was  attached  a  Fraternity  of  the 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


i6i 


Trinity  of  sixty  priests,  with  otiier  brethren  and  sisters,  in  which  service  was 
celebrated  every  day. 

The  chapel  was  taken  down  in  1812  (see  Mediccval  London,  vol.  ii.  p.  m). 

In  Leadenhall  Street  have  been  found  Roman  remains,  a  pavement,  pottery,  etc. 

A  crypt  existed  under  the  house  153  Leadenhall  Street  until  1896,  when  it  was 
destroyed. 

"  Under  the  corner  house  of  Leadenhall  and  Bishopsgate  Streets,  and  two 
houses  on  the  east,  and  one  on  the  north,  side  thereof,  was  situate  a  very  ancient 
church  of  Gothic  construction,  the  principal  part  of  which  is  still  remaining  under 


CRYPT    IN    I.EAnF.NHAI.1.   STREET,     1825 


the  said  corner  house,  and  two  adjoining  in  Leadenhall  Street ;  but  part  of  the  north 
aisle  beneath  the  house  contiguous  in  Bishopsgate  Street,  was  lately  obliged  to  make 
way  to  enlarge  the  cellar.  When  or  by  whom  this  old  church  was  founded  I  cannot 
learn,  it  not  being  so  much  as  mentioned  by  any  of  our  historians  or  surveyors  of 
London  that  I  can  discover. 

"  Some  other  ancient  architectural  remains,  perhaps  originally  connected  with 
the  former,  were  also  found  under  the  houses  extending  up  the  eastern  site  of 
Bishopsgate  Street.  The  description  of  their  situation,  given  by  Maitland,  fixes  their 
locality  to  the  side  of  the  very  house  at  which  the  fire  of  1765  commenced;  and 
which  appears  to  have  continued  until  that  time  in  the  same  kind  of  occupation  as  it 


i62  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

was  when  the  ensuing  account  of  these  ruins  was  written.  'At  the  distance  of  12 
feet  from  this  church,' — namely  the  remains  already  noticed  at  the  north-east  corner 
of  Leadenhall  Street — 'is  to  be  seen,  under  the  house  at  the  late  Mr.  Macadam's,  a 
peruke-maker  in  Bishopsgate  Street,  a  stone  building  of  the  length  of  30  feet,  breadth 
of  14,  and  altitude  of  8  feet  6  inches  above  the  present  floor;  with  a  door  in  the 
north-side,  and  a  window  at  the  east  end,  as  there  probably  was  one  in  the  west. 
It  is  covered  with  a  semi-circular  arch,  built  with  small  piers  of  chalk  in  the  form  of 
bricks,  and  ribbed  with  stone,  resembling  those  of  the  arches  of  a  bridge.  What 
this  edifice  at  first  was  appropriated  to  is  very  uncertain  ;  though,  by  the  manner  of 
its  construction,  it  seems  to  have  been  a  chapel ;  but  the  ground  having  been  since 
raised  on  all  sides,  it  was  probably  converted  into  a  subterraneous  repository  for 
merchandise  ;  for  a  pair  of  stone  stairs,  with  a  descending  arch  over  them,  seems  to 
have  been  erected  since  the  fabric  was  built ' "  (Wilkinson,  Londina  Ilhistratd). 

The  most  important  house  in  the  street  next  to  the  Leadenhall  itself  was  the 
East  India  House,  which  stood  near  to  the  Hall.  The  Company  first  met,  according 
to  tradition,  at  the  Nag's  Head  Tavern,  Bishopsgate  ;  they  then  had  a  house  in 
Leadenhall  Street;  they  took  on  lease  in  1701 — perhaps  it  was  their  first  house — 
Sir  William  Craven's  large  house  in  Leadenhall  Street,  with  a  tenement  in  Lime 
Street.     This  is  probably  the  house  pictured  in  a  print  in  the  British  Museum. 

In  1726  the  "Old"  East  India  House  was  built,  of  which  several  parts  were 
retained  in  the  new  buildings  of  1799. 

Hardly  any  part  of  the  City,  unless  it  be  the  south  of  Cornhill,  is  so  honeycombed 
with  courts  and  passages  as  the  quarter  upon  which  we  are  now  engaged.  For  the 
most  part  they  are  not  distinguished  by  any  historical  associations.  Some  of  them 
formerly  contained  taverns  and  inns.  The  courts  are  greatly  diminished  in  size; 
some  of  them  were  narrow  lanes  with  houses  standing  face  to  face,  a  few  feet  apart ; 
some  of  them  formerly  contained  gentlemen's  houses.  Why  were  these  houses 
built  in  a  court  ?  The  explanation  is  easy.  The  town-house  of  noble  or  merchant 
was  built  like  a  college  :  a  gateway  with  a  chamber  over  it  in  front,  rooms  beside  the 
gate  in  case  of  a  nobleman  with  a  retinue  ;  in  other  cases  a  wall  enclosing  a  garden  in 
a  square,  on  either  side  rooms,  at  the  back  the  Hall  and  what  we  call  reception 
rooms,  with  the  private  rooms  of  the  family.  When  land  became  more  valuable 
the  rooms  beside  the  gateway  became  shops,  then  there  was  building  at  the  back 
of  the  shops,  the  sides  became  contracted,  and  there  were  left  at  last  only  the 
court,  the  gateway,  and  the  house  beyond.  There  are  several  places  in  the  City 
where  this  history  of  a  house  may  be  traced,  the  modern  offices  being  built  on 
the  site  of  the  old  foundation,  the  gateway  having  disappeared,  and  the  court  still 
remaining. 

"Anno   1136.      A   very  great  fire   happened   in   the  City,   which  began   in   the 
house  of  one    Ailward,   near    London    Stone,  and   consumed    all   the   way  east  to 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  163 

Aldgate,  and  west  to  St.  Erkenwald's  shrine  in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  both 
which  it  destroyed,  together  with  London  Bridge,  which  was  then  constructed 
of  wood. 

"  It  is  reasonable  to  conjecture,  that  the  accumulation  of  ruins  these  extensive 
fires  occasioned  left  the  distressed  inhabitants  little  choice  in  their  determination  ; 
and  as  it  would  have  caused  infinite  trouble  and  inconvenience  to  have  cleared  and 
removed  the  same,  they  wisely  preferred  sacrificing  a  few  (to  them)  useless  buildings, 
raised  and  levelled  the  ground,  and  began  a  foundation  for  new  dwellings  on  the 
site  of  the  roofs  of  some  of  their  remaining  habitations.  The  amazing  descent  to 
the  banks  of  the  Thames  from  several  parts  of  the  City  confirms  the  opinion  that 
most  of  the  buildings  denominated  crypts,  oratories,  or  undercrofts,  were,  in  their 
pristine  states,  level  in  their  foundations  with  the  dwelling-places  of  their  original 
builders.  What  greatly  adds  to  the  probability  is  the  circumstance  of  our  being 
informed  that  near  Belzeter's  Lane  (Billiter  Lane)  and  Lime  Street,  three  new 
houses  being  to  be  built,  in  the  year  1590,  in  a  place  where  was  a  large  garden  plot 
enclosed  from  the  street  by  a  high  brick  wall,  upon  taking  down  the  said  wall  and 
digging  for  cellarage,  another  wall  of  stone  was  found  directly  under  the  brick  wall 
with  an  arched  gateway  of  stone,  and  gates  of  timber  to  be  closed  in  the  midst 
towards  the  street.  The  timber  of  the  gates  was  consumed,  but  the  hinges  of  iron 
were  then  remaining  on  their  staples  on  both  sides  :  moreover,  in  that  wall  were 
square  windows  with  bars  of  iron  on  each  side  this  gate.  The  wall  was  above  two 
fathoms  deep  under  the  ground,  supposed  to  be  the  remains  of  those  great  fires 
before  mentioned.  Again,  we  learn,  on  the  east  side  of  Lime  Street  opening  into 
Fenchurch  Street,  on  that  site,  after  the  fire  of  1666,  Sir  Thomas  Cullum  built 
thirty  houses,  and  that  a  short  time  previous  to  1757,  the  cellar  of  one  of  the  houses 
giving  way,  there  was  discovered  an  arched  room,  ten  feet  square  and  eight  feet 
deep,  with  several  arched  doors  round  it  stopped  up  with  earth "  (Wilkinson, 
Londina  Illustrata,  vol.  ii.  p.  43). 

In  1660  the  mayor.  Sir  Thomas  Allen,  resided  in  Leadenhall  Street  and 
entertained  Monk.  At  the  corner  of  St.  Mary  Axe  stood,  in  the  fifteeoth  century, 
the  town-house  of  the  De  Veres,  Earls  of  Oxford. 

Gibbon's  great-grandfather,  one  of  the  last  of  the  younger  sons  of  county 
families  who  came  to  London  and  went  into  trade,  had  his  shop  as  a  draper  in 
Leadenhall  Street. 

In  this  street  Peter  Anthony  Motteux,  translator  of  Don  Ouixole,  kept  an 
"East  India"  shop.  He  was  a  Huguenot,  and  could  speak  and  understand  many 
languages.  He  was  also  employed  as  a  linguist  at  the  Post  Office.  In  addition  to 
his  shop  and  his  office,  he  worked  as  a  poet  and  man  of  letters  generally  ;  being  the 
author  of  plays,  prologues,  and  epilogues.  He  is  best  known  by  his  completion  of 
Urquhart's   Translation  of  Rabelais.      He  was  a  loose  liver,  and  died  in  a  disorderly 


i64  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

house  in  St.  Clement  Danes.      Like  the  lady  of  Pere  la  Chaise,  "  Resigned  unto  the 
Heavenly  Will,  His  wife  kept  on  the  business  still." 


ST.    KATHERINE   CREE 

St.  Katherine  Cree,  in  Leadenhall  Street,  is  on  tlie  site  of  the  cemetery  of  the  Priory  of  Holy  Trinity, 
whence  it  derives  its  name  Creechurch  or  Christchurch.  This  priory  is  said  to  have  been  built  in  the 
same  place  where  Siredus  sometime  began  to  erect  a  church  in  honour  of  the  Cross  and  of  St.  Mary 
Magdalen.  This  ancient  church  contributed  thirty  shillings  to  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Waltham.  The 
abbey  church  here  is  also  dedicated  to  the  Holy  Cross,  and  when  Matilda  founded  Christ  Church  or 
Trinity  she  gave  to  the  Church  of  Waltham  a  mill  instead  of  this  payment.  But  little  is  known  of  the 
building  of  Siredus ;  but  Matilda's  Priory  is  said  to  have  occupied  parts  of  the  parishes  of  St.  Mary 
Magdalen,  St.  Michael,  St.  Katherine,  and  the  Blessed  Trinity,  which  now  was  made  but  one  parish  of 
the  Holy  Trinity,  and  was  in  old  time  of  the  Holy  Cross  or  Holy  Rood  parish.  At  this  time,  therefore 
(1108),  the  old  parish  of  the  Holy  Rood  had  disappeared,  and  four  parishes  appear  on  its  site.  In  the 
perambulation  of  the  old  soke  of  the  Priory  we  find  the  parishes  of  Coleman  Church  (St.  Katherine), 
St.  Michael,  St.  Andrew  (Undershaft),  and  of  the  Trinity  (now  St.  James's,  Duke's  Place),  but  St.  Mary 
Magdalen  and  Holy  Rood  are  not  mentioned.  This  loss  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen  is  not  easily  explained. 
Could  the  Church  of  St.  Andrew  have  been  dedicated  formerly  to  St.  Mary  Magdalen  ?  Such  changes  in 
dedication  are  known,  and,  even  in  this  ward  or  soke,  Stow  tells  us  that  St.  Katherine  Coleman  was  called 
St.  Katherine  and  All  Saints. 

This  would  make  up  all  the  parishes  which  are  given  at  the  several  periods  in  this  locality.  The 
existence  of  St.  Katherine  Coleman  and  St.  Katherine  Cree  as  two  distinct  parishes  adjoining  is 
remarkable.  The  parish  of  St.  Katherine  Coleman  belonged  to  the  ancient  establishment  of  St.  Martin's-le- 
Grand,  and  so  remained  until  the  Dissolution.  Was  it  a  part  of  this  parish  which  was  taken  into  the 
precinct  of  the  Trinity  ?  The  inhabitants  of  the  enclosed  parish  of  Cree  Church  at  first  used  the  Priory 
church,  but  it  was  agreed  afterwards  that  they  should  have  a  church  erected,  and  use  the  Priory  church  only 
at  certain  times.  This  would  be  what  we  might  expect  of  a  part  of  a  parish  detached  at  the  establishment 
of  the  Priory,  but  which  desired  to  be  released  from  the  control  of  the  prior,  and  to  be  a  parish  of  itself, 
with  its  own  church.  We  must  not  confound  the  parish  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen  with  a  small  parish  of 
St.  Mary  the  Virgin,  St.  Ursula  and  the  11,000  Virgins.  This  was  on  the  west  side  of  St.  Mary  Axe,  and 
belonged  to  the  Priory  of  St.  Helen.  The  church  was  destroyed,  and  the  parish  united,  by  Edmund 
Grindal,  Bishop  of  London,  to  St.  Andrew,  Undershaft,  in  the  year  1561. 

The  parishioners  had  been  allowed  to  worship  at  an  altar  in  the  Priory  church,  but  this  being 
inconvenient,  St.  Katherine's  w-as  built  through  the  agency  of  Richard  de  Gravesend,  Bishop  of  London, 
1 280-1 303.  It  was  rebuilt  in  162 8- 1630,  possibly  after  the  design  of  Inigo  Jones.  The  steeple,  which 
was  built  in  the  early  sixteenth  century,  is  still  standing.  The  church  was  consecrated  by  Laud  in 
1631.  In  1S74  the  parish  of  St.  James's,  Duke's  Place,  was  annexed.  The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent 
is  1436. 

The  patronage  of  which  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Prior  and  Canons  of  Holy  Trinity,  London. 
Henry  VIII.  seized  it  in  1540,  and  soon  after  granted  it  to  Sir  Thomas  Audley,  who  gave  it,  by  his 
will  dated  April  19,  1544,  to  the  Master  and  Fellows  of  Magdalene  College,  Cambridge,  in  whose 
successors  it  continued. 

Houseling  people  in  154S  were  542. 

The  church  is  a  mixture  of  the  Gothic  and  classical  styles.  It  contains  two  narrow  aisles  separated  from 
the  nave  by  Corinthian  columns  and  round  arches,  above  which  is  a  clerestory.  The  roof  is  groined,  and 
the  arms  of  the  City  and  several  City  Companies  are  displayed  on  it.  The  building  is  94  feet  long,  5 1  feet 
broad,  and  37  feet  high.  It  is  larger  than  the  original  church,  of  which  the  sole  relic  now  existing  is  a  pillar 
at  the  south-west,  less  than  three  feet  above  ground,  owing  to  the  higher  level  of  the  new  church.     The 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  165 

stone  steeple  rises  at  the  west  and  consists  of  a  tower  surmounted  by  a  Tuscan  colonnade  with  a  cupola 
and  vane;  its  total  height  is  75  feet. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  at  the  Altar  of  St.  Michael. 

The  church  is  not  rich  in  historical  monuments.  It  contains,  however,  the  tomb  of  Nicholas 
Throckmorton,  Chief  Butler  of  England  and  intimate  friend  of  Lady  Jane  Grey  and  Queen  Elizabeth. 

Tradition  said  that  Hans  Holbein  was  buried  here,  but  there  is  no  evidence  for  it  except  that  he 
died  in  the  vicinity. 

There  is  a  brass  in  the  floor  in  front  of  the  communion  table,  commemorating  Sir  John  Gayer, 
Lord  Mayor  in  1646  and  staunch  adherent  of  Charles  L,  for  which  he  suffered  imprisonment. 

At  the  west  end  there  is  a  bas-relief  to  Samuel  Thorpe  (died  1791) :  this  is  only  interesting  as  being 
the  work  of  the  elder  Bacon. 

Sir  John  Gayer  bequeathed  j£2oo  for  charitable  purposes,  amongst  them  a  fee  for  a  sermon  to  be 
preached  on  October  16  annually,  and  though  the  charity  is  now  diverted,  yet  the  "Lion  sermon,"  in  com- 
memoration of  the  donor's  delivery  from  a  lion  in  Arabia,  is  still  kept  up. 

There  was  a  charity  school  at  the  end  of  Cree  Church  Lane,  in  which  forty  boys  were  clothed 
and  taught,  by  subscriptions  from  the  inhabitants  of  the  ward. 

Roger  Maynwaring  (1590-1653),  Bishop  of  St.  David's,  was  a  perpetual  curate  here;  also  Nicholas 
Brady  (1659-1726),  joint  author  of  Tate  and  Brady's  version  of  the  Psalter. 

The  north  of  Leadenhall  Street  between  St.  Katherine  Cree  and  Aldgate,  from 
the  year  11 30  and  the  suppression  of  the  Religious  Houses,  was  covered  with  the 
buildings  of  the  Priory  of  the  Holy  Trinity  already  described  (see  Medieeval 
London,  vol.  ii.  p.  241). 

The  buildings  of  the  Priory  were  given  by  the  King  to  Sir  Thomas  Audley  in 
1 53 1  after  the  surrender. 

The  Earl  of  Suffolk,  son  of  the  Duke  who  was  beheaded  in  1572,  sold  the 
house  and  precinct  to  the  City  of  London,  and  built  Audley  End  in  Essex.  The 
City  seems  to  have  pulled  down  the  mansion  and  laid  out  the  grounds  in  streets  and 
courts.  The  disposition  of  these  seems  to  preserve,  to  a  certain  extent,  that  of  the 
old  Priory. 

When  the  people  began  to  settle  in  the  precinct,  they  found  themselves, 
although  so  close  to  St.  Katherine  Cree,  without  a  parish  church.  They  therefore 
petitioned  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  who  obtained  permission  of  the  King  to 
build  a  new  church  here,  and  to  erect  a  new  parish.  The  church  was  finished  and 
dedicated  to  St.  James  in  1622.  The  memory  of  the  consecration  is  described  at 
length  by  Strype.  This  quarter  was  assigned  to  the  Jews  by  Oliver  Cromwell  in 
1650.      Here  is  the  Great  Synagogue  of  the  German  Jews. 

St.  James's  was  one  of  the  most  notorious  of  the  many  places  for  irregular 
marriages,  those  without  licence,  because  as  standing  in  the  ancient  precinct  of 
the  Priory  it  was  without  the  jurisdiction  of  the  bishop. 

St.  James's,    Duke's  Place,  escaped  the  Great  lire  of  1666. 

In  1S73  the  church  was  pulled  down  and  its  parish  united  with  that  of  St.  Katherine  Cree 
Church.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1622. 

This  church  was  in  the  gift  of  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Commonalty  of  London  from  1622. 


i66  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Few  monuments,  and  none  of  much  note,  are  recorded  by  Stow.  Booker,  an  astrologer,  was 
commemorated  by  a  stone  inscription. 

Sir  Edward  Barkham  is  the  only  benefactor  whose  name  is  recorded  by  Stow. 

The  modern  Leadenhall  Street  is  at  the  west  end  full  of  fine,  well-executed 
Chambers.  Of  these,  New  Zealand  Chambers  are  the  most  noticeable.  The 
building  is  by  R.  Norman  Shaw  in  the  pseudo-ancient  style.  It  was  erected  in  187.2, 
and  is  carried  out  in  red  brick.  The  bayed  windows  on  either  side  of  the  entrance 
are  placed  in  wide  recesses  whicli  run  right  up  the  frontage.  Africa  House  is  in 
a  commonplace  style,  but  has  rather  good  stone  panels  on  the  front.  On  the  north 
Leadenhall  House  is  solidly  faced  in  granite,  with  granite  columns  on  the  frontage. 
West  India  House  is  neatly  built  in  white  stone. 

Farther  eastward  the  street  is  singularly  dull  ;  it  is  lined  at  first  by  dreary 
blocks  of  imitation  stone  buildings.  These  are  succeeded  by  brick  buildings  all 
turned  out  of  the  same  mould.  The  north  side  is  better  than  the  south,  and  is 
chiefly  made  up  of  solid,  well-built  houses  on  various  designs. 

At  No.  153  the  ground-floor  is  occupied  by  a  bric-a-brac  shop.  Below  the 
parapet  there  is  a  curious  triangular  pediment  let  into  the  brickwork.  This  encloses 
a  round  stone  with  an  inscription  on  it,  of  which  the  first  word  seems  to  be 
"  incendio  "  ;  on  either  side  is  a  small  shelf. 

The  London  Joint  Stock  Bank  is  a  few  doors  off^  No.  140,  an  Aerated  Bread 
Shop,  is  fantastically  built,  in  imitation  of  an  old  style.  The  Peninsular  &  Oriental 
Steamship  Company  is  in  a  stone  and  terra-cotta  building,  with  well-designed  figures 
in  slight  relief  in  the  corners  of  the  windows. 

Aldgate,  spelt  otherwise  Alegate  or  Algate,  was  probably,  but  not  certainly, 
opened  and  constructed  by  Queen  Matilda,  Consort  of  Henry  I.,  who  is  also  said 
to  have  built  the  bridge  over  the  Lea  at  Bow.  There  seems  no  reason  for  doubting 
the  story. 

On  the  spelling  of  the  name  Professor  Skeat  writes,  September  18,  1897  • 
"It  occurs  to  me  to  say  that  in  any  case  of  interpreting  spellings,  the  date  of 
the  spelling  is  of  the  greatest  service.  We  now  know  the  meanings  of  all  the  vowel 
symbols  at  all  dates.  If  we  can  obtain  a  few  early  spellings  of  Aldgate,  with 
appro.ximate  dates,  we  ought  to  be  able  to  decide  it.  We  have  to  remember  that 
all,  in  composition  meant  '  wholly,'  and  was  adverbial  as  in  Al-mighty,  and  '  wholly 
gate'  gives  no  sense.  If  '  for  all '  were  intended,  it  would  be  alra,  aller,  or  alder,  the 
genitive  of  plural.  This  is  not  a  question  of  etymology  but  of  grammar.  On  the 
other  hand,  if  the  M.E.  Aid  [now  spelt  Old]  were  meant,  I  have  proof  that  a 
Norman  scribe  would  be  apt  to  omit  the  d ;  so  that  Alegate  would,  in  fact,  be  quite 
regular.  And  it  would  not  necessarily  become  Oldgate  in  course  of  time  ;  just  as 
Acton,  though  it  means  Oaktown,  is  called  Acton  still.  This  is  due  to  what  we  call 
the  preservation  of  a  short  or  shortened  vowel,  owing  to  stress." 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  167 

And  again,  writing  on  21st  September,  he  says  : 

"The  Hst  of  spellings  which  you  send  me  is  most  interesting,  but  it  is  not  easy 
to  explain  it.  1  can  remember  a  time  when  I  should  have  drawn  the  conclusion  that 
they  are  very  m.uch  against  connecting  the  word  with  the  Old  Mercian  aid,  which 
we  now  spell  old.  But  my  recent  investigations  tell  the  other  way ;  not  only 
were  perfectly  common  words  persistently  (but  regularly)  mis-spelt  in  Domesday 
and  early  charters,  from  the  time  of  the  Conquest  till  about  1350,  but  in  many 
instances  (as  would  likely  be  the  case  in  official  documents)  such  habits  became 
stereotyped.  The  early  scribes  were  nearly  all  Norman,  and  they  brought  in  Norman 
spelling  to  that  extent  that  the  whole  of  modern  English  is  pervaded  by  it ;  indeed, 
no  one  who  does  not  know  the  phonetic  laws  of  Anglo-French  can  explain  why  the 
word  house  is  spelt  with  ou,  or  the  word  build  with  ui.  .  .  .  The  explanation  of  the 
spelling  Aid  in  1270  is  probably  simply  this  :  that  this  particular  charter  (contrary  to 
practice)  was  entrusted  to  an  English  scribe.  It  is  a  simple  supposition— English 
spellings  began  to  prevail  in  these  matters  in  the  period  from  1350- 1400,  and  it  is 
just  here  that  we  get  two  instances.  The  Normans  learnt  Latin  easily  :  to  an 
English  scribe  it  was  a  foreign  language.  This  is  why  the  French  scribes  were 
preferred  for  writing  Latin  documents.  After  1400  such  French  spellings  as  affect 
the  true  sound  are  rare  ;  this  is  why,  after  that  the  E.  form  prevails.  But  we  must 
remember  that  many  Englishmen  do  not  fully  pronounce  the  din  Aldgate  even  now, 
but  slur  it  over;  and  in  days  of  phonetic  spelling  such  things  were  reproduced. 
I  should  say  the  evidence  can  only  be  explained,  on  the  whole,  from  the  supposition 
that  the  English  word  was  Aid,  preserved  in  composition  instead  of  being  turned 
into  old  (as  it  did  when  standing  alone)  ;  and  this  will  explain  eald  sX's.o,  as  eald  is 
the  Wessex  form  of  Aid,  adopted  in  1598  as  a  mere  bit  of  pedantry,  but  at  the  same 
time  showing  that  the  belief  then  prevailed.  This  is  all  I  have  to  say  about 
Aldgate." 

The  gate  was  rebuilt  by  Norman,  first  Prior  of  Holy  Trinity.  The  weigh- 
house  for  weighing  corn  was  in  the  gateway. 

After  the  Fire,  Aldgate  was  used  for  the  prisoners  who  had  been  confined  in  the 
Poultry  Compter. 

In  1374  the  gate  was  let  on  lease  to  Geoffrey  Chaucer.  Here  followeth  the 
lease  itself : 

"  To  all  persons  to  whom  this  present  writing  indented  shall  come,  Adam  de 
Bury,  Mayor,  the  Aldermen,  and  the  Commonalty  of  the  City  of  London,  greeting. 
Know  ye  that  we,  with  unanimous  will  and  assent,  have  granted  and  released  by 
these  presents  unto  Geoffrey  Chaucer  the  whole  of  the  dwelling-house  above  the  gate 
of  Algate,  with  the  rooms  built  over,  and  a  certain  cellar  beneath,  the  same  gate,  on 
the  South  side  of  that  gate,  and  the  appurtenances  thereof;  to  have  and  to  hold  the 
whole  of  the  house  aforesaid,  with  the  rooms  so  built  over,  and  the  said  cellar,  and 


i68  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

the  appurtenances  thereof,  unto  the  aforesaid  Geoffrey,  for  the  whole  hfe  of  him,  the 
said  Geoffrey.  And  the  said  Geoffrey  shall  maintain  and  repair  the  whole  of  the 
house  aforesaid,  and  the  rooms  thereof,  so  often  as  shall  be  requisite,  in  all  things 
necessary  thereto,  competently  and  sufficiently,  at  the  expense  of  the  same  Geoffrey, 
throughout  the  whole  life  of  him,  the  same  Geoffrey.  And  it  shall  be  lawful  for  the 
Chamberlain  of  the  Guildhall  of  London,  for  the  time  being,  so  often  as  he  shall  see 
fit,  to  enter  the  house  and  rooms  aforesaid,  with  their  appurtenances,  to  see  that  the 
same  are  well  and  competently,  and  sufficiently,  maintained  and  repaired,  as  aforesaid. 
And  if  the  said  Geoffrey  shall  not  have  maintained  or  repaired  the  aforesaid  house 
and  rooms  competently  and  sufficiently,  as  is  before  stated,  within  forty  days  after 
the  time  when  by  the  same  Chamberlain  he  shall  have  been  required  so  to  do,  it 
shall  be  lawful  for  the  said  Chamberlain  wholly  to  oust  the  before-named  Geoffrey 
therefrom,  and  to  re-seise  and  resume  the  same  house,  rooms,  and  cellar,  with  their 
appurtenances,  into  the  hand  of  the  City,  to  the  use  of  the  Commonalty  aforesaid ; 
and  to  hold  the  same  in  their  former  state  to  the  use  of  the  same  Commonalty, 
without  any  gainsaying  whatsoever  thereof.  And  it  shall  not  be  lawful  for  the  said 
Geoffrey  to  let  the  house,  rooms,  and  cellar,  aforesaid,  or  any  part  thereof,  or  his 
interest  therein,  to  any  person  whatsoever.  And  we,  the  Mayor,  Aldermen,  and 
Commonalty  aforesaid,  will  not  cause  any  gaol  to  be  made  thereof,  for  the  safe- 
keeping of  prisoners  therein,  during  the  life  of  the  said  Geoffrey  ;  but  we  and  our 
successors  will  warrant  the  same  house,  rooms,  and  cellar,  with  their  appurtenances, 
unto  the  before-named  Geoffrey,  for  the  whole  life  of  him,  the  same  Geoffrey,  in 
form  aforesaid  :  this  however  excepted,  that  in  time  of  defence  of  the  city  aforesaid, 
so  often  as  it  shall  be  necessary,  it  shall  be  lawful  for  us  and  our  successors  to  enter 
the  said  house  and  rooms,  and  to  order  and  dispose  of  the  same,  for  such  time,  and 
in  such  manner,  as  shall  then  seem  to  us  to  be  most  expedient.  And  after  the  decease 
of  the  same  Geoffrey,  the  house,  rooms,  and  cellar  aforesaid,  with  their  appurtenances,, 
shall  wholly  revert  unto  us  and  our  successors.  In  witness  whereof,  as  well  the 
Common  Seal  of  the  City  aforesaid  as  the  seal  of  the  said  Geoffrey,  have  been  to 
these  present  indentures  interchangeably  appended.  Given  in  the  Chamber  of  the 
Guildhall  of  the  City  aforesaid,  the  lOth  day  of  May,  in  the  48th  year  of  the  reign 
of  King  Edward,  after  the  Conquest  the  Third"  (Riley's  Memorials,  pp.  m-Zl'^)- 

"  This,"  says  Stow,  "  is  one  and  the  first  of  the  four  principal  gates,  and  also 
one  of  the  seven  double  gates,  mentioned  by  Fitzstephen.  It  hath  had  two  pair  of 
gates,  though  now  but  one  ;  the  hooks  remaineth  yet.  Also  there  hath  been  two 
portcloses  ;  the  one  of  them  remaineth,  the  other  wanteth,  but  the  place  of  letting 
down  is  manifest.  ' 

"This  gate  being  very  ruinous,  was  pulled  down  Anno  1606  ;  when,  in  digging 
for  a  new  foundation,  divers  Roman  coins  were  discovered,  two  of  which  Mr.  Bond, 
the  Surveyor,  caused  to  be  cut  in  stone,  and  placed  in  the  east  front  on  each  side 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


169 


the  passage.  The  first  stone  of  this  edifice  was  laid  Anno  1607,  at  the  depth  of 
sixteen  feet,  and  finished  Anno  1609. 

"  Here  was  only  one  postern,  and  that  on  the  north  side,  for  foot-passengers  ;  and 
a  water-conduit  at  the  south-east  angle  thereof;  but  the  last  being  disused  for  many 
years,  two  houses  were  erected  in  lieu  of  it,  in  the  year  1734,  and  a  postern  made  on 
the  south  side  of  the  gate.  The  apartments  over  this  gate  are  appropriated  to  the 
use  of  one  of  the  Lord  Mayor's  Carvers,  and  at  present  are  lett  to  the  Charity 
School  founded  by  Sir  John  Cash"  (Maitland,  vol.  i.  pp.  22-23). 

The  gate  was  taken  down  in  1761. 


ALDGATE    IN    1S3O 


In  1 29 1,  Thomas  de  Alegate  leaves  to  his  wife  Eleanor,  his  houses  within 
Alegate  {Calendar  of  Wills).     The  street  is  often  mentioned  afterwards. 

The  ward  of  Aldgate  in  the  year  1276  was  called  the  ward  of  John  of  Northamp- 
ton, the  then  alderman.  There  was  a  hermitage  on  the  south  side  of  the  gate 
within  a  garden;  the  garden  was  let,  in  1325,  to  one  Peter  a  "blader,"  or  corn 
merchant.  It  is  not  stated  whether  the  hermitage  was  then  occupied.  There  were 
houses  beside  the  gate  in  1354.  The  Prior  of  Holy  Trinity,  Aldgate,  was  alderman 
ex  officio  of  Portsoken  Ward;  in  1378  we  find  him  sworn  to  fill  the  office  "and 
faithfully  to  do  all  things  touching  that  office." 

In  1349,  the  Calendar  of  Wills  speaks  of  tenements  in  "  Algate  Street."     Roman 


i-jo  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

remains  have  been  found  in  Aldgate  ;  at  the  gate  there  was  a  "  Roomland  "  ;  without 
the  gate  was  a  great  pit  for  the  burial  of  those  who  died  ot  the  plague.  In  1315 
Sir  John  de  Sandale,  leaving  London  on  business  of  the  King,  put  the  Great  Seal 
into  the  custody  of  Sir  William  de  Ayremynn  at  his  inn  near  Aldgate.  In  the 
same  year  he  received  at  his  inn  Edward  de  Baliol,  newly  returned  from  beyond 
the  sea. 

At  the  east  end  of  the  street,  under  a  house  facing  the  pump,  was  still  to  be 
seen,  until  1868,  a  crypt  formerly  supposed  to  have  been  that  of  an  ancient  church, 
dedicated  to  St.  Michael  and  taken  down  when  the  Priory  of  the  Holy  Trinity  was 
first  founded. 

This  handsome  Gothic  structure,  which  is  situated  between  the  east  end  of 
Leadenhall  and  Fenchurch  Streets,  under  the  houses  fronting  the  pump  at  Aldgate, 
is  still  remaining  entire,  exhibiting  a  most  beautiful  specimen  of  ancient  architecture. 

It  is  shown  {L.  &  M.  Arc haological Journal,  iv.  p.  223  ct  seq.)  that  the  crypt 
could  not  have  been  that  of  St.  Michael's  Church.  The  paper  referred  to  proved 
that  the  Church  of  St.  Michael  was  not  on  that  site  at  all.  It  quotes  from  the  Liber 
Diinthorne  the  boundaries  of  the  soke  of  the  monastery  of  the  Trinity,  which  are 
very  nearly  the  same  as  those  of  Aldgate  ward. 

It  concludes  that  it  was  more  likely  the  crypt  of  a  great  house,  perhaps  the 
ward  house. 

Rowland  Taylor,  before  being  burned  for  heresy,  was  taken  to  the  Woolpack,  an 
inn  without  Aldgate,  and  kept  there. 

A  curious  story  is  told  concerning  the  Duke  of  Buckingham  in  1663.  "When 
the  Duke  came  from  Newmarket  he  stayed  at  an  Inn  by  Aldgate.  Here  a 
fellow  told  him  his  fortune,  saying  that  he  would  die  unfortunately,  as  his  father  did, 
or  that  a  similar  attempt  would  be  made  upon  him  by  the  1st  of  April.  On  the 
Tuesday  prior  to  the  date  of  the  letter,  the  usher  of  the  duke's  hall  went  to  bed  about 
9  at  night  and  rose  again  about  one  in  the  morning  and  came  up  at  the  back  and 
private  way  to  the  duke's  chamber  where  only  he,  his  lady,  and  a  maid  were  talking. 
The  maid  opened  the  door  at  his  knock  and  the  usher  rushed  in  with  a  naked  sword, 
at  which  the  maid  squeaking  gave  my  lord  an  alarm  and  he  turning  back  snatched  up 
a  knife  and  by  his  boldness  daunted  the  fellow  so  that  he  got  within  him,  became 
master  of  his  sword,  and  by  that  time  company  came  in.  The  duke  sent  after  the 
fortune-teller  but  the  writer  did  not  know  whether  he  had  heard  of  him." 

Northward  of  Aldgate,  Mitre  Street  leads  to  Mitre  Square  which  is  surrounded 
by  large  new  buildings  belonging  to  merchants.  The  ward  school  is  reached  through 
a  rounded  tunnel-like  entry  and  proves  a  pleasant  surprise.  In  itself  it  is  only  a 
square  old  brick  house  without  an  atom  of  style  or  ornament,  but  before  it  is  a 
garden  plot  where  lilac  bushes  grow,  and  over  the  blackened  bricks  of  the  house 
and  adjoining  wall  climb  big  trees,  hiding  the  dinginess.      From  here  we  get  a  view 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  171 

of  the  old  red-tiled  roofs  of  the  houses  in  Duke  Street.      In  the  school  there  is  free 
education,  and  i  jo  children  are  clothed  at  the  expense  of  the  charity. 

At  the  back  of  the  ward  school  stood,  until  1874,  St.  James's,  Duke's  Place 
(see  p.  165). 

ST.   BOTOLPH,   ALDGATE 

St.  Botolph,  .\ldgate,  stands  at  the  junction  of  Aldgate  Street  and  Heundsditch,  and  is  said  to  have 
been  originally  founded  about  the  reign  of  William  the  Conqueror.  The  old  building  remained  standing 
till  1 741,  when  it  was  pulled  down  and  the  present  one  erected  under  the  direction  of  the  elder  Dance  and 
completed  in  1744.  The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1362.  The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in 
the  hands  of:  The  Prior  and  the  Canons  of  Holy  Trinity,  London  ;  Henry  VHI.  ;  Robert  Halywell,  by 
grant  of  Elizabeth ;  George  Puttenham,  granted  by  Elizabeth  in  the  30th  year  of  her  reign ;  Francis 
Morrice,  by  James  I.,  in  the  7th  year  of  his  reign,  since  which  time  it  has  been  held  by  several  private 
persons,  but  is  now  in  the  hands  of  the  Bishop  of  London.  The  benefice,  which  had  been  previously  united 
with  that  of  St.  Katherine  by  the  Tower,  was  in  1899  united  with  that  of  Holy  Trinity  Minories. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  1530. 

The  present  church  is  built  of  brick,  with  stone  dressings.  It  includes  two  side-aisles  separated 
from  the  central  portion  by  Tuscan  columns,  supporting  a  flat  ceiling.  There  are  a  great  many  windows, 
mostly  filled  with  stained  glass.  The  tower  stands  at  the  south,  facing  Aldgate  High  Street,  and  is  sur- 
mounted by  a  small  spire. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  :  P'or  John  Romeney,  at  the  Altar  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  to  which 
Humphrey  de  Durham  was  admitted  chaplain,  June  3,  1365  ;  by  Thomas  Weston,  whose  endowment 
fetched  ^5:6:8  in  1548;  by  Alex.  Sprot  and  John  Grace,  whose  endowments  yielded  .;i{^22:i5:8  in 
1548. 

The  most  interesting  monument  in  this  church  is  a  tomb  inscribed  to  the  memory  of  Thomas, 
Lord  Darcy  and  Sir  Nicholas  Carew,  both  of  whom  were  concerned  in  the  Roman  Catholic  plots  against 
Henry  VHL  and  beheaded  on  Tower  Hill,  the  former  in  1537  and  the  latter  in  1538.  The  memory  of 
Robert  Dowe,  the  charitable  Merchant  Taylor,  is  preserved  by  a  monument  erected  by  his  Company, 
originally  affixed  to  a  pillar  in  the  chancel,  but  now  removed  to  the  east  gallery. 

A  great  number  of  benefactors  are  recorded  by  Stow,  some  of  the  most  notable  of  whom  were  : 
Robert  Cockes,  donor  of  ;£^ioo  ;  George  Clarke,  donor  of  ;£^2oo  for  a  public  school,  and  other  large  sums 
for  parish  purposes.     The  sum  total  of  all  the  yearly  gifts  belonging  to  this  parish  recorded,  amounted  to 

There  were  two  charity  schools,  one  in  the  Freedom  having  fifty  boys  and  forty  girls,  erected  by  Sir 
John  Cass,  alderman  ;  the  other,  in  East  Smithfield,  having  forty  boys  and  thirty  girls  maintained  by 
subscription. 

James  Ardene  (1636-91),  D.D.,  Dean  of  Chester,  1682,  was  perpetual  curate  here  in  1666;  also 
White  Kennett  (1660-1728),  Bishop  of  Peterborough. 

St.  Botolph's  Churchyard  is  a  wide  gravelled  space  with  seats  provided  by  the 
Metropolitan  Public  Spaces  Association.  There  is  an  altar-tomb  near  the  centre, 
and  a  row  of  flat  tombstones  of  the  usual  pattern  set  back  against  the  wall  of  the 
church.  There  are  a  few  plane-trees  and  a  row  of  little  limes.  It  is  a  pleasant 
breathing  space,  used  by  the  poorest  of  himianit)',  who  come  here  for  a  little  rest 
and  sleep. 

High  Street,  Whitechapel,  is  of  great  width  and  contains  some  large  new  brick 
and  stone  buildings.     The  Three  Nuns  Hotel,  an  immense  red-brick  building  erected 


172  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

in  1877,  and  recently  added  to,  stands  near  the  station.  By  Crown  Place,  No.  23, 
is  an  old  bow-windowed  chop-house.  On  the  east  the  chief  feature  is  the  large 
number  of  shops  or  stalls  open  to  the  street,  covered  by  an  awning  or  by  a  glass 
roof.  These  belong  chiefly  to  butchers,  and  have  a  characteristic  aspect.  The 
last  five  or  si.x  houses  before  Mansell  Street  are  all  of  considerable  age  and  very 
picturesque. 

Returning  now  westward  we  find  : 

The  church  and  parish  of  St.  Mary  Axe,  which  are  mentioned  in  the  Calendar  of  Wills  in  the 
thirteenth  century.     Stow  says  of  it  : 

"  In  St.  Marie  street  had  ye  of  old  time  a  parish  church  of  St.  Marie  the  Virgin,  St.  Ursula  and  the 
eleven  thousand  Virgins,  which  church  was  commonly  called  St.  Marie  at  the  Axe,  of  the  sign  of  an  axe, 
over  against  the  east  end  thereof,  or  St.  Marie  Pellipar,  of  a  plot  of  ground  lying  on  the  north  side  thereof, 
pertaining  to  the  Skinners  in  London.  This  parish,  about  the  year  1565,  was  united  to  the  parish  church 
of  St.  Andrew  Undershaft,  and  so  was  St.  Mary  at  the  Axe  suppressed  and  letten  out  to  be  a  warehouse  for 
a  merchant." 

Cunningham  corrects  this  statement.  The  church  was  called  St.  Mary  Axe  because  it  possessed  an 
Axe,  one  of  the  three  with  which  the  11,000  Virgins  were  beheaded. 

The  parish  is  now  united  with  that  of  St.  Andrew  Undershaft. 

ST.   ANDREW   UNDERSHAFT 

The  Church  of  St.  Andrew  Undershaft  stands  at  the  corner  of  St.  Mary  Axe,  and  on  the  north  side 
is  the  churchyard,  a  little  space  where  a  few  young  trees  grow.  It  derives  its  name  from  the  May-day 
custom  of  setting  up  a  pole  higher  than  the  steeple  before  the  south  door.  This  custom  was  discontinued 
after  "  Evil  May  Day  "  (see  Tudor  London,  p.  24).  The  present  building,  occupying  the  site  of  the  original 
one,  of  unknown  date,  was  erected,  according  to  Stow,  in  1520,  at  the  expense  of  a  Sir  Stephen  Jennings, 
William  Fitzwilliams,  and  others.  The  work  of  restoration  has  been  carried  on  here  during  the  last  thirty 
years.  The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1361.  The  patronage  has  always  been  in  the  hands  of  the 
Bishop  of  London,  in  whose  successors  it  continues ;  he  presented  to  it  in  1361. 

The  church  is  a  late  example  of  the  Perpendicular  style,  consisting  of  a  nave  and  two  side  aisles,  and 
surmounted  by  a  tower,  rebuilt  in  1S30,  which  is  about  91  feet  in  height,  and  contains  six  bells.  The' 
aisles  are  divided  from  the  nave  by  clustered  columns  and  obtusely  pointed  arches,  and  above  this  is  the 
clerestory.  The  spandrels  between  the  arches  were  embellished  with  scriptural  paintings  in  1726,  but 
they  are  now  much  faded.  In  1875  the  series  of  full-length  portraits  of  Edward  VI.,  Elizabeth,  James  I., 
Charles  I.,  and  Charles  II.,  were  transferred  from  the  east  window  to  the  west,  and  modern  stained  glass 
took  their  place.     A  chantry  was  founded  here  by  Alan  de  Chepe  in  131 1. 

The  most  interesting  monument  is  that  of  the  great  antiquarian  John  Stow ;  it  is  made  of  terra-cotta 
and  is  placed  near  the  eastern  end  of  the  north  wall.  There  is  another  dedicated  to  Sir  Hugh  Hammersley, 
sheriff  1618,  and  Lord  Mayor  1627,  part  of  the  sculpture  of  which  is  very  fine.  On  the  east  wall  of  the 
north  aisle  is  a  brass  to  Nicholas  Levin,  sheriff  in  1534,  and  a  liberal  contributor  to  the  work  of  building 
the  church  ;  the  brass  is  not  large,  but  twenty  well-defined  figures  have  been  introduced.  Sir  William 
Craven,  Lord  Mayor,  1640,  a  great  benefactor  to  the  parish,  was  interred  here,  but  has  no  monument; 
also  Peter  Antony  Motteux,  who  wrote  comedies  and  masques,  and  died  in  17 18.  Seven  remarkable  old 
books  are  preserved  in  the  vestry,  Fo.xe's  Acts  and  Monuments,  Sir  W.  Raleigh's  History  of  the  World,  and 
others ;  a  fragment  of  the  chain  which  formerly  fastened  Foxe's  book  to  a  desk  is  still  retained. 

This  church  and  parish  received  many  charitable  gifts,  some  of  the  donors  of  which  were  :  Robert 
Gayer,  ^50 ;  Sir  Thomas  Rich,  ^"400  ;  the  widow  of  Mr.  Van  Citters,  ^200,  for  the  apprenticeship  of 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


17: 


two  parish  children,  1706;  and  Joseph  Chamberlain,  ^121  :  is.  in  1706.  There  was  a  charity  school  for 
fifty  boys  and  thirty  girls  who  were  clothed,  taught,  and  put  out  as  apprentices  by  contribution.  Among 
the  most  notable  rectors  were  :  John  Russell  (died   1494),  Bishop  of  Rochester;  John  Pricket,  Bi.shop  of 


ST.    ANDREW   U.VDERSnAFT 


Gloucester;  Robert  Grove  (1631-1696),  Bishop  of  Chichester;  and  William  Walsham  How  (1823-1S97), 
Bishop  of  Bedford  and  of  Wakefield. 

Stow  died  in  this  parish  and,  it  is  believed,  in  St.  Mary  Axe  itself,  his  windows 
overlooking  the  grounds  and  ruins  of  St.  Helen's  nunnery. 


174  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF   LONDON 

Another  parish  church  stood  in  St.  Mary  Axe,  at  the  north  end  against  the 
wall.  It  was  called  St.  Augustine's-in-the-Wall.  In  the  year  1430  the  church  was 
allotted  to  the  Fraternity  of  the  Papey,  the  house  for  poor  priests. 

The  house  v/as  suppressed  in  the  reign  of  Edward  VI.,  and  was  afterwards 
occupied  by  Sir  Francis  Walsingham  (see  Medieval  London,  vol.  ii.  p.  2>n\ 

The  modern  St.  Mary  Axe  is  not  interesting.  The  old  house  at  the  corner  of 
Great  St.  Helen's  is  the  first  to  be  noticed.  Next  to  it  is  another  old  one,  stuccoed. 
A  few  doors  northward  is  the  Grapes  public-house.  Then  follow  a  succession 
of  more  or  less  new  warehouses,  with  narrow  frontage,  chiefly  in  red  brick,  not  un- 
picturesquely  designed.  A  very  new  red  brick  building  with  much  ornamental 
detail  is  St.  Anne's  Chambers,  Nos.  -iyl  to  41.  This  is  succeeded  by  the  ward 
school,  which  is  of  red  brick  and  bears  its  name  across  its  frontage.  It  is  the  ward 
school  of  Cornhill  and  Lime  Street,  and  was  established  17  10.  The  present  building 
was  erected  in  1846.  A  little  model  of  St.  George  and  the  Dragon  gives  a  touch  of 
vivacity  to  its  appearance.  Beyond  this  are  large  brick  business  houses  and  ware- 
houses.     Bishopsgate  Avenue  is  occupied  chieily  by  stationers  and  printers. 

Bevis  Marks. — ■'  Then  next  is  one  great  House,  large  of  Rooms,  fair  Courts  and 
Garden  Plots,  sometime  pertaining  to  the  Bassets,  since  that,  to  the  Abbots  of  Bury 
in  Suffolk,  and  therefore  called  Buries  Marks,  corruptly  Bevis  Marks.  And  since 
the  Dissolution  of  the  Abbey  of  Bury,  to  Thomas  Heneage  the  Father,  and  Sir 
Thomas  Heneage  the  Son. 

"  This  House  and  Ground  is  now  encreased  into  many  Tenements  :  And  among 
the  rest,  the  Jews  of  London  have  of  late  built  themselves  a  large  Synagogue  here, 
wainscotted  round.  It  stands  East  and  West  like  one  of  our  Churches.  The  great 
Door  is  on  the  West :  Near  to  which  West  End  is  a  long  Desk  upon  an  Ascent,  some- 
what raised  from  the  rest  of  the  Floor  ;  where  I  suppose  the  Law  is  read.  The  East 
wall  is  in  part  railed  in  ;  and  before  the  Wall  is  a  Door,  which  is  to  open  with  a  Key, 
where  their  Law  seems  to  be  laid  up.  Aloft  on  this  Wall  are  the  Ten  Commandments, 
or  some  part  of  them,  inscribed  in  Golden  Hebrew  Letters  without  Points.  There  be 
seven  great  Branched  Candlesticks  of  Brass  hanging  down  from  the  Top  ;  and  many 
other  Places  for  Candles  and  Lamps.  The  Seats  are  Benches,  with  Backs  to  them 
that  run  along  from  West  to  East  "  (Strype,  vol.  i.  bk.  ii.  p.  'j-^). 

The  modern  Bevis  Marks  is  lined  on  the  west  by  substantial  red-brick  buildings 
chiefly  occupied  by  merchants. 

Heneage  Lane,  leading  out  of  Bevis  Marks,  a  narrow  and  dark  thoroughfare, 
contains  the  synagogue  of  the  Spanish  and  Portuguese  Jews.  It  is  a  plain  structure 
externally,  built  in  the  year  1700.  Standing  in  the  midst  of  its  courts  and  almshouses 
the  place  has  somewhat  the  appearance  of  a  Spanish  convent.  The  interior  is 
spacious  and  fitted  with  two  galleries,  one  for  women.  The  children  attend  service 
under  one  of  the  galleries. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  175 

The  derivation  of  Houndsditch  as  given  by  Stow  is  as  unsavoury  as  the 
reputation  the  street  later  earned.  "Called  Hounds-ditch  for  that  in  old  time  when 
the  same  lay  open  much  filth  (conveyed  forth  of  the  Citie)  especially  dead  dogges 
was  there  laid  or  cast."  Beyond  the  mud  wall  that  enclosed  the  ditch  was  a  "  fay  re 
field  "  where  were  the  almshouses  of  the  Priory  of  Holy  Trinity. 

"In  my  youth,  I  remember,"  continues  Stow,  "devout  people  as  well  men  as 
women  of  the  Citie,  were  accustomed  oftentimes,  especially  on  Frydayes  weekely,  to 
walke  that  way  purposely,  and  there  to  bestow  their  charitable  almes  ;  every  poor 
man  or  woman  lying  in  their  bed  within  their  window,  which  was  toward  the  street 
open  so  low,  that  every  man  might  see  them." 

At  present  looking  down  Houndsditch  from  Bishopsgate  Within  the  street 
presents  a  not  unpicturesque  appearance.  On  the  south,  indeed,  it  is  one  continuous 
row  of  dull  brick  box-like  houses,  but  on  the  north  one  or  two  old  projecting  houses 
break  the  line.  No.  96  is  an  old  stuccoed  house  which  projects  in  a  broad  bay  above 
the  first  floor.  Besides  these  old  houses  several  high  plain  warehouses  break  up  the 
monotony  of  the  street  line.  Houndsditch  is  the  centre  of  the  old-clothes  trade. 
To  the  north  lie  huge  warehouses  and  industrial  dwellings. 

Bishopsgate. — There  were  two  northern  gates  to  the  Roman  wall  :  one 
of  them  corresponding  with  Newgate  and  the  other  with  Bishopsgate.  But  the 
Saxon  and  mediaeval  Bishopsgate  was  not  built  on  the  site  of  the  Roman  gate, 
but  a  little  to  the  west.  The  foundations  of  the  Roman  gate  have  been  found 
in  Camomile  Street  ;  they  were  built  with  carved  stones  taken  from  some 
Roman  building,  perhaps  a  villa,  an  illustration  of  my  theory  that  the  wall  was 
built  in  great  haste  and  that  all  the  stone  buildings  of  the  City  were  used  in  its 
construction. 

The  massive  masonry  of  the  ancient  "  Newgate"  has  also  been  found  close  by 
the  later  gate  in  Giltspur  Street. 

The  traffic  along  Bishopsgate  Street,  which  led  into  the  Roman  Fort,  and  to 
the  Bridge  from  the  north  and  eastern  parts  of  the  island,  caused  a  settlement  and  a 
street  to  be  established  here  long  before  the  wall  was  built.  For  the  same  reason, 
when  the  City  began  to  fill  up  after  its  long  period  of  desolation,  the  line  was  one  of 
the  first  to  be  settled  again,  while  on  either  side  there  were  vacant  spaces,  orchards, 
fields,  and  gardens.  Houses  and  shops  sprang  up  both  within  and  without  the  wall  ; 
the  latter  only  when  the  Norman  power  had  removed  the  fear  of  another  siege.  It 
is  impossible  to  say  with  any  certainty  when  the  street  was  actually  recognised  as 
such.  Thus,  to  quote  such  facts  as  are  accessible  in  Riley's  Memorials,  in  the 
Calendar  of  Wills,  etc.,  we  find  that  in  1259,  1272,  1285,  and  1288  there  are 
mentioned  "houses  near,  or  within,  Bishopsgate,"  and  in  1309  and  1311  there  are 
"houses  without"  Bishopsgate.  In  1329  we  find  a  brew-house  in  Bishopsgate 
Street.      Again,  in  13 14  the  shops  of  one  Roger  Poyntel  are  in  danger  by  reason  of 


176  SURVEY  OF  THE   CITY  OE   LONDON 

an  overhanging  elm-tree,  thanks  to  which  we  learn  that  there  were  at  that  time 
residents  close  by  the  gate  ;  in  1305  a  tourelle  in  the  wall  near  the  gate  is  given  to 
William  Coeur  de  Lyon,  chaplain,  on  condition  that  he  keeps  it  in  repair;  in  1314 
another  tourelle  near  the  gate  is  given  to  John  de  Elyngham,  chaplain  in  charity,  on 
the  same  condition;  in  131 8  the  upper  chamber  of  the  gate,  together  with  a  tourelle 
on  the  east,  and  a  garden  against  the  wall,  is  granted  to  John  de  Long,  an  Easterling, 
or  member  of  the  Hanseatic  League,  on  the  same  condition.  In  1324  he  renounced 
his  lease  and,  apparently,  went  home.  (Here  we  have  an  instance  of  a  Hanseatic 
merchant  living  outside  the  Dovins,  or  Aiila  Teutonicorum,  where  they  were  all 
supposed  to  live.  But  no  absolute  rule  about  anything  can  be  laid  down  in  these 
centuries.)  The  Almaines  or  Easterlings  who  were  responsible  for  the  repair  and 
maintenance  of  the  gate,  were  exempt  from  toll.  On  the  other  hand  (another 
illustration  of  the  conflicting  "rights"  of  the  time),  the  Bishop  of  London  claimed 
one  stock  out  of  every  cart-load  of  wood  that  passed  through  the  gate.  Let  the 
Bishop,  then,  keep  the  hinges  in  repair! 

The  gate  was  built,  it  is  said,  by  Bishop  Erkenwald  in  685.  One  supposes, 
since  he  did  not  rebuild  on  the  Roman  foundations,  that  a  way  had  been  made 
through  the  wall  on  the  west  side,  and  that  traffic  had,  for  convenience,  chosen  that 
way.  The  gate  was  considered,  in  some  sense,  to  be  under  the  special  care  of  the 
Bishop.  But  the  burden  of  its  maintenance  was  laid  upon  the  Hanseatic  merchants. 
The  case  was  tried  and  decided  in  1282,  when  the  merchants  were  ordered  to  keep 
the  gate,  and  to  find  men  and  money  if  necessary  in  its  defence  for  one-third  of  the 
cost.     On  the  antiquities  of  the  gate,  hear  also  Stow  : 

"  The  eldest  note  that  I  read  of  this  Bishopsgate,  is  that  William  Blund,  one  of 
the  sheriffs  of  London,  in  the  year  12  10,  sold  to  Serle  Mercer,  and  William  Almaine, 
procurators  or  wardens  of  London  Bridge,  all  his  land,  with  the  garden,  in  the  parish 
of  St.  Buttolph  without  Bishopsgate. 

"  Next  I  read  in  a  charter,  dated  the  year  1235,  that  Walter  Brune,  citizen  of 
London,  and  Rosia  his  wife,  having  founded  the  priory  or  new  hospital  of  our 
blessed  Lady,  since  called  St.  Mary  Spittle  without  Bishopsgate,  confirmed  the  same 
to  the  honour  of  God  and  our  blessed  Lady,  for  canons  regular. 

"Also  in  the  year  1247,  Simon  Fitzmary,  one  of  the  sheriffs  of  London,  the 
29th  of  Henry  III.,  founded  the  hospital  of  St.  Mary,  called  Bethlem  without 
Bishopsgate. 

"This  gate  was  again  beautifully  built  in  the  year  1479,  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  IV.,  by  the  Haunce  merchants. 

"Moreover,  about  the  year  1551,  these  Haunce  merchants,  having  prepared 
stone  for  that  purpose,  caused  a  new  gate  to  be  framed,  there  to  have  been  set  up, 
but  then  their  liberties,  through  suit  of  our  English  merchants,  were  seized  into  the 
king's  hand  ;  and  so  that  work  was  stayed,  and  the  old  gate  yet  remaineth." 


177 


178  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

In    1 73 1   the  old  gate  was  taken  down   and   another  erected.     This,   with   the 
other  City  gates,  was  removed  in  1760. 

If  we  walk  down  Bishopsgate  Street  Within,  we  cannot  do  better  than  take 
Stow  with  us,  remembering  that  he  is  writing  in  the  year  1598  : 

"And  first  to  begin  on  the  left  hand  of  Bishopsgate  street,  from  the  gate  you 
have  certain  tenements  of  old  time  pertaining  to  a  brotherhood  of  St.  Nicholas, 
granted  to  the  parish  clerks  of  London,  for  two  chaplains,  to  be  kept  in  the  chapel 
of  St.  Mary  Magdalen,  near  unto  the  Guildhall  of  London,  in  the  27th  of  Henry  VI. 
The  first  of  these  houses  towards  the  north,  and  against  the  wall  of  the  city,  was 
sometime  a  large  inn  or  court  called  the  Wrestlers,  of  such  a  sign,  and  the  last  in 
the  high  street  towards  the  south  was  sometime  also  a  fair  inn  called  the  Angel,  of 
such  a  sign.  Among  these  said  tenements  was  on  the  same  street  side  a  fair  entry, 
or  court,  to  the  common  hall  of  the  said  parish  clerks,  with  proper  alms-houses, 
seven  in  number,  adjoining,  for  poor  parish  clerks,  and  their  wives  and  their  widows, 
such  as  were  in  great  years  not  able  to  labour.  This  brotherhood,  amongst  other, 
being  suppressed,  in  the  reign  of  Edward  VI.  the  said  hall,  with  the  other  buildings 
there,  was  given  to  Sir  Robert  Chester,  a  knight  of  Cambridgeshire  ;  against  whom 
the  parish  clerks  commencing  suit,  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Mary,  and  being  like  to 
have  prevailed,  the  said  Sir  Robert  Chester  pulled  down  the  hall,  sold  the  timber, 
stone,  and  lead,  and  thereupon  the  suit  was  ended.  The  alms-houses  remain 
in  the  queen's  hands,  and  people  are  there  placed,  such  as  can  make  best  friends  ; 
some  of  them,  taking  the  pension  appointed,  have  let  forth  their  houses  for 
great  rent,  giving  occasion  to  the  parson  of  the  parish  to  challenge  tithes  of  the 
poor,  etc." 

After  mentioning  St.  Ethelburga,  St.  Helen's,  and  St.  Andrew  Undershaft,  he 
goes  on  : 

"  Then  have  you  one  great  house  called  Crosby  place,  because  the  same  ^yas 
built  by  Sir  John  Crosby,  grocer  and  woolman,  in  place  of  certain  tenements,  with 
their  appurtenances,  letten  to  him  by  Alice  Ashfeld,  prioress  of  St.  Helen's,  and  the 
convent,  for  ninety-nine  years,  from  the  year  1466  unto  the  year  1565,  for  the  annual 
rent  of  ^i  i  :  6  :  8. 

"  Richard,  Duke  of  Gloucester,  and  lord  protector,  afterwards  king,  by  the 
name  of  Richard  III.,  was  lodged  in  this  house  ;  since  the  which  time,  among  other, 
Anthonie  Bonvice,  a  rich  merchant  of  Italy,  dwelt  there  ;  after  him,  Garmain  Cioll, 
then  William  Bond,  alderman,  increased  this  house  in  height,  with  building  of  a 
turret  on  the  top  thereof:  he  deceased  in  the  year  1576,  and  was  buried  in 
St.  Helen's  church.  Divers  ambassadors  have  been  lodged  there  ;  namely,  in  the 
year  1586,  Henry  Ramelius,  chancellor  of  Denmark,  ambassador  unto  the  queen's 
majesty  of  England  from  Frederick  II.,  the  king  of  Denmark  ;  an  ambassador  of 
France,  etc.      Sir  John  Spencer,  Alderman,  lately  purchased  this  house,  made  great 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


179 


reparations,  kept  his  mayoralty  there,  and  since  built  a  most  large  warehouse  near 
thereunto. 

"  From  this  Crosbie  place  up  to  Leaden  Hall  corner,  and  so  down  Grass 
Street,  amongst  other  tenements,  are  divers  fair  and  large  built  houses  for  merchants 
and  such  like. 

"  Now  for  the  other  side  of  this  ward,  namely,  the  right  hand,  hard  by  within 


Drawn  by  Schnebbelit. 


ST.    HELEN,    niSIIOI'Sr.ATE,    1S17 


the  gate,  is  one  fair  water  conduit,  which  Thomas  Knesworth,  mayor,  in  the  year 
1505,  founded  :  he  gave  ^60,  the  rest  was  furnished  at  the  common  charges  of  the 
city.  This  conduit  hath  since  been  taken  down  and  new  built.  David  Woodroffe, 
alderman,  gave  ^20  towards  the  conveyance  of  more  water  thereunto.  From  this 
conduit  have  you,  amongst  many  fair  tenements,  divers  fair  inns,  large  for  receipt  of 
travellers,  and  some  houses  for  men  of  worship  ;  namely,  one  most  spacious  of  all 
other  thereabout,  built  of  brick  and  timber  by  Sir  Thomas  Gresham,  knight,  who 


i8o  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

deceased  in  the  year  1579,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Helen's  church,  under  a  fair 
monument,  by  him  prepared  in  his  life  :  he  appointed  by  his  testament  this  house 
to  be  made  a  college  of  readers,  as  before  is  said  in  the  chapter  of  schools  and 
houses  of  learning. 

"Somewhat  west  from  this  house  is  one  other  very  fair  house,  wherein 
Sir  William  Hollis  kept  his  mayoralty,  and  was  buried  in  the  parish  church  of 
St.  Helen.  Sir  Andrew  Jud  also  kept  his  mayoralty  there,  and  was  buried  at 
St.  Helen's:  he  built  alms-houses  for  six  poor  alms  people  near  to  the  said  parish 
church,  and  gave  lands  to  the  Skinners,  out  of  the  which  they  are  to  give  4s.  every 
week  to  the  six  poor  alms  people,  8d.  the  piece,  and  25s.  4d.  the  year,  in  coals 
amongst  them  for  ever"  (Stow's  S7n-vcy,  p.  181). 

Shakespeare,  who  lived  for  a  time  in  St.  Helen's,  and  therefore  knew  Crosby 
Hall  well,  has  introduced  it  in  Richard  III.  Sir  Thomas  More  lived  here  for  a 
time,  the  guest  of  Bonvici,  to  whom  from  the  Tower  he  wrote,  and  in  whose  gown, 
of  silk  camlet,  he  went  to  his  execution.  In  1547  Bonvici  let  the  house  on  lease  to 
William  Roper,  More's  son-in-law,  and  to  his  nephew  William  Rastell,  a  printer. 
Under  Edward  VI.,  Bonvici,  Rastell,  and  Roper  went  abroad,  but  came  home  under 
Mary.  Meantime  Edward  VI.  had  conferred  the  house  upon  Sir  Thomas  D'Arcy, 
afterwards  Lord  D'Arcy,  who  seems  to  have  sold  it  to  William  Bond,  alderman  and 
sheriff  Sir  John  Spencer  next  became  the  owner  of  the  house.  He  received  the 
Due  de  Sully,  Grand  Treasurer  of  France,  with  all  his  retinue. 

The  way  in  which  the  inheritance  of  this  great  merchant  came  to  the  Comptons 
is  told  by  Hare  : 

"Sir  John  Spencer,  having  but  a  poor  opinion  of  the  Compton  family  in  that 

day,  positively  forbade  the  first  Earl  of  Northampton  to  pay  his  addresses  to  his 

daughter,  who  was  the  greatest  heiress  in   England.      One  day,  at  the  foot  of  the 

staircase.  Sir  John  met  the  baker's  boy  with  his  covered  barrow,  and,  being  pleased 

at  his  having  come  punctually  when  he  was  ordered,  he  gave  him  sixpence  ;  but  the 

baker's  boy  was  Lord  Northampton  in  disguise,  and  in  the  covered  barrow  he  was 

carrying  off  the  beautiful   Elizabeth  Spencer.     When  he  found  how  he   had   been 

duped,  Sir  John  swore  that  Lord   Northampton  had  seen  the  only  sixpence  of  his 

money  he  should  ever  receive,  and  refused  to  be  reconciled  to  his  daughter.      But 

the  next  year  Queen  Elizabeth,  having  expressed  to  Sir  John  Spencer  the  sympathy 

which  she  felt  with  his  sentiments  upon  the  ingratitude  of  his  child,  invited  him  to 

come  and   be  "gossip"  with  her   to   a   newly-born   baby  in  which   she   was  much 

interested,  and  he  could  not  refuse  ;  and  it  is  easy  to  imagine  whose  that  baby  was. 

So  the  Spencer  property  came  to  the  Comptons  after  all"  (Hare,  vol.  i.  pp.  284-85). 

In   1642   the  Earl  of  Northampton  was  killed   at    Hopton   Heath,  beside  the 

King.      Here  lived  the  Countess  of  Pembroke,  Sidney's  sister,  immortalised  by  Ben 

Jonson's  epitaph.     In  1640  Sir  John  Langham,  sheriff  in  1642,  leased  the  house  ;  it 


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THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


iSi 


is  said  to  have  been  used  as  a  prison  for  Royalists.  His  son,  Sir  Stephen  Langham, 
succeeded,  and  in  his  time  a  great  part  of  the  house  was  destroyed  by  fire.  In  1672, 
its  great  hall  became  a  Presbyterian  meeting-house ;  it  was  then  turned  into  a 
packers'  warehouse.  In  1831  it  was  converted  into  an  institute  for  lectures  and  is 
now  a  restaurant.^ 

The  streets  and  courts  leading  out  of  Bishopsgate  Street  Within  are  neither 
important  nor  numerous.     On  the  west  side  going  south  from  the  gate  were  inns 


COUNCIL    ROOM,    CROSBY    HAI.I.,    iSlO 


called  the  Vine,  the  Four  Swans,  the  Green  Dragon,  the  Black  Bull,  and  the  Cross 
Keys  (in  Gracechurch  Street). 

Beginning  at  the  south  end  of  the  modern  Bishopsgate  we  see  on  the  west  the 
Bank  of  Scotland,  the  National  Bank  of  Australasia,  and  the  Delhi  and  London 
Bank,  housed  under  one  roof  in  a  large  stone  building  with  the  lower  windows 
enclosed  in  exceptionally  high  and  bold  arches.  Baring  Bros.  Bank  is  opposite. 
It  is  a    plain,    well-proportioned  brick   building,   symmetrical    and    without    tawdry 

1    Since  pulled  down  and  re-erected  as  a  -Students'  Hall  of  Residence  at  Chelsea. 


iS2  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

ornament  ;  it  was  designed  by  R.  Norman  Shaw.  It  is  flanked  on  either  side  by 
a  pubhc-house,  The  Black  Lion  and  the  City  of  London  Tavern.  Just  opposite 
the  entrance  of  Threadneedle  Street  the  Wesleyan  Centenary  Hall  attracts  attention 
by  its  size  and  solidity.  Four  immense  fluted  columns  run  up  the  facade  to  a  frieze 
and  triangular  pediment.  It  was  erected  in  1839.  Close  by  is  the  Bank  of  Scotland. 
It  looks  out  on  the  really  fine  National  Provincial  Bank  of  England  at  the  north 
corner  of  Threadneedle  Street.  This  has  fluted  stone  columns  running  up  to  the 
frieze  along  the  whole  frontage.  They  enclose  very  tall,  round-headed  windows, 
and  above  the  windows  are  deep  panels  of  great  size  executed  in  basso-relievo.  It 
was  erected  in  1833  and  the  architect  was  J.  Gibson.  Along  the  parapet  of  the  roof 
at  intervals  are  placed  statues  which  break  the  hard  line. 

Immediately  opposite  the  entry,  on  the  east  side  of  the  square  we  see  a  dreary 
block  of  brick  houses  ;  these  are  Crosby  Buildings,  and  are  fully  occupied  by  repre- 
sentatives of  trade  and  commerce.  On  the  south  side  there  is  an  old  stuccoed  house 
with  a  square  pillared  porch.  The  next  house  is  of  red  brick  with  decorative  brick 
panels  let  in  on  the  face.  This  is  an  old  house  which  has  been  recased.  Its  fine 
stuccoed  doorway  is  still  preserved.  On  the  west  a  large  red  brick  building  bearing 
date  1876  fills  up  the  space,  and  on  the  north  is  an  old  brick  house  with  a  plain 
projecting  pediment  over  the  door,  and  brackets  similar  to  those  on  the  south 
side.  No.  7  in  the  north-east  corner  is  a  new  stone  house  of  plain  but  rather 
original  design.  A  couple  of  little  plane-trees  grow  up  at  either  end  of  the  quiet 
square. 

A  covered  entry  leads  from  Crosby  Square  to  Great  St.  Helen's.  The  first 
part  of  this  tortuous  thoroughfare  is  lined  by  the  side  of  Crosby  Buildings,  modern 
brick,  on  the  one  side,  and  the  end  of  the  stuccoed  synagogue,  which  stands  back 
from  the  frontage  of  the  street,  on  the  other.  About  this  part,  and  the  narrow 
lane  which  succeeds  it  running  north  and  south,  there  is  little  to  say  ;  the  substantial 
business  spirit  pervades  even  the  bricks  and  mortar.  But  in  the  open  space  beyond, 
facing  the  church,  are  some  features  of  interest.  Nos.  8,  9,  and  10  have  all  been 
rebuilt  in  the  large-windowed  flat  modern  style.  No.  7  is  a  fine  old  red  brick  house. 
No.  2  is  a  delightful  one  and  has  an  ornamental  doorway  with  fluted  columns  and 
pilasters  supporting  the  lintel,  beneath  which  on  either  side  are  cherubs'  heads.  Across 
the  wide  space  before  the  quaint  and  interesting  church  are  other  red  brick  houses, 
some  old  and  some  of  more  modern  date.  Close  by  the  entry  the  builder  is  at  work 
on  the  site  of  some  charming  old  gabled  houses  demolished  within  the  last  five  years. 

ST.   HELEN,   BISHOPSGATE 

There  is  a  well-known  tradition  that  a  church  was  built  here  in  the  fourth  century  by  the  Emperor 
Constantine,  and  there  is  a  record  preserved  which  proves  that  the  church  was  in  existence  before  the  year 
loio.     A  church  standing  on  this  site  was  given  by  one  Ranulph,  and  Robert  his  son,  to  the  Dean  and 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  i8 


J 


Canons  of  St.  Paul's  at  a  date  unknown.  About  12 12,  permission  was  obtained  to  found  the  Priory  of 
St.  Helen  for  nuns  of  the  Benedictine  Order  and  with  this  the  real  history  of  the  church  begins.  It  is 
always  stated  that  the  north  aisle  of  the  church  was  used  by  the  nuns,  while  the  south  was  occupied  by 
the  parishioners,  but  the  first  rector  mentioned  dates  from  1541,  that  is  to  say,  after  the  suppression  of  the 
Religious  Houses.  On  the  dissolution  of  the  priory  in  1538  the  church  was  given  in  its  entirety  to  parochial 
uses.  It  was  largely  repaired  in  1631  (under  the  direction  of  Inigo  Jones),  in  1841,  1865,  and  again  in 
1891-93.  In  1873  the  parish  of  St.  Martin  Outwich  was  united  with  this,  its  church  having  been 
pulled  down. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  220. 

The  church  consists  of  two  parallel  naves,  each  of  122  feet  in  length  and  about  25  feet  in  width, 
and  a  south  transept,  out  of  which  two  eastern  chapels  open.  In  the  north  wall  is  an  arched  doorway 
which  led  from  the  choir  into  the  priory,  also  a  hagioscope  through  which  the  nuns  were  able  to  discern 
the  high  altar  from  the  cloisters.  All  this  part  and  some  of  the  south  transept  dates  from  the  thirteenth 
century ;  the  side  chapels  were  added  about  the  middle  of  the  fourteenth  and  the  rest  dates  from  the 
fifteenth  century. 

A  chantry  was  founded  in  honour  of  the  Holy  Ghost  for  the  soul  of  Adam  Fraunceys,  to  which 
Joan,  Prioress  of  the  Convent  of  St.  Helen,  presented  Robert  Gryngeley,  May  18,  1399,  and  for  Agnes  his 
wife  (Hennessey's  Chantries,  p.  39). 

The  church  contains  a  remarkable  number  of  interesting  monuments.  The  following  are  com- 
memorated :  Alderman  John  Robinson,  Merchant  Taylor  and  merchant  of  the  Staple  of  England ; 
died  1599.  Francis  Bancroft,  who  bequeathed  over  ^28,000  to  the  Drapers  Company  for  the  erection 
of  almshouses  and  a  school  for  boys;  he  died  1727.  Martin  Bond,  M.P.  in  1624  and  1625  for  the  City 
of  London.  Alberticus  Gentilis,  Merchant  Adventurer  and  a  prolific  legal  author  who  was  an  exile  from 
Italy  on  account  of  his  Protestant  opinions  ;  he  became  Regius  Professor  of  Civil  Law  at  Oxford  and  died  in 
1608.  Sir  Thomas  Gresham,  founder  of  the  Royal  Exchange  and  Gresham  College,  who  died  in  1579. 
Sir  Andrew  Judde,  Lord  Mayor  in  1550,  and  a  great  benefactor  of  the  parish.  Sir  Julius  Cresar,  judge. 
Master  of  the  Rolls  under  James  I. ;  his  monument  was  executed  by  Nicholas  Stone,  Master  Mason  to 
King  Charles  I.  Sir  William  Pickering,  Knt.,  soldier  and  scholar,  whose  monument  is  the  most  magnificent 
in  the  church ;  he  distinguished  himself  greatly  under  Henry  VIII.,  Edward  VI.,  Mary,  and  Elizabeth  ; 
he  died  in  1574.  Sir  John  Crosby,  already  mentioned  in  connection  with  Crosby  Hall.  Sir  John  Spencer, 
Lord  Mayor  in  1594,  commonly  known  as  "Rich  Spencer  "  on  account  of  his  vast  wealth.  The  Rev. 
J.  E.  Cox,  D.D.,  who  was  Vicar-in-charge  of  the  united  parishes,  wrote  The  Annals  of  St.  Helen's, 
Bishopsgate,  London  ;  he  was  for  nine  years  in  succession  Grand  Chaplain  of  England.  On  the  floors  of 
the  two  chapels  there  are  several  brasses  very  well  executed. 

A  considerable  number  of  benefactors  are  recorded  by  Stow,  but  the  amounts  of  their  gifts  were 
small  individually.  Sir  John  Crosby,  at  his  death  in  1475,  bequeathed  500  marks  for  the  repair  of  the 
church.  In  more  recent  times  Francis  Bancroft  bequeathed  over  ^^28,000  ;  this  has  been  devoted  to 
founding  a  school  at  Woodford,  Essex,  for  boys — 100  boarders  and  200  day-boys.  Sir  Andrew  Judde 
left  the  Skinners  Company  trustees  for  the  accomplishment  of  charitable  aims. 

There  were  five  almshouses  near  the  church  for  as  many  decayed  Skinners  and  their  wives.  Six  alms- 
houses also  were  founded  by  Sir  Andrew  Judde  ;  in  Little  St.  Helen  Street  there  were  seven  houses  for  the 
same  number  of  widows,  each  of  whom  had  ^5  :  4s.  per  annum. 

Thomas  Horton  (d.  1673),  Vice-Chancellor  of  Cambridge,  1649,  was  rector  here. 

For  an  account  of  the  ancient  nunnery  of  St.  Helen,  see  Medicsval  London, 
vol.  ii.  p.  313. 

St.  Helen's  Place  is  a  quiet  corner  with  monotonous  rows  of  Early  Victorian  or 
Georgian  brick  houses  finished  off  with  yellow  paint.  No.  i,  near  the  entrance, 
and    No.    2    have    slight    pillared    porches    over    their   doorways.       In    the    north- 


1 84 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


east  corner  the  small  but  richly-decorated  front  of  the  Leathersellers'  Hall  attracts 
attention.     The  place  is  shut  off  from  the  street  by  spiked  iron  gates. 

THE    LEATHERSELLERS   COMPANY 

Dealers    in    leather   are    supposed    to    have    existed    as    a    society  or   corporation    in    Britain   from 
the  time  of  the  Romans. 

The  "  leathersellers,"  as  a  company,  are  first  mentioned  about  a.d.    1372,  in  Edward  III.'s  reign, 


PRIN'CirAL   ENTRANCE   TO    LEATHERSELLERS     HALL.       DEMOLISHED    I799 


when  their  "probi  homines,"  or  "bons  gentz,"  their  wardens  or  seniors,  came  before  the  Court  of 
.\ldermen,  together  with  those  of  the  craft  of  Pursers,  afterwards  amalgamated  with  the  Leathersellers 
Company,  and  jointly  presented  a  bill  or  "  supplication  "  desiring  some  stringent  regulations  to  be  made 
for  the  prevention  of  the  sale  of  other  than  genuine  leather,  and  to  prevent  fraudulent  colouring  of 
leather. 

The   leathersellers  were  known  as  a  corporation  in    London,  and   were   governed    by  ordinances, 

1377-99- 

The  first  charter  of   incorporation    was  granted  to    the   Company  by  22    Henry  VL,  1444.     It  is 
still  in  their  possession,  and,  "  after  reciting  the  petition  of  Thomas  Bigge  and  fourteen  others,  men  of  the 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE   CITY  185 

mistery  of  leathersellers  of  the  city  of  London,  sets  forth  an  ordinance  made  by  Richard  Whittington, 
mayor,  and  the  aldermen  of  the  city,  21  Richard  II.,  a.d.  1398,  that  two  or  four  of  the  better  or  more 
approved  men  of  the  mistery  should  yearly  be  chosen  and  sworn  to  guard  and  oversee  defaults  in  the  same 
mistery,  and  to  present,  from  time  to  time,  to  the  mayor  and  chamber  of  the  said  city  aforesaid  for  the 
time  being  ;  and  that  none  of  the  mistery  aforesaid,  to  wit,  master  or  servant,  should  be  rebellious  or 
contrarious  to  such  men  so  chosen  and  sworn,  duly  exercising  search  in  the  said  mistery,  nor  points, 
or  laces,  unless  they  were  well  and  sufificiently  made,  nor  straps  of  the  leather  of  sheep  or  calf,  nor  thereof 
any  other  work,  should  falsely  or  deceitfully  be  wrought  to  the  deception  of  the  people  under  pain  of  the 
heavy  punishment  upon  such  cases  ordained,  and  the  payment  of  6s.  8d. ;  to  wit,  to  the  use  of  the  Chamber 
of  the  city  aforesaid  4od.,  and  to  the  use  of  the  said  mistery  4od." 

There  are  now  151  members  of  the  livery.  They  have  a  Corporate  Income  of  ^17,000  and  a  Trust 
Income  of  ;i^30oo.  With  the  Leathersellers  were  incorporated  the  White  Tawyers,  or  makers  of  white 
leather ;  the  Pouchmakers,  the  Pursers,  the  Mailmakers,  the  Galoche-makers,  the  Tiltmongers,  the 
Leather-dressers,  the  Parchment-makers  and  the  Leather-dyers. 

The  earliest  quarters  of  the  trades  connected  with  Leather  were  in  the  north  under  London  Wall. 
Here  they  had  their  first  hall.  After  the  dissolution  of  the  Religious  Houses  the  Company  obtained  the 
site  of  the  nunnery  known  as  St.  Helen's.  Part  of  the  house  was  converted  into  the  Company's  Hall, 
the  old  Refectory  becoming  the  Company's  place  of  meeting  and  banqueting.  This  ancient  structure  was 
destroyed  in  1797,  the  present  one  was  built  in  1878. 

The  low  small  Church  of  St.  Ethelburga  peers  over  some  old  houses,  which 
seem  to  have  stuck  to  it  as  barnacles  to  a  decayed  ship. 


ST.    ETHELBURGA  THE   VIRGIN 

This  church  is  dedicated  to  Ethelburga,  who  was  sister  of  Erconwald,  fourth  Bishop  of  London,  and 
first  Abbess  of  Barking.  In  all  probability  the  parish  was  formed  and  the  church  was  built  in  the  century 
which  succeeded  the  Conquest.  It  escaped  the  Great  Fire,  and  has  subsequently  had  a  great  deal  of 
attempted  restoration.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1304. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  the  Prioress  and  Convent  of  St.  Helen's,  London, 
1366  ;  then  Henry  VIII.  seized  it  and  it  was  granted  in  1569  to  the  Bishop  of  London,  and  continues  with 
his  successors. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  140. 

The  present  church,  originally  Early  English,  appears  to  have  been  altered  at  the  close  of  the 
fourteenth  century  or  early  fifteenth.  It  is  very  small,  measuring  less  than  60  feet  by  30,  and  under 
31  feet  in  height,  and  is  almost  crowded  out  by  houses.  Entrance  is  obtained  through  an  archway  between 
two  shops,  the  upper  stories  of  which  conceal  everything  but  the  top  of  the  west  window  and  turret.  It 
contains  a  south  aisle  separated  from  the  rest  by  four  pointed  arches,  with  a  clerestory  above.  The  roof 
is  divided  into  compartments  and  slopes  slightly  at  the  sides.  The  arch  at  the  entrance  of  the  nave  is  fine 
and  there  are  remnants  of  wood-carving,  probably  of  the  sixteenth  century,  on  the  porch. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  at  the  Altar  of  the  Blessed  A'irgin  Mary  by  Gilbert  Marion,  and 
Christina  his  wife,  to  which  Thomas  More  was  admitted  chaplain,  December  15,  1436- 

There  are  tablets  affixed  to  the  wall  commemorating  parishioners,  but  little  interest  attaches  to  the 
individuals.  The  only  two  connected  with  this  church  of  any  eminence  are  John  Larke,  a  friend  of  Sir 
Thomas  More,  who  was  executed  in  1554  for  denying  the  King's  supremacy;  and  Luke  Milbourne 
(1649-1720),  Dryden's  hostile  critic,  rector  here  in  1704.  William  Bray  (d.  1644),  chaplain  to  Archbishop 
Laud,  was  also  sometime  rector. 

In  Clark's  Place  is  a  building  containing  the  Marine  Society,  with  the  statues  of 


i86 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


a  woman  and  boy  in  a  niche.  In  Bishopsgate  Street,  No.  68,  is  an  old  stuccoed 
house  with  projecting  upper  stories.  No.  67  is  also  old  though  not  so 
noticeable. 

Part  of  Ethelburga  House  and  the  numbers  on  the  north,  as  far  as  23  inclusive, 
are  in  this  ward.  The  corner  house  has  a  stone  mitre  of  large  size  on  its  corner  and 
an  inscription,  rather  quaintly  worded,  announcing  that  the  gate  stood  formerly 
"adjoining  to  this  spot."      Looking  back  down  Bishopsgate  from  here  we  get  a  fine 


^;nati^^r^^- 


ST.    ETHELBURGA,    UISHOPSGATE    ST. 


perspective  view.  The  modern  buildings  are  of  all  heights,  but  distance  blends  them 
not  inharmoniously,  leaving  enough  variety  to  be  pleasing. 

The  Mail  Coach  public-house  is  at  the  corner,  and  on  the  opposite  house  is  a 
small  mitre  in  memory  of  the  Bishopsgate. 

Just  outside  the  City  Wall  is 


ST.    BOTOLPH,    BISHOPSGATE 

This  church  escaped  the  Great  Fire  of  1666,  but  was  rebuilt  in  1725-29  by  James  Gold.  In  1615 
the  City  gave  the  parishioners  additional  ground  on  the  west  for  burial  purposes.  The  earliest  date  of  an 
incumbent  is  1323. 


THE  ANTIOUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


187 


The  patronage  of  the  church  has  always  been  in  the  hands  of  the  bishops  of  London 
since  1323. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  650. 

The  building  includes  two  aisles,  separated  from  the  main  body  by  composite  columns.  There  are 
galleries  on  the  north,  south,  and  west.  The  steeple  rises  at  the  east  end,  and  the  chancel,  therefore,  is 
formed  beneath  the  tower.     It  is  built  of  stone  and  consists  of  three  stories,  the  third  of  which  is  completed 


Pictorial  Agency. 


ST.  noToi.ra,  msuoPhOATii 


by  a  small  composite  temple  surrounded  by  a  balustrade  and  surmounted  by  an  urn.  The  remainder  of 
the  exterior  is  of  red  brick  with  stone  dressings. 

Sir  Paul  Pindar,  a  great  benefactor  to  the  church,  who  acted  as  James  I.'s  Turkish  Ambassador  in 
161 1,  was  buried  in  this  church,  and  a  monument  was  erected  to  his  memory.  Close  to  this,  also  in  the 
chancel,  is  a  brass  plate  in  memory  of  Sir  William  Blizard,  President  of  the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  who 
died  in  1S35.  John  Keats  was  baptized  here  in  1795,  and  Edward  Alleyn,  founder  of  Dulwich  College, 
in  1566.  Here  also  Archibald  Campbell,  7th  ICarl  of  Argyll  and  father  of  the  celebrated  first  marquis, 
was  married  in  1609. 

There  were  a  considerable  number  of  small  charitable  gifts  belonging  to  this  parish.     Of  the  larger, 


i88  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Ralph  Pindar  was  a  donor  of  ^,60;  Nicholas  Reive,  of  ^406 :  5s.  in  1626;  William,  Earl  of 
Devonshire,  of  ;^  100. 

There  was  one  charity  school  for  twenty-five  boys  and  twenty-five  girls,  who  were  taught  and  made 
apprentices  by  subscription  and  legacies.  Also  almshouses  in  Lamb's  Court  for  the  poor  of  the  parish, 
maintained  by  Duhvich  College,  and  three  almshouses  by  the  pesthouse  for  three  poor  widows,  the  gift 
of  Lady  Lumley. 

Some  of  the  notable  rectors  were:  Alfred  Earle,  Bishop  of  Marlborough,  in  1888;  Charles  James 
Blomfield  (17S6-1857),  Bishop  of  Chester  ;  John  Lake  (1624-89),  Bishop  of  Chichester. 

On  the  site  of  Spital  Square,  Bishopsgate  Street  Without,  stood  the  ancient 
house  called  St.  Mary  Spital,  for  an  account  of  which  see  MedicBval  Loudon, 
vol.  ii.  p.  322. 

Bishopsgate  Street  Without  is  a  curious  mixture  of  old  houses,  some  with 
grotesque  features,  and  modern  buildings  presenting  only  a  strip  of  much-ornamented 
stone  or  brick  frontage.  After  the  Great  Eastern  Hotel  on  the  west,  the  frontage 
of  the  station  presents  a  very  long  row  of  uniform  buildings  in  new  red  brick  with 
stone  dressings  and  ornamental  gable  ends.  The  famous  old  house  named  Paul 
Pindar's  was  pulled  down  to  make  way  for  these. 

Paul  Pindar  (b.  1565)  was  the  son  of  Ralph  Pindar,  alderman's  deputy  for  the 
ward  of  Bishopsgate.  At  sixteen  he  was  apprenticed  to  one  Parvish,  an  Italian 
merchant  who  sent  him  to  Venice  as  his  factor,  and  he  stayed  there  many  years.  In 
161 5  he  was  sent  to  Turkey  as  Ambassador  by  request  of  the  Turkey  Company,  and 
he  remained  there  for  nine  years.  He  returned  in  1623,  and  was  knighted.  The 
King  offered  him  also  the  Lieutenancy  of  the  Tower,  which  he  declined.  Charles 
thereupon  made  him  Farmer  of  Customs. 

In  1639  he  possessed  ^236,000,  out  of  which  he  gave  large  sums  to  the  King. 
He  died  August  22,  1650.  The  row  of  houses  that  now  stand  on  the  site  of  his 
house  have  fairly  good  shops  on  the  ground-floors,  and  there  are  one  or  two  archway 
entrances  into  the  station  premises  near  the  north  end.  The  Black  Raven  public- 
house  is  one  of  these.  Acorn  Street,  Skinner  Street,  and  Primrose  Street  need 
very  little  comment.  They  are  chiefly  composed  of  the  sides  of  houses  fronting 
Bishopsgate,  and  some  ordinary  modern  brick  buildings. 

Nos.  13 1-2-3  ^""^  o'"^  plaster  houses,  and  No.  120,  beyond  Acorn  Street,  has  a 
projecting  bay  window  carried  up  two  stories.  This  is  also  an  old  house.  These 
are  all  on  the  west  side.  On  the  east,  beginning  again  from  the  south  end,  the  first 
building  to  attract  attention  is  the  Metropolitan  Fire  Brigade  Station,  erected  1885. 
It  is  an  improvement  on  the  monstrosities  continually  perpetrated  in  the  name  of  the 
Fire  Brigade.  The  Bishopsgate  Institute  is  near  Brushfield  Street.  It  fronts 
Bishopsgate  with  an  elaborate  yellow  terra-cotta  facade,  and  has  an  open  entry. 
The  entrance  to  the  Bishopsgate  Chapel  is  under  an  old  stuccoed  house,  and  the. 
chapel  itself  is  a  large  stuccoed  building.  Beyond  this,  after  a  Great  Northern 
Receiving  Office,  are  some  very  old  houses,  plastered  with  rough  stucco  in  imitation 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  189 

of  stone.  These  are  Nos.  82  to  84.  One  of  them  has  wooden  rusticated  work 
from  above  the  first  story  to  the  top  of  the  gable  end.  The  date  1590  is  stated 
to  have  been  visible  on  one  of  them  within  the  memory  of  man.  On  the  corner 
house  of  Spital  Street  is  a  tablet  noting  the  point  of  the  City  Bounds.  This  was 
placed  here  in  1846. 


GROUP    V 

We  come  next  to  those  streets  which  run  north  and  south  of  Thames  Street.  The 
area  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Ludgate  Hill,  St.  Paul's  Churchyard,  Cannon  Street, 
and  Fenchurch  Street ;  on  the  south  by  the  Thames  ;  on  the  east  by  Tower  Hill 
and  the  site  of  London  Wall  ;  and  on  the  west  by  the  bed  of  the  Fleet  River,  now 
New  Bridge  Street.      For  the  sake  of  convenience  we  will  begin  at  the  west  end. 

The  wall  of  the  City  originally  crossed  Ludgate  Hill  at  the  gate,  and  ran  down 
nearly  in  a  straight  line  to  the  river.  The  Castle  or  Tower  of  Montfichet  was  in  the 
middle  of  this  piece  of  wall,  and  Baynard's  Castle  was  at  the  south  end  of  it.  The 
Tower  of  Montfichet  passed  into  the  Fitzwalter  family,  who  also  owned  the  soke 
beside  it.  Now,  when  the  first  enmity  broke  out  between  John  and  Fitzwalter,  all 
the  castles  and  houses  of  the  latter  were  dismantled  and  destroyed  by  the  King's 
command.  In  1276  the  Dominicans  begged  permission  to  occupy  a  piece  of  ground 
lying  between  the  wall  and  the  river  Fleet.  Lord  Fitzwalter  gave  the  Friars  the 
site  of  Castle  Baynard  and  of  Montfichet.  They  also  obtained  permission  to  pull 
down  the  town  wall  at  this  place,  and  to  rebuild  it  farther  west,  so  as  to  include  their 
ground.  Here  the  Black  Friars  settled  and  built  great  buildings,  and  claimed  the 
right  of  sanctuary.  Westward  of  the  Black  Friars  was  the  house  of  the  Carmelites, 
called  the  White  Friars.  They  claimed  right  of  sanctuary  also,  a  right  which 
descended  to  a  haunt  of  rogues,  called  Alsatia,  an  account  of  which  may  be  read  in 
The  Forhines  of  Nigel : 

"  The  ancient  sanctuary  at  Whitefriars  lay  considerably  lower  than  the  elevated 
terraces  and  gardens  of  the  Temple,  and  was  therefore  generally  involved  in  the  fogs 
and  damps  of  the  Thames.  The  brick  buildings  by  which  it  was  occupied  crowded 
closely  on  each  other.  .  .  .  The  wailing  of  children,  the  scolding  of  their  mothers, 
the  miserable  exhibition  of  ragged  linens  hung  from  the  windows  to  dry,  spoke  the 
wants  and  distresses  of  the  wretched  inhabitants  ;  while  the  sounds  of  complaint  were 
mocked  and  overwhelmed  in  the  riotous  shouts,  oaths,  profane  songs,  and  boisterous 
laughter  that  issued  from  the  alehouses  and  taverns,  which,  as  the  signs  indicated, 
were  equal  in  number  to  all  the  other  houses." 

Where  is  now  Bridge  Street  was  formerly  the  Fleet  River,  and  on  its  western 
bank  was  Bridewell  Palace,  a  palace  where  the  Norman  kings  held  Court. 

190 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  191 

The  old  palace,  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire,  was  built  round  two  courtyards  ; 
in  its  later  days  rebuilt,  it  followed  the  frequent  fate  of  such  ancient  monuments,  and 
became  partly  a  "hospital"  for  poor  boys,  partly  a  prison  fot"  vagrants  and  other 
unwanted  persons.  It  was  also  a  hospital  for  lunatics,  and  was  put  under  the  same 
management  as  Bethlehem  in  1557.  Bridewell  is  also  fully  described  in  London  in 
the  Eighteenth  Century.  The  part  of  London  bounded  north  and  south  by  Fleet 
Street  and  the  River,  east  and  west  by  New  Bridge  Street  and  the  Temple,  is  now 
almost  entirely  occupied  by  mammoth  printing-offices  ;  yet  on  the  Embankment  are 
one  or  two  buildings  of  note:  Sion  College,  opened  here  in  1886  to  supersede  the 
old  building  on  London  Wall  ;  the  Guildhall  School  of  Music  ;  the  City  of  London 
School  for  Girls  (all  modern). 

After  Blackfriars  Bridge,  running  behind  the  line  of  wharves  and  warehouses, 
begins  Thames  Street,  Upper  and  Lower,  once  one  of  the  principal  thoroughfares  in 
London,  a  London  that  knew  nothing  of  what  is  now  called  the  "West  End."  It  is 
now  a  noisy  street  "pestered"  with  drays  and  vans,  with  cranes  and  their  accompani- 
ments, so  that  to  walk  therein  in  work-hours  is  a  perilous  proceeding. 

Yet  this  ancient  street,  Thames  Street,  is,  not  even  excepting  West  Chepe,  the 
most  interesting  and  the  most  venerable  of  all  the  streets  of  London.  It  is  the  seat 
of  the  export  and  the  import  trade.  From  Thames  Street  the  City  sent  abroad  the 
products  of  the  country — the  iron,  the  wool,  the  skins  and  hides  ;  from  Thames 
Street  the  City  distributed  the  imports  to  the  various  parts  of  the  country. 

Off  the  wharves  of  Thames  Street  lay  the  shops  of  all  the  nations  of  Western 
Europe.  In  the  narrow  lanes  leading  down  to  the  stairs  between  the  quays  lived  the 
seafaring  folk  and  those  who  worked  for  them,  and  those  who  worked  for  the 
merchants. 

London  at  one  time  was  roughly  divided  into  belts  of  population.  The  first 
belt  is  that  of  the  Service.  It  consists  of  the  foreshore  between  Thames  Street  and 
the  river,  with  the  lanes  and  houses  upon  it.  The  second  is  that  of  the  Merchants, 
between  Thames  Street  and  the  Markets  of  West  and  East  Chepe.  The  third  is 
that  of  the  Markets.  The  fourth  that  of  the  Industries  between  the  Markets  and 
the  Wall. 

As  to  the  first :  The  Wall  of  London,  when  it  was  first  erected,  was  carried  along 
the  river  from  the  south-west  angle  to  the  Walbrook.  Beyond  the  Walbrook  the 
south  wall  of  the  Roman  fortress  formed  a  river-wall,  which  was  continued  as  far  as 
the  south-east  angle. 

Beyond  that  stream  the  south  wall  of  the  Roman  fort  was  allowed  to  remain  as 
the  river-side  wall  of  the  City,  when  all  the  rest  of  the  Roman  buildings,  temples, 
public  edifices,  tombs,  and  villas  were  ruthlessly  pulled  down  to  build  the  wall 
towards  the  end  of  the  fourth  century. 

Now,  the  wall  between  the  south-west  angle  and  the  Walbrook  ran  along  the 


192  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

middle  of  Thames  Street.  At  the  time  of  its  construction  there  were,  therefore,  no 
buildings  between  the  wall  and  the  river.  It  was  built  about  the  middle  of  the  bank, 
which  sloped  to  the  river  below,  with  a  narrow  stretch  of  mud  at  low  tide  ;  and  above 
it  rose  on  the  hill  which  still  exists,  to  the  higher  ground  on  which  the  City  stood. 
The  breadth  of  the  foreshore  varied,  but,  of  course,  it  was  not  very  great.  The  first 
break  in  the  wall  was  that  which  allowed  for  the  waters  of  the  Walbrook.  Here 
there  was  the  first  port — the  Roman  port.  It  may  have  been  the  only  port,  unless, 
in  their  haste  to  complete  the  wall,  which  was  undoubtedly  built  under  the  pressure 
of  panic,  the  builders  deliberately  excluded  other  ports.  In  that  case  there  may 
have  been  many,  for  nothing  was  easier  than  to  make  a  small  port,  such  as  the  two 
which  still  remain  of  Billingsgate  and  Oueenhithe.  A  small  square  space  was  dug 
in  the  mud  and  shingle  of  the  foreshore.  It  was  maintained  by  piles  placed  close 
together  along  the  three  sides  of  the  square,  leaving  the  fourth  side  open  for  the 
ships.     Other  piles  furnished  support  for  wharves  and  quays. 

It  is  therefore  quite  possible  that  there  may  have  been  other  such  ports.  Puddle 
Dock  may  have  been  one.  In  the  absence  of  any  evidence  which  might  lead  one 
even  to  form  a  conjecture,  we  may  believe  that  Oueenhithe,  originally  Edred's  hithe, 
was  of  later,  or  Saxon,  construction  ;  while  Billingsgate,  close  to  London  Bridge  and 
Bridge  Gate,  was  probably  still  earlier. 

What  happened,  therefore,  was  this  :  On  the  increase  of  trade,  when  London 
was  again  settled  in  the  sixth  century,  wharves  and  quays  began  to  be  pushed  out  on 
piles  upon  the  foreshore  of  Billingsgate  and  Walbrook,  or  afterwards  at  other  places, 
when  a  break  in  the  wall  allowed  access  to  the.  City.  When  Oueenhithe  was 
constructed  as  an  additional  port,  another  break  was  needed  in  the  wall,  and  wharves 
and  quays  were  built  along  this  part  of  the  foreshore  as  well.  The  erection  of  the 
wharf  on  piles  was  speedily  followed  by  the  erection  of  tenements  for  the  people 
between  the  wharf  and  the  wall  on  the  bank.  The  wharf  extended  laterally  ;  the 
houses  grew  up  laterally  with  the  wharf;  the  wharf  was  pushed  out  farther  upon  the 
mud  of  the  low  tide  ;  the  wall  was  broken  into  here  and  there  at  intervals,  continually 
growing  less  in  length.  These  breaks  are  marked,  possibly,  by  the  ancient  stairs, 
such  as  those  of  Paul's  Wharf  and  Trig  Stairs. 

In  a  word,  the  whole  of  the  first  belt,  that  of  the  Service,  is  later  than  the 
Roman  wall.  It  belongs,  therefore,  to  the  Saxon  period,  and  in  great  part,  perhaps, 
to  the  early  Norman  times.  It  seems  likely  that,  if  the  riverside  wall  had  been 
pierced  or  broken  in  parts,  the  Danish  and  Norwegian  besiegers  would  have  attacked 
the  City  at  those  vulnerable  points.  A  narrow  stream,  such  as  Walbrook,  with 
wharves  on  either  side^  could  be  easily  defended  by  chains  drawn  across  ;  but  a 
dozen  places  where  the  wall  was  broken — and  there  was  nothing  to  defend  it 
except  wooden  wharves  and  wooden  huts — would  have  been  difficult  to  defend. 

Thames  Street  in  later  times,  when  the  wall  had  disappeared,  became  the  most 


193 


>3 


194  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

crowded,  the  most  busy  part  of  the  City.  Its  south  side  was  wholly  occupied  by 
wharves,  warehouses,  and  the  dwellings  of  the  working,  people,  the  Service  of  the 
port.  On  the  north  side  and  in  the  streets  rising  up  the  hill  were  the  houses  of  the 
merchants  and  the  better  class — the  second  belt  of  the  City.  Here  stood  the  town- 
houses  of  the  nobles  among  the  equally  stately  houses  of  the  merchants.  Here 
kings  were  entertained  by  the  mayors  and  aldermen.  The  great  number  of 
churches  shows  not  only  the  crowded  condition  of  this  part,  but  also  the 
wealth  of  the  merchants  by  whom  the  churches  were  founded,  rebuilt,  adorned, 
and  endowed. 

The  breadth  of  the  foreshore  as  at  present  built  upon  varies  from  150  feet  at  its 
narrowest,  which  is  at  the  western  end,  to  450  feet  at  its  broadest,  which  is  on  either 
side  of  the  Walbrook.  The  modern  breadth,  however,  must  not  be  taken  to  represent 
the  breadth  in  the  twelfth  century.  The  excavations  for  London  Bridge  in  1831 
disclosed  three  distinct  lines  of  piles,  representing  three  several  occasions  when 
the  foreshore  was  built  upon.  And  the  oldest  plan  of  London,  called  after  one  Agas, 
clearly  represents  the  erection  by  the  riverside  built  upon  piles.  There  are  no 
churches  on  this  belt  of  reclaimed  land.  As  it  was  gradually  added  to  the  City,  so 
it  was  gradually  added  to  the  riverside  parishes.  Four  churches  are  built  on  the 
south  side  of  Thames  Street,  viz.  Allhallows  the  Great,  Allhallows  the  Less, 
St.  Botolph,  and  St.  Magnus.  The  dedication  of  the  last  two  proclaims  their  late 
origin.  The  last,  for  instance,  must  belong  to  the  late  eleventh  or  the  twelfth 
century.  The  very  small  size  to  which  the  parishes  would  be  reduced  if  we  took 
away  the  reclaimed  foreshore  seems  to  indicate  that  much  was  reclaimed  before  the 
Norman  Conquest.  The  dedication  of  the  churches  along  Thames  Street — St. 
Peter,  St.  James,  St.  Michael,  St.  Mary,  St.  Andrew — has  been  supposed  to  indicate 
the  site  of  Roman  churches.  Perhaps  the  parish  boundaries  may  have  been  adjusted 
from  time  to  time. 

"  Roomland  "  was  the  name  given  to  the  quays  and  the  adjacent  plots  of  land 
of  Oueenhithe,  Dowgate,  Billingsgate,  etc.,  whereon  goods  might  be  discharged  out 
of  vessels  arriving  there. 

In  131 1  and  in  1349  we  find  mention  of  houses  built  upon  "  la  Romeland  "  by 
St.  Michael,  Queenhithe.  In  1338,  and  again  in  1349,  we  read  of  a  tenement  near 
the  King's  garden  upon  le  Romelonde,  near  the  Tower.  In  1339  we  learn  that  there 
was  a  Roomland  in  the  parish  of  Allhallows  Barking.  After  1374  we  find  no 
more  mention  of  any  Roomland.  Perhaps  the  limits  of  the  quays  were  by  this  time 
contracted  and  defined;  perhaps  the  foreshore  had  been  enlarged  and  the  "land" 
behind  had  been  built  upon. 

Thames  Street  was  the  Exchange,  the  place  of  meeting  for  the  merchants. 
One  supposes,  however,  that  the  lesser  sort  transacted  business  at  the  taverns. 
Here  walked  in  great  dignity  Aylwin  of  London  Stone,  the  first  mayor  ;  W'hittington, 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  195 

Philpott,  Rokesley,  and  the  Beckets,  Faringdons,  Wahvorths,  Sevenokes,  and  all 
the  great  men  of  the  City,  each  in  his  generation,  not  only  building  up  their 
own  fortunes,  but  fighting  against  disorder  and  crime  in  their  wards,  and  against 
encroachments  from  the  sovereign. 

The  Fire  swept  through  the  street,  raging  among  the  stores  of  the  warehouses, 
laying  low  churches,  destroying  monuments,  and  burning  up  old  memories  and 
associations. 

The  warehouses  were  at  once  rebuilt,  but,  according  to  Malcolm  (1803),  many 
of  the  buildings  had  in  his  time  become  ruinous  or  decayed.  There  is  very  little 
left  of  the  building  immediately  after  the  Fire  :  hardly  a  single  warehouse,  and  on 
the  north  side  only  one  or  two  of  the  mansions  built  by  the  merchants.  The  two 
ports,  Billingsgate  and  Oueenhithe,  still  remain,  though  the  trade  of  the  City  is  no 
longer  carried  on  upon  the  quays.  The  Custom  House  still  stands  very  nearly  on 
its  old  site  ;  the  bridge  has  been  moved  farther  west  ;  there  are  other  City  bridges 
— Blackfriars  and  Southwark  ;  one  can  still  walk  down  lanes  as  narrow  as  when  they 
were  first  reclaimed  from  the  foreshore  ;  and  there  are  still  one  or  two  of  these 
narrow  lanes  where,  as  of  old,  the  people  of  the  Service  live. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  old  signs  in  Thames  Street : 

"The  \\'hite  Bear"  inn  ;  "  The  White  Lion"  inn  near  London  Bridge  ;  "  The 
White  Lion"  inn  at  the  White  Lion  Wharf;  "The  Blew  Ancor  "  inn;  "  The  Old 
Swan  "  inn  ;  "  The  Bull  Head  "inn  ;  "  The  Naggs  Head  Tavern  "  inn  ;  "  The  Princes 
Arms"  inn  ;  "The  Fling  Hors"  inn  ;  "The  Lion  and  Key"  inn  ;  "The  Black  Bell 
inn  ;  "  The  Woodmongers  Arms  "  inn  ;  "  The  Crose  Bulets  "  inn  ;  "The  Suggar  Lofe  " 
inn  ;  "  The  Lobster"  inn  ;  "  The  Bear  and  Ragged  Staff"  inn  ;  "  The  Two  Fighting 
Cocks"  inn  ;  "The  Blue  Boar  and  Three  Horse  Shoes"  inn  ;  "  The  Horse  Shoe" 
inn  ;  "  The  Royal  Arms  on  Shield  "  inn  ;  "  The  Cross  against  Barkin  Church  "  inn. 

Thames  Street  itself  is  the  subject  of  a  great  many  references  in  the  Calendar  of 
Wills  dated  from    1275  to   1688.     The  earliest  is  in    1275,  after  which  they  occur 
repeatedly.      In   1280  a  tenement  is  mentioned  as  that  of  Ernald  Thedmar  ;  in  1282 
Henry  de  Coventre  bequeathed  to  his  wife  his  mansion  in  the  Vintry  from  Thames 
Street  to  the  waterside. 

So  far,  we  have  spoken  of  Thames  Street  and  the  riverside  generally  ;  let  us 
now  take  our  section  in  detail. 

Only  a  short  way  to  the  north  lay  Ludgate,  one  of  the  principal  entrances  to 
the  City. 

Ludgate  can  hardly  have  been  so  named  later  than  the  Norman  Conquest.  Stow, 
in  his  e.xplanation  of  the  ancient  street  leading  from  Aldgate  to  Ludgate,  clearly 
conveys  the  belief  that  it  was  an  ancient  gate.  Perhaps  the  necessity  of  land  com- 
munications from  the  City  to  Westminster  caused  the  piercing  of  this  gate  and  the 
construction  of  the  causeway  and  the  bridge  over  the  valley  and  stream  of  the  PMeet. 


196  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

In  that  case,  one  would  naturally  think  of  King  Knut  and  his  palace  at  Westminster. 
The  name  is  said  to  mean  a  postern. 

Ludgate  was  either  repaired  or  rebuilt  in  12 15,  when  the  barons,  in  arms  against 
King  John,  entered  London  and  destroyed  the  houses  of  the  Jews,  using  the  stones 
in  the  restoration  of  the  City  walls  and  of  Ludgate  more  especially.  Stow  records  a 
curious  confirmation  of  this  circumstance,  the  discovery,  when  the  gate  was  rebuilt 
in  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  of  a  stone  with  a  Hebrew  inscription,  signifying  the 
sign  or  note  of  Rabbi  Moses,  the  son  of  Rabbi  Isaac.  On  the  east  side,  in  a  niche, 
on  this  renewal,  were  placed  the  statues  of  Lud  and  his  two  sons  in  Roman  costumes  ; 
and  on  the  west  side  the  statue  of  Queen  Elizabeth.  When  the  gates  were  taken 
down  (1761-62),  Lud  and  his  sons  were  given  by  the  City  to  Sir  Francis  Gosling, 
who  intended  to  set  them  up  at  the  east  end  of  St.  Dunstan's  Church,  in  Fleet  Street. 
This,  however,  he  did  not  carry  into  effect,  and  the  king  and  his  two  sons  were 
deposited  in  the  parish  bone-house.  The  statue  of  Elizabeth  met  with  a  better  fate, 
having  a  niche  assigned  it  in  the  outer  wall  of  old  St.  Dunstan's,  Fleet  Street.  The 
Lud  gate  of  1586  was  gutted  in  the  Great  Fire,  and  the  stonework  seriously  injured. 

Ludgate  was  first  erected  into  a  prison  in  the  reign  of  Richard  II.,  and  was 
anciently  appropriated  to  the  freemen  of  the  City  and  to  clergymen.  The  place 
soon  became  too  small  for  the  growing  occasions  of  the  City,  and  it  was  enlarged  at 
the  expense  of  Dame  Agnes  Forster,  widow  of  Stephen  Forster,  mayor  in  1454. 

"  Formerly  Debtors  that  were  not  able  to  satisfy  their  debts,  put  themselves 
into  this  prison  of  Ludgate  for  shelter  from  their  creditors.  And  these  were 
merchants  and  tradesmen  who  had  been  driven  to  want  by  losses  at  sea.  When 
King  Philip,  in  the  month  of  August,  1554,  came  first  through  London,  these 
prisoners  were  thirty  in  number,  and  owed  10,000  pounds,  but  compounded  for 
2000  pounds,  who  represented  a  well-penned  Latin  speech  to  that  Prince  to  redress 
their  miseries,  and  by  his  royal  generosity  to  free  them.  '  And  the  rather  for  that 
place  was  not  Sceleratorum  Career,  sed  Rliserorum  Custodia,  i.e.  a  gaol  for  villains, 
but  a  place  of  restraint  for  poor  unfortunate  men  ;  And  that  they  were  put  in  there, 
not  by  others,  but  themselves  fled  thither ;  and  that  not  out  of  fear  of  punishment, 
but  in  hope  of  better  fortune.'  The  whole  letter  was  drawn  by  the  curious  pen  of 
Roger  Ascham,  and  is  extant  among  his  epistles,  Lib.  III."  (Cunningham). 

The  rules  and  customs  of  Ludgate  are  given  by  Strype  : 

"  If  a  freeman  or  freewoman  of  London  be  committed  to  Ludgate,  they  are  to 
be  excused  from  the  Ignominy  of  irons,  if  they  can  find  sureties  to  be  true  prisoners, 
and  if  the  sum  be  not  above  .^{^100.  There  is  another  custom  for  the  liberal  and 
mild  imprisonment  of  the  citizens  in  Ludgate  ;  whereby  they  have  indulgence  and 
favour  to  go  abroad  into  any  place,  under  the  guard  and  superintendency  of  their 
keeper  ;  with  whom  they  must  return  again  to  the  prison  at  night. 

"  This  custom  is  not  to  hinder  and  delay  Justice  nor  to  defraud  men  of  their  debts 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  197 

and  executions,  as  it  is  quarrelled  against  by  some,  but  serves  for  a  mitigation  of 
their  punishment ;  and  tends  rather  for  the  expedition  of  their  discharge,  and 
speedy  satisfaction  of  their  creditors.  While  they  may  go  and  inform  them- 
selves, upon  their  mutual  reckonings,  both  what  they  owe,  and  what  is  due  unto 
them."  For  further  account  of  this  prison  see  London  in  the  Eighteenth  Century, 
pp.  581-87. 

In  the  year  1659,  one  Marmaduke  Johnson,  a  prisoner  in  Ludgate,  presented  a 
memorandum  on  the  prison  and  its  Government  to  the  Lord  Mayor.  In  this  docu- 
ment he  sets  forth  the  history  of  the  prison,  its  constitution  and  laws,  its  officers,  its 
charities,  and  the  grievances  of  the  prisoners. 

A  great  many  benefactors  have  left  money  to  the  prison,  amounting  in  all  to 
about  ^60  a  year.  In  addition,  the  Lord  Mayor  allowed  the  prisoners  a  basket  of 
broken  meat  every  day  ;  and  provisions  of  some  kind  were  every  day,  to  some  small 
extent,  bestowed  upon  them  by  the  markets.  Besides  which  there  were  two  grates, 
one  in  Ludgate,  and  the  other  on  the  Blackfriars  side,  where  all  day  long  a  man 
stood  crying,  "  Pity  the  poor  prisoners."  There  were  about  fifty  of  the  prisoners 
"  on  the  Charity,"  as  it  was  called.  But  the  warders  and  turnkeys,  by  their  exactions, 
got  most  of  the  money. 

Ludgate  Hill  was  formerly  Bowyer  Lane.  On  the  south,  until  a  few  years 
ago,  were  to  be  seen  some  fragments  of  London  Wall,  now  vanished. 

On  the  top  of  Ludgate  Hill,  and  on  the  west  side  of  St.  Paul's,  Digby,  Grant, 
Winter,  and  Bates  were  e.xecuted,  January  30.  1606,  for  their  participation  in  the 
Gunpowder  Plot. 

The  houses  on  the  south  side  of  the  hill  were  set  back  when  the  street  was 
widened  in  modern  times.     On  the  north  side  there  are  several  old  ones. 


ST.  MARTIN,  LUDGATE 

This  church  was  rebuilt  in  1437  for  Sir  John  Michael,  then  mayor,  but  was  destroyed  by  the  Great 
Fire,  and  rebuilt  from  the  designs  of  Wren  in  1684.  The  benefice  was  united  with  the  united  benefices 
of  St.  Mary  Magdalene,  Old  Fish  Street,  and  St.  Gregory  by  St  Paul's,  by  Order  in  Council,  1890.  The 
earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1322. 

The  patronage  of  the  church,  long  before  1322,  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Abbot  and  Convent  of 
Westminster  ;  Henry  VIII.,  who  seized  it  and  granted  it  to  the  Bishop  of  Westminster,  January  20,  1540-41  ; 
the  Bishop  of  London,  by  grant  of  Edward  AT.,  1550,  confirmed  by  (^ueen  Mary,  March  3,  1553-54,  in 
whose  successors  it  continued 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  476. 

The  interior  of  the  church  is  noticeable  as  being  broader  and  higher  than  it  is  long,  its  width  being 
66  feet,  height  59  feet,  and  length  51  feet.  The  appearance  is  rendered  cruciform  by  four  composite 
columns,  which,  with  pilasters  on  the  walls,  support  entablatures  at  the  angles  of  the  church.  The  ceiling 
is  lowered  in  the  quadrangular  corners  thus  formed.  The  tower  rises  at  the  centre  of  the  south  front,  and 
contains  three  stories  ;  this  is  concluded  by  a  cornice,  above  which  there  is  a  narrow  stone  stage  sur- 
mounted by  an  octagonal  cupola,  with  a  lantern  and  balcony.     The  steeple  is  completed  by  a  tapering 


1 98 


SURVEY  OF  THE   CITY  OF   LONDOxN 


spire,  with  ball,  finial,  and  vane;  its  height  is  158  feet.  It  is  said  to  have  been  especially  built  by  Wren 
to  form  a  foreground  to  the  towering  dome  of  St.  Paul's. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  :  William  Sevenoke,  whose  endowment  fetched  ^3  :  6  :  8  in  1548  ; 
Michael  de  London  and  John  le  Hatte,  augmented  by  Roger  Payn,  William  Pows,  Simon  Newell,  and 
Thomas  Froddashame,  to  which  John  de  Derby  was  admitted  as  chaplain,  January  11,  1392-93,  on  being 
vacated  by  Roger  Shirrene  ;  William  Alsone,  who  also  founded  chantries  in  Northants  and  Derbys. 

William  Sevenoke,  grocer,  who  founded  a  free  school  and  almshouses  in  the  town  of  Sevenoaks, 


Photochfom  Co..  ttii. 


LUDGATE   CIRCUS   A.NI)    I.UDGAIE    HILl. 


Kent,  Mayor  of  London,  141 9,  was  buried  here  and  commemorated  by  a  monument.  The  other 
monuments  recorded  by  Stow  are  of  little  note.     No  benefactors  are  recorded  by  Stow. 

Sixty  boys  and  fifty  girls,  belonging  to  the  charity  school  of  the  ward,  were  clothed  and  disposed  of 
(when  fit)  by  subscriptions  from  the  inhabitants. 

William  Glyn  (d.  1558),  Bishop  of  Bangor,  was  rector  here;  also  Richard  Rawlins  (d.  1536),  Bishop 
of  St.  David's. 


On    LucIo;ate    Hill   we    find    also    Stationers'    Court,    where    is    the    Stationers' 

O 


Ha: 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


199 


THE    STATIONERS    COMPANY 

The  Company  was  incorporated  in  1557,  but  it  is  believed  tliat  a  brotherhood  or  society  existed 
upwards  of  a  century  and  a  half  previously,  called  the  Brotherhood  or  Society  of  Text-writers. 

There  was  a  Gild  of  Stationers  as  early  as  the  beginning  of  the  fifteenth  century.  It  appears  to  have 
been  a  branch  of  the  Scriveners,  and  to  have  left  them  to  carry  on  the  preparation  of  legal  documents 
while  they  themselves  took  over  the  production  of  books.  The  charter  of  the  Company  shows  that  it  was 
regarded  as  a  company  of  printers,  and  that  Queen  Mary  intended  it  to  be  especially  a  guard  against  the 
issue  of  heretical  doctrines. 

The  original  charter  was  destroyed  in  the  Fire  of  London,  but  the  Company  have  a  copy  of  it ; 


Drawn  by  Tile's.  II.  Stiff Ittrit 


SI  Al  IiiNEKs'    HALL    IN    1830 


also  of  the  charter  granted  by  \Villiam  and  Mary,  confirming  the  privileges  granted  by  the  charter 
of  1556. 

The  Company  has  continued  ever  since  its  incorporation,  and  still  is,  a  trade  guild  consisting  e.\- 
clusively  of  members  of  the  trade  of  a  stationer,  printer,  publisher,  or  bookmaker,  and  their  children,  and 
descendants  born  free.  The  greater  number  of  printers'  apprentices  in  the  City  of  London  are  bound  at 
Stationers'  Hall,  and  the  Company's  pensioners,  and  the  recipients  of  the  charities  under  their  control,  are 
principally  journeymen  printers,  compositors,  and  pressmen. 

The  Company  was  originally  established  for  the  purpose  of  fostering  and  encouraging  the  trade  of  a 
printer,  publisher,  and  stationer,  and  from  the  time  of  its  original  foundation  to  this  date  a  limited  number 
of  liverymen  of  the  Company  have  carried  on  at  Stationers'  Hall  the  trade  of  a  publisher  for  their  own 
benefit,  and  a  division  of  profits  has  been  annually  made  amongst  the  partners.  Other  portion  of  the 
profits  has  been  distributed  annually  amongst  poor  freemen  of  the  Company,  applied  towards  the  necessary 
expenses  of  the  Company,  and  invested  in  the  purchase  of  the  hall  and  premises  adjoining.  The  capital 
for  this  trade  was  originally  subscribed  by  the  members  of  the  Company  in  certain  proportions  or  shares. 


200  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

and  these  shares  have  been  regularly  transmitted  from  time  to  time  since  1605,  as  in  the  case  of  shares  of 
trade  companies. 

The  copyright  registry  was  first  established  by  the  Company  at  the  commencement  of  the  sixteenth 
century  or  even  earlier.  It  would  appear  from  the  ancient  records  that  a  register  of  copies  had  existed 
previous  to  the  incorporation.  In  1565  rules  were  made  by  the  Company  regulating  the  transmission  of 
copies  upon  the  decease  of  the  owner,  and  requiring  them  to  be  entered  in  the  books  of  the  Company. 
In  1584  the  Privy  Council  (through  the  Lord  Mayor)  ordered  that  all  copies  should  be  entered  in  the 
Company's  register,  and  copyrights  were  from  time  to  time  transferred  by  entries  in  these  registers.  Between 
1580  and  1615,  there  are  letters  from  the  Lords  of  the  Council  and  the  Lord  Mayor  calling  attention  to 
the  publication  of  certain  books  of  a  traitorous  or  mischievous  tendency.  There  is  no  mention  of  any 
power  or  authority  belonging  to  the  Stationers  Company  for  the  suppression  of  these  books.  On  one 
occasion  the  Wardens  of  that  Company  are  ordered  to  produce  the  printer  of  a  certain  pamphlet  with 
the  person  who  was  circulating  it.  Various  orders  were  from  time  to  time  issued  by  the  Lords  of  the 
Privy  Council  and  High  Commissioners,  regulating  printing.  In  1660  a  committee  of  the  House  of 
Commons  was  appointed  to  prepare  a  Bill  regulating  printing,  and  in  1662  the  Bill  was  passed,  and 
was  known  as  the  Licensing  Act.  It  required  all  printed  works  to  be  registered  at  Stationers'  Hall. 
This  Act  expired  in  1681,  and  in  1710  the  first  copyright  Act  was  passed,  which  has  been  superseded 
by  the  Act  of  1842.  The  Act  of  17 10  required  copies  to  be  entered  at  Stationers'  Hall  before 
publication,  and  the  Act  of  1842  makes  entry  at  Stationers'  Hall  a  condition  precedent  to  the  title 
to  sue  for  protection  against  infringements.  As  a  printer,  not  as  a  novelist,  Samuel  Richardson  was  a 
member. 

The  most  ancient  hall  stood  in  Milk  Street,  Cheapside,  but  in  1553  the  Company  moved  to  St. 
Peter's  College,  near  the  Deanery  of  St.  Paul's,  and  in  161 1  they  purchased  Abergavenny  House  in 
Stationers'  Court.  This  was  burnt  in  the  Great  Fire.  The  present  building  was  erected  in  1670,  and  in 
1805  the  exterior  was  cased  in  Portland  stone,  according  to  a  design  by  the  Company's  architect,  Robert 
Mylne,  F.R.S. 

The  present  livery  is  284  ;  the  Corporate  Income  is  but  small,  and  the  Trust  Income  ^1200. 

The  Company  formerly  published  almanacks,  primers,  "A.B.C.'s,"  psalters,  and  school  books,  in 
which  they  maintained  a  valuable  monopoly  until  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  when  it  was  declared 
illegal. 

The  Company  established  a  school  at  Bolt  Court,  Fleet  Street,  in  1861  ;  this  is  now  at  Ridge  Road, 
Hornsey.     The  school  has  accommodation  for  more  than  three  hundred  boys. 

This  corner  of  London  to  the  south  of  Ludgate  Hill  was  covered  with  narrow 
lanes  and  courts  into  which  light  was  admitted  by  the  construction  of  Queen  Victoria 
Street.  It  is  the  site  of  the  Blackfriars'  PrecillCt.  This  house  was  in  the  hands 
of  the  Dominicans.     See  Meduevai  London,  vol.  ii.  p.  354. 

Church  Entry  marks  the  site  of 

St.  Anne,  Blackfriars,  standing  adjacent  to  the  walls  of  Blackfriars'  Monastery  ;  it  was  consecrated 
in  1597  by  Edmund  Stanhope,  Doctor  of  Laws,  by  virtue  of  a  commission  from  the  Bishop  of  London. 
It  was  enlarged  on  the  south  side  in  161 3,  which  was  consecrated  by  the  Bishop  of  London  in  161 7.  The 
church  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt,  but  the  parish  was  annexed  to  St.  Andrew 
by  the  Wardrobe.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1597. 

The  patronage  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Crown  and  parishioners  alternately,  since  the  Great  Fire  when 
it  was  burnt  down,  and  the  parish  w-as  annexed  to  St.  .Andrew  by  the  ^Vardrobe;  before  this  the  parishioners 
presented. 

Isaac  Oliver,  miniature  painter,  was  buried  here. 

The  charities  and  reliefs  recorded  in  this  parish  were  few.     John  Bobhurst  was  a  donor  of  ^,{^2  per 


a 
z 

o 


202  .      SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

annum,  also  Edward  Corbet  and  Mrs.  Miller.  The  greatest  benefactor  was  Peter  Jorge,  who  founded  a 
free  school,  appointing  Sion  College  trustees. 

Forty  boys  and  thirty  girls  were  to  be  taught  reading  and  writing,  and  some  useful  work  besides.  All 
were  to  be  given  clothing  once  a  year  and  two  to  be  put  out  as  apprentices.  The  school  was  endowed  with 
;^i5o  a  year,  and  salaries  for  teachers.  As  there  were  many  tailors  among  the  foundation,  the  children 
of  such  were  to  have  preference  of  admission  (Stow  and  Strype). 

St.  Anne's  had  some  notable  vicars,  among  them  William  Gouge  (or  Goughe),  D.D.,  forty-six  years 
minister  of  the  parish.  In  November  1633  "Mr.  William  Goughe,  Doctor  of  Divinity,  prayed  to  be 
admitted  freeman  of  the  Society  of  Apothecaries,  and  was  so." 

On  the  west  is  an  open  space  fairly  wide,  with  asphalt  centre  and  scrubby 
bushes  round.  This  is  jealously  guarded  by  iron  rails  and  wall  from  all  intruders. 
It  was  sacred  ground,  the  churchyard,  though  there  are  no  monuments  or  stones 
left  to  bear  testimony.  Close  beside  the  churchyard  in  a  carpenter's  shop  are  certain 
old  arches  belonging  to  the  Dominicans'  Buildings. 

Westward  there  is  a  small  court,  called  Fleur-de-Lys,  on  the  west  side  of  St.  Anne's 
churchyard,  which  escaped  the  Fire,  though  here  the  Fire  had  raged  most  hotly. 
A  little  consideration  will  show  the  reason.  An  open  space  called  Church  Entry  lay 
between  the  backs  of  the  Fleur-de-Lys  Houses  and  St.  Anne's  Church  and  church- 
yard. Now  the  church  stood  high,  and  during  the  continuance  of  the  Fire  the  wind 
blew  steadily  from  the  east.  The  view  of  the  City  after  the  Fire  shows  that  the  walls 
of  the  churches  and  of  many  houses  were  still  standing.  Therefore,  even  though 
the  roof  was  burned,  the  flames  blew  over  this  court,  while,  when  the  roof  had  fallen, 
the  walls  of  the  church  sheltered  the  little  court  on  the  other  side.  I  dare  say  that, 
had  we  a  more  exact  account  of  the  Fire,  it  would  be  found  that  many  houses  or 
courts  escaped  in  the  same  way. 

"  Eminent  inhabitants — (of  Blackfriars),  Isaac  Oliver,  the  miniature-painter. 
He  died  here  in  16 17,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Anne's,  Blackfriars.  Lady  Ayres, 
wishing  to  have  a  copy  of  Lord  Herbert  of  Cherbury's  picture  to  wear  in  her  bosom, 
went  'to  Mr.  Isaac  the  painter  in  Blackfriars,  and  desired  him  to  draw  it  in  little 
after  his  manner.' — Cornelius  Jansen,  the  painter  (d.  1665).  He  lived  in  the 
Blackfriars  for  several  years,  and  had  much  business,  but  left  it  a  little  before  Van 
Dyck's  arrival.  Sir  Anthony  Van  Dyck,  from  his  settlement  in  England  in  1632, 
to  his  death  in  1641.  The  rent  of  his  house,  'at  a  moderate  value,'  was  estimated, 
in  1638,  at  .;^20,  and  the  tithe  paid  £\  :6  : 8.  His  daughter  Justina  was  born  here 
December  i,  1641,  and  baptised  in  St.  Anne's,  Blackfriars,  December  9,  1641,  the 
day  of  her  father's  death.  Ben  Jonson,  who  dates  his  dedication  of  Volpone  or  The 
Fox  'from  my  house  in  the  Blackfriars,  this  nth  day  of  February,  1607.'  Here 
he  has  laid  the  scene  of  The  Alchemist.  The  Earl  and  Countess  of  Somerset  were 
living  in  the  Blackfriars  when  Overbury  was  murdered.  The  precinct  no  longer 
exists,  but  is  now  a  part  of  the  ward  of  Farringdon  Within.  I  have  not  been  able 
to  trace  any  attempt  to  assert  its  privileges  later  than  1735,  when  in  the  July  of  that 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


20" 


year  the  Court  of  Common  Council  brought  an  action  against  Daniel  Watson,  for 
opening  a  shop  and  vending  shoes  in  the  Blackfriars  without  being  free  of  the  City. 
The  court  of  King's  Bench  gave  it  in  favour  of  the  City.  The  sheriffs  could  arrest 
here  many  years  before  "  (Cunningham). 

Note  that  the  Earl  of  Northumberland  had  a  town  house  in  i6i  2  in  the  unfashion- 
able precinct  of  Blackfriars. 

Within  the  precinct  were — and  are — several  places  of  interest.     The  Blackfriars 


FLEUR-DE-LYS   COURT 


Theatre  was  built  in  1576.  It  was  rebuilt  or  extensively  repaired  in  1596  when 
Shakespeare  and  Richard  Burbage  were  sharers.  In  1633  it  was  let  by  Cuthbert 
and  William  Burbage  for  a  rent  of  ^50.  The  building  was  pulled  down  in  1655 
and  tenements  put  up  in  its  place.  Playhouse  Yard  preserves  the  memory  of  the 
theatre. 

Standing  at  the  western  end  of  Queen  Victoria  Street  and  taking  a  general  view 
we  see  St.  Paul's  Station  of  the  L.H.  and  S.C.  Railway.  Water  Lane  runs  by  the 
railway.      Here  is  the  Apothecaries'  Hall. 


204  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

THE    APOTHECARIES    COMPANY 

Two  opposite  forces  acted  upon  the  City  Companies  :  one  separating  them  and  multiplying  Companies 
for  different  parts  of  the  same  trade  or  craft ;  the  other  uniting  in  one  Company  crafts  which  were  related 
chiefly  by  using  the  same  material.  Thus  the  Barbers  divided  into  Barbers  and  Surgeons  ;  the  Grocers 
into  Grocers  and  Apothecaries ;  while  at  one  time  the  Weavers  included  in  their  body  all  those  trades 
which  had  to  do  with  woven  stuffs,  and  were  so  powerful  that  they  threatened  to  rule  the  whole  City.  It 
happened  sometimes  that  some  trades  were  injured  by  the  inability  of  the  Company  to  look  after  them. 
Thus  it  was  quite  natural  that  the  Grocers  who  imported  drugs  and  spices  and  oils  used  by  Apothecaries 
should  include  these  persons  in  their  own  livery.  But,  the  wardens  not  being  skilled  in  the  use  of  medical 
prescriptions  and  preparations,  could  not  look  after  their  own  people.  Consequently  complaints  became 
general  of  the  ignorance  and  incompetence  of  Apothecaries  for  want  of  prpper  supervision.  Towards  the 
end  of  the  sixteenth  century  these  complaints  were  brought  forward  categorically.  It  took  time  for  the 
matter  to  be  understood,  and  it  was  not  until  1617  that  James  bestowed  a  separate  charter  upon  the 
Apothecaries  in  spite  of  the  remonstrances  of  the  Grocers. 

The  objects  of  this  charter,  concisely  stated,  are  to  restrain  the  Grocers  (the  former  associates  of 
the  Apothecaries)  or  any  other  City  Company  from  keeping  an  apothecary's  shop  or  e.xercising  the  "  art, 
faculty,  or  mystery  of  an  apothecary  within  the  City  of  London  or  a  radius  of  seven  miles."  To  allow  no 
one  to  do  so  unless  apprenticed  to  an  apothecary  for  seven  years  at  least,  and  at  the  expiration  of  such 
apprenticeship  such  apprentice  to  be  approved  and  allowed  by  the  master  and  wardens  and  representatives 
of  the  College  of  Physicians,  before  being  permitted  to  keep  an  apothecary's  shop,  or  prepare,  dispense, 
commix,  or  compound  medicines.  To  give  the  right  of  search  within  the  City  of  London  or  a  radius 
of  seven  miles  of  the  shops  of  apothecaries  or  others,  and  "  prove  "  the  drugs,  and  to  examine  within  the 
same  radius  all  persons  "professing,  using,  or  exercising  the  art  or  mystery  of  apothecaries." 

It  also  confers  the  power  to  burn  "before  the  offender's  doors"  any  unwholesome  drugs,  and  to 
summon  the  offenders  before  the  magistrates. 

And  to  buy,  sell,  or  make  drugs.  Up  to  the  passing  of  the  Apothecaries  Act,  1815,  so  far  as  the 
prescribed  radius  extended,  the  three  first-stated  objects  of  the  charter  and  the  existence  of  the  society 
in  relation  to  its  members  were  identical.  A  member  of  the  Society  of  Apothecaries  and  an  apothecary  of 
the  City  of  London  or  within  seven  miles  were  convertible  terms. 

As  regards  the  fourth  object  prescribed  by  the  charter,  the  Society,  doubtless  from  its  want  of  means, 
has  never  itself  until  the  present  time  bought,  sold,  or  made  drugs,  but  owing  to  the  great  difficulty  of 
its  members  obtaining  pure  drugs  it  allowed  them  to  raise  money  themselves  and  create  stock  or  shares 
for  that  purpose,  and  to  carry  on  such  trade  in  the  name  of  the  Society  for  their  own  personal  profit  as 
a  private  Company  or  partnership  under  various  titles.  Owing  to  such  trade  having  ended  in  a  loss, 
this  private  partnership  was  dissolved  in  i88c,  and  the  Society  is  now  itself  carrying  on  the  trade  at  its 
own  risk. 

As  regards  the  three  first-stated  powers  of  the  charter,  the  Society  (by  means  of  the  Apothecaries  Act 
of  18 1 5)  extended  them  so  greatly  as  to  effect  not  only  a  revolution  in  their  own  sphere  of  operations, 
but  also  in  the  medical  profession  and  in  the  relations  subsisting  between  the  latter  and  the  general  public. 

This  Act  (after  placing  the  right  of  search  referred  to  in  the  third-stated  power  of  the  charter  on  a 
more  precise  and  practical  basis,  but  to  which  it  is  unnecessary  to  allude  as  having  fallen  into  necessary 
desuetude  by  the  various  Pharmacy  and  Poisons  Acts)  created  a  court  of  1 2  examiners  to  be  appointed  by 
the  master,  wardens,  and  court  of  assistants,  who  were  to  examine  all  persons  in  England  and  Wales 
as  to  their  skill  and  ability  in  the  science  and  practice  of  medicine,  and  five  examiners  to  examine  assistants 
for  the  compounding  and  dispensing  of  medicine.  It  authorised  the  Society  to  receive  fees  for  granting 
the  respective  licences,  and  (saving  the  rights  of  the  Colleges  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons)  it  empowered 
the  Society  to  recover  penalties  for  practising  or  compounding  without  such  licences. 

The  Apothecaries  Act,  1815,  contained,  however,  two  restrictions  which  were  removed  by  the 
Apothecaries  Act  Amendment  Act,  1874,  namely,  (a)  the  obligation  of  the  12  examiners  being  members  of 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  205 

the  Society  of  Apothecaries,  and  being  of  at  least  lo  years'  standing,  and  (/')  of  candidates  for  examination 
having  served  an  apprenticeship  of  five  years  to  an  apothecary. 

The  Act  of  1874  also  contains  other  provisions  which  relate  more  to  questions  of  medical  legislation 
than  this  present  inquiry.  Shortly  the  effect  of  the  Act  of  1815  was  to  make  the  Society  of  Apothecaries 
one  of  the  three  great  medical  licensing  bodies  for  England  and  Wales  [the  number  of  its  present  licentiates 
is  between  8000  and  9000],  and  of  the  Act  of  1874  was  to  throw  open  the  Society's  examinerships, 
and  to  confer  on  it  a  freedom  in  reference  to  future  medical  reform  to  an  extent  not  exceeded  by  any 
other  body. 

The  Company  consists  of  about  400  members  including  the  court,  the  livery,  and  the  yeomanry  or 
freemen. 

The  hall,  which  stands  on  the  eastern  side  of  Water  Lane,  formerly  consisted  of  the  town  house  of  Lady 
Howard  of  Effingham.  It  was,  of  course,  destroyed  by  the  Fire,  but  the  buildings  which  were  erected  after  the 
Fire  have  a  delightful  air  of  quiet  and  peace,  such  as  belongs  very  fitly  to  a  scientific  society.  The  hall  stands 
behind  a  small  paved  court ;  on  the  left  hand  is  the  shop,  at  the  north  end  of  the  hall  are  the  offices, 
the  library  and  the  court  rooms.  The  Physic  Gardens  at  Chelsea  also  belong  to  the  Apothecaries 
on  certain  conditions,  especially  that  the  Company  should  every  year  present  to  the  Royal  Society  fifty 
dried  specimens  of  plants  growing  in  these  gardens,  till  the  number  of  2000  was  reached.  As  this  was 
in  1731,  that  number  has  long  since  passed  and  the  Company's  debt  is  paid. 

Among  the  more  eminent  members  of  this  Company  have  been  William  and  John  Hunter,  Jenner, 
Smollett,  Humphry  Davy,  Dr.  Sydenham,  Erasmus  ^Vilson,  and  Sir  Spencer  Wells.  Oliver  Goldsmith 
and  Keats  were  also  members. 

Printing  House  Square  contained  the  King's  Printing  House. 

"The  first  I  have  discovered  was  John  Bill,  who,  'at  the  King's  Printing  House 
in  Black  Friars,'  printed  the  proclamations  of  the  reign  of  Charles  II.,  and  the  first 
London  Gazette,  established  in  that  reign.  Charles  Eyre  and  William  Strahan  were 
the  last  King's  printers  who  resided  here,  and  in  February,  1770,  the  King's  Printing 
House  was  removed  to  New  Street,  near  Gough  .Square,  in  Fleet  Street,  where  it  now 
is.  The  place  still  continues  to  deserve  its  name  of  Printing  House  Square,  for 
here  every  day  in  the  week  (Sunday  excepted)  The  Times  newspaper  is  printed  and 
published,  and  from  hence  distributed  over  the  whole  civilized  world.  This  celebrated 
paper,  finding  daily  employment  on  the  premises  for  between  200  and  300  people, 
Avas  established  in  1788, — the  first  number  appearing  on  the  ist  of  January  in  that 
year."  (Cunningham.)  The  Times  office  is  a  very  notable  feature  in  Queen  Victoria 
Street  by  reason  of  its  great  height  and  conspicuous  clock.  Queen  Victoria  Street 
and  Upper  Thames  Street  gradually  diverge  at  a  very  acute  angle.  The  former 
is  on  a  lower  level  than  the  latter,  and  is  divided  from  it  for  about  seventy  yards 
by  a  low  wall  only,  with  an  open  space  crossed  by  steps.  In  Queen  Victoria 
Street  on  the  left  is  the  square  tower  of  St.  Andrew  by  the  Wardrobe,  outlined 
in  white  stone,  and  thrown  into  relief  by  a  rather  ornamental  red-brick  building 
which  stands  in  front. 

St.  Andrew's  Hill  was  sometimes  called  Puddle  Dock  Hill.  In  Ireland  Yard 
stood  the  house  bought  by  Shakespeare  in  161 2,  and  bequeathed  by  him  to  his 
daughter  Susanne  Hall.  In  Green  Dragon  Court  there  stood,  until  a  year  or  two 
ago,  one  of  the  oldest  of  the  London  taverns  from  which  the  court  took  its  name. 


2o6  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

The  Wardrobe. — On  the  north  side  of  St.  Andrew's  church  stands  a  small 
square  which,  with  its  trees  and  the  absence  of  vehicles  or  shops,  is  one  of  the  most 
quiet  spots  in  the  whole  City.  This  square  was  formerly  the  court  of  the  town  house 
built  by  Sir  John  Beauchamp  (d.  1359),  whose  tomb  in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  was 
commonly  called  Duke  Humphrey's  tomb.  Before  his  death  the  house  became 
the  property  of  King  Edward  HI.  who  made  it  a  Royal  Wardrobe  House,  and  so 
it  remained  until  the  Great  Fire.  James  I.  gave  the  collection  of  dresses — called  by 
Fuller  a  "  Library  of  antiquaries  wherein  to  read  the  fashion  and  mode  of  garments 
in  all  ages" — to  the  Earl  of  Dunbar,  by  whom  they  were  all  sold  and  dispersed.  The 
wardrobe  was  taken  after  the  Fire  to  the  Savoy  and  then  to  Buckingham  Street, 
Strand.     The  last  keeper  was  Ralph,  Duke  of  Montagu  (d.  1709). 

When  Charles  V.  came  to  England  in  1522,  among  the  lodgings  assigned  to  his 
suite  was  the  house  of  Margaret  Hanley,  "  under  the  Wardrobe  side,  having  two 
chambers  and  two  beds." 

Wardrobe  Place  is  a  delightful  spot  with  an  air  of  brooding  quietness.  The 
houses  are  nearly  all  old  "post  fire,"  dating  from  about  200  years  ago.  That  on 
the  east  side  of  the  entry  is  black  with  age,  and  the  lines  in  the  brickwork  waver 
as  they  cross  its  front.  Next  to  it  on  the  east  side  of  the  court  is  a  plaster-fronted 
one,  and  then  a  row  of  three  dark-brick  houses  with  the  so-called  "flat  arch"  of 
brighter  red  bricks  glowing  above  the  rectangular  windows.  Nearly  a  dozen  twisted 
plane  trees,  all  young,  and  measured  by  inches  only  in  circumference,  straggle 
irregularly  from  the  cobblestones  of  the  courtyard.  On  the  west  side  there  are 
charming  houses  in  the  same  style  as  the  above-mentioned.  The  largest  of  these, 
No.  2,  is  wainscotted  from  floor  to  ceiling,  and  has  in  many  rooms  great  projecting 
fireplaces  forming  recesses  on  either  side  half  the  width  of  the  rooms.  From  the 
south-east  corner  there  is  a  covered-in  passage  leading  to  the  back  of  the  Old  Bell 
Hotel,  and  with  Wardrobe  Chambers  opening  into  them. 

ST.    ANDREW   BY  THE   WARDROBE 

The  church  derived  its  title  from  its  proximity  to  the  King's  Wardrobe  above  described.  It  was 
formerly  called  St.  Andrew-juxta-Baynard's  Castle.  After  the  Great  Fire,  the  church  was  rebuilt  by  Wren 
and  completed  in  1692,  and  the  parish  of  St.  Anne,  Blackfriars,  was  united  with  it.  The  earliest  date 
of  an  incumbent  is  1261. 

The  patronage  of  this  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  family  of  Fitzwalter,  Lords  of  Woodham, 
1 36 1,  which  becoming  extinct,  it  passed  to  Thomas,  Lord  Berkeley,  then  to  Richard,  Earl  Warwick,  who 
married  Berkeley's  daughter ;  the  three  daughters  of  the  Countess  of  Warwick,  viz.  Lady  Talbot, 
afterwards  Countess  of  Shrewsbury ;  Lady  Ross  ;  and  Lady  Latimer,  afterwards  Countess  of  Dorset  in 
1439;  and  the  Crown,  since  St.  Anne's,  Blackfriars,  was  annexed  to  it. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  450. 

This  church  measures  75  feet  in  length,  59  in  breadth,  and  38  feet  in  height,  and  contains  two 
side  aisles  divided  from  the  nave  by  square  pillars,  encased  in  wood  to  the  height  of  the  top  of  the 
galleries.     The  ceiling  is  exceptionally  fine,  with  beautifully  moulded  wreaths.     The  exterior  is  of  red  brick 


3 

a; 
o 

Q 

y. 


■X. 

■r. 


a: 

X 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  207 

with  stone  dressings.  The  tower,  which  is  square  and  of  four  stories,  rises  at  the  south-west ;  the  tw'O 
lower  ones  contain  windows,  the  third  a  clock,  and  the  highest  has  square-headed  openings  with  louvres. 
A  cornice  and  balustrade  complete  the  tower,  which  is  about  86  feet  in  height. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by :  John  Parraunt,  armiger,  for  himself  and  Clemencia  his  late 
wife,  and  for  John  Log,  alias  Fo.xton,  citizen  and  fishmonger,  and  Margaret,  his  wife  (licence  was 
granted  December  3,  1409;  the  endowment  fetched  ;^i2:3:4  in  1518  when  Thomas  Mores  was 
priest,  "aged  54,  meanly  learned") ;  Humphrey  Talbot,  whose  endowment  fetched  £^1  :  6  :  8  in  1548. 

There  are  three  pyramidal  monuments  of  white  marble  to  three  successive  rectors — the  Rev. 
William  Romaine,  a  celebrated  preacher;  the  Rev.  William  Goode,  rector  in  1795;  and  the  Rev.  Isaac 
Saunders,  who  held  the  living  for  nearly  twenty  years. 

Some  of  the  donors  of  charities  were  :  John  Lee,  of  a  house  and  wharf,  leased  for  jQ'^o  per 
annum ;  Mrs.  Paradine,  ^£'3  per  annum  ;  Mrs.  Cleve,  thirteen  penny  loaves  to  be  dealt  out  every  Sunday. 

There  was  a  free  school  founded  by  a  private  person  for  the  benefit  of  the  children  of  poor  tailors, 
where  forty  boys  and  thirty  girls  were  taught  and  clothed.  Also  three  almshouses  maintained  by  the 
rent  of  an  adjoining  house,  built  partly  by  charity  of  the  Lady  Elizabeth,  Viscountess  Chomondeley,  and 
partly  at  the  expense  of  the  inhabitants,  in  1679. 

Among  the  most  notable  of  the  rectors  were:  Philip  Baker  (d.  1601),  ViceChancellor  Cambridge 
University;  William  Savage  (d.  1736),  Master  of  Emmanuel  College,  Cambridge;  William  Romaine 
(1714-1795),  Professor  of  Astronomy  at  Gresham  College,  London;  \\'illiam  Goode  (1762-1816),  President 
of  Sion  College;  John  Harding  (1805-74),  Bishop  of  Bombay. 

A  little  passage,  right-of-way  to  the  public,  goes  round  the  north  and  east 
sides  of  the  church,  and  at  the  corner  where  this  joins  St.  Andrew's  Hill  stands 
the  old  Rectory  House.  This  is  a  charming  old  building,  dating  from  soon  after 
the  Fire.  There  is,  curiously  enough,  no  oak  in  the  woodwork,  excepting  only  in 
the  cross-pieces  of  the  window-frames.  The  fireplace  in  the  study  is  of  interest, 
fashioned  of  marble  and  tiles  set  in  polished  wood  ;  and  on  the  overmantel  there 
is  a  little  slab  bearing  the  words,  all  in  capital  letters  : 

Laus  Deo  per  Jesum  Christum.  Church  Missionary  Society,  Instituted  April  12,  1799,  in  this 
room ;  the  committee  meetings  of  the  Society  were  held  from  June  17,  1799,  to  January  3,  1812  :  and  here 
on  January  2,  1804,  its  first  missionaries  were  appointed  to  preach  among  the  Gentiles  the  unsearchable 
riches  of  Christ. 

The  house  betrays  its  age  in  all  its  lines,  and  though  there  is  no  other  special  feature 
worthy  of  comment  in  it,  the  tiny  garden  behind  is  well  worth  a  visit ;  it  contains  a 
plane-tree,  and  is  a  curious  little  oasis  in  a  wilderness  of  bricks  and  mortar. 

Queen  Victoria  Street  was  only  begun  in  1867-68  as  a  direct  thoroughfare 
from  the  embankment  to  the  Mansion  House.  It  was  formally  opened  November  4, 
1871. 

The  headquarters  of  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society  is  solidly  designed, 
with  pilasters  running  up  the  front  between  the  windows.  Over  the  great  door, 
supported  by  blocks  of  polished  granite,  is  a  heavy  stone  balcony,  and  three  smaller 
balconies  project  from  the  windows  above.  An  ornamental  cornice  runs  round 
the  roof     The  architect  was  Mr.   Edward  I'Anson. 

The  library  contains  the   P'ry  collection  of  English   Bibles,  the  most  complete 


2o8  SURVEY  OF  THE   CITY  OF   LONDON 

ever  made.  This  was  purchased  by  the  Society  for  ^6000.  It  includes  a  copy 
of  the  earliest  edition  of  Coverdale  printed  abroad  1535,  and  one  of  the  earliest 
editions  printed  in  England  two  years  later.  In  the  cases  about  the  room  are  many 
objects  of  interest — a  German  Bible  printed  1473  ;  Codex  Zacynthus,  a  palimpsest, 
of  which  the  earlier  writing  is  supposed  to  date  from  the  fifth  or  sixth  century,  the 
later  from  the  twelfth.  The  Society  was  founded  in  1S04.  Its  object  is  simply  to 
"  circulate  the  Bible  without  note  or  comment,  in  all  languages  and  in  all  lands." 

Since  its  foundation  over  140  million  copies  of  the  Bible,  whole  or  in  parts, 
have  been  issued.  The  Society  now  produces  the  Bible  in  about  330  languages  and 
dialects.  The  University  Press  monopolises  the  printing  of  English  Bibles,  and 
much  of  the  printing  of  the  Society  in  foreign  languages  is  done  abroad.  The  only 
actual  printing  carried  on  in  Queen  Victoria  Street  is  that  done  by  one  man,  who 
works  with  two  hand-presses  for  the  blind.  But  the  issue  of  fresh  cojaies  by  the 
Society  comes  to  an  average  of  13,000  for  every  working  day. 

The  General  Post  Office  Savings  Bank  offices,  with  a  frontage  of  about  2^0 
feet,  are  next  door.  The  garden  belonging  to  the  old  Doctors  Commons  stretched 
across  the  roadway  at  this  point,  and  was  only  finally  cleared  away  in  1867  at  the 
making  of  the  new  street. 

The  Heralds'  College  or  College  of  Arms  is  a  fine  old  building  in  deep-coloured 
brick.  The  front  stands  back  from  the  street,  and  is  supported  by  two  wings. 
The  small  courtyard  resulting  is  separated  from  the  street  front  by  high  iron  railings 
and  gates.  There  are  two  brick  and  stone  piers  at  each  gateway,  with  that  favourite 
ornament  of  the  Stuart  period — stone  balls — on  their  summits.  The  back  of  the 
eastern  wing  abuts  on  Peter's  Hill,  and  the  wide,  outside  flap  shutters  of  an  old- 
world  style  give  the  little  hill  a  quaint  aspect.  The  College  was  rebuilt  after 
the  Fire,  and  restored  at  the  opening  of  Queen  Victoria  Street.  It  was  originally 
Derby  House,  built  by  the  first  Earl  of  Derby  and  presented  in  1555  by  Queen 
Mary  to  the  then  Garter  King- of- Arms  ;  so  it  has  long  been  devoted  to  its 
present  use.  Returning  to  Queen  Victoria  Street  we  see  opposite  in  enormous  gilt 
letters,  each  four  or  five  feet  long,  "Salvation  Army  International  Headquarters  " 
riirht  across  the  front  of  a  great  building. 

Addle  Hill,  like  Addle  Street,  is  supposed  to  be  derived  from  the  Saxon 
Adel,  noble.  It  has  been  found  written  Adling  Hill.  The  whole  space  between 
Addle  Hill  and  Bell  Yard,  and  between  Queen  Victoria  Street  and  Carter  Lane, 
with  the  exception  of  Knightrider  Street,  is  now  occupied  by  General  Post  Office 
Savings  Bank  Department.  Northward,  on  the  south  side  of  St.  Paul's  Churchyard, 
near  the  west  end,  was  the  church  of  St.  Gregory  mentioned  elsewhere. 

Carter  Lane  was  formerly  divided  into  Great  and  Little  Carter  Lane.  From 
the  Bell  Inn,  Bell  Yard,  in  Carter  Lane,  the  only  letter  addressed  to  Shakespeare 
that  is  known  to  exist  was  sent  to  him  by  Richard  Quiney — "To  my  loveing  good 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


209 


friend  and  country  man,    Mr.  William  Shakespeare,  deliver  these."      Bell  Yard  led 
to  the  Prerogative  Will  Office,  Doctors'  Commons. 

Carter  Lane,  also  called  Shoemakers'  Row,  is  mentioned  in  the  Calendar  of 
Wills  in  the  year  1295.  The  west  end  still  retains  that  name  in  Ogilby's  map  of 
1677.  In  1424  the  exchequer  paid  to  John  Kyllyngham,  master  of  a  house  called 
The  Bell  in  Carter  Lane,  the  sum  of  ;^l7:i4:8  for  costs  and  expenses  of  Sir 
Gilbyn  de  Lauvoy,  knight,  and  John  de  la  Roe,  Esq.,  and  their  servants  and  horses 
for  twenty-eight  days.     The  said  Sir  Gilbyn  and  John  de  la  Roe  had  been  sent  to  the 


Putcriat  Agency. 


THE   COLLEGE  OF   ARMS 


Holy  Land  by  Henry  V.  "upon  certain  important  causes."  Deeds  of  the  fourteenth 
century  speak  of  tenements  in  Carter  Lane.  In  this  street  were  several  taverns  of 
note  such  as  the  White  Horse,  the  Sun,  the  Bell,  and  the  Saracen's  Head.  Here  was 
a  famous  meeting-house  in  which  many  of  the  most  distinguished  of  Nonconformist 
ministers  preached. 

Here  is  the  school  for  St.  Paul's  choir -boys,  with  a  stencilled  frieze.  The 
playground  is  on  the  roof 

Creed  Lane  was  formerly  called  Sporier  Row.  An  inn  in  Sporier  Row  is 
assigned  in  the  fifteenth  century  by  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's  to  their 
canons.     After  the  Fire  there  were  differences   as  to  the  sites  and   boundaries   of 

'4 


2IO  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

houses  destroyed  in  Creed  Lane.     The  Lane  was  widened  in    1750  as  one  of  the 
improvements  made  at  that  time. 

Dean's  Court  has  now  warehouses  erected  on  the  north  and  east  sides.  The 
house  over  the  archway  was  said  to  have  been  occupied  by  Sir  Christopher  Wren 
as  his  office  during  the  building  of  St.  Paul's.  Within  this  court  were  also  the 
vicar  general's,  the  commissary  and  the  consistory  courts,  and  offices  for  procuring 
marriage  licences. 

St.  Peter's  College  adjoined  Dean's  Court  on  the  west  side  in  St.  Paul's 
Churchyard  (see  under  the  Stationers  Company,  p.  199). 

When  Charles  V.  came  to  London  in  1522,  Doctors'  Commons  among  other 
places  furnished  for  his  suite  a  hall,  a  parlour,  and  three  chambers  with  feather  beds. 
Mention  is  made  of  the  dining  -  hall  of  Doctors'  Coinmons  and  of  the  "  entre 
going  into  the  great  canonicale  House  now  naymed  the  Doctors'  Commons  with  a 
chamber  over  the  said  entre,"  and  of  other  parts  of  the  building. 

This  ancient  College  or  House  of  Doctors  of  Law  was  swept  away  in  1861-67 
in  consequence  of  alterations  in  legal  procedure.  The  courts  were  removed,  and 
the  business  of  the  proctors  was  merged  in  the  ordinary  work  of  the  High  Courts 
of  Justice  and  the  Bar. 

The  Deanery  itself  is  on  the  west  side  standing  back  behind  a  high  brick  wall, 
painted  yellow.  It  is  attributed  to  Sir  Christopher  Wren,  and  was  built  soon  after 
the  Great  Fire.  The  stone  piers  of  the  gates  are  surmounted  by  cones.  The 
building  itself  is  tiled  with  three  dormer  windows  standing  out  from  the  roof  and 
heavy  projecting  eaves.  In  the  interior  there  is  no  carving  or  anything  of  anti- 
quarian interest  calling  for  remark,  but  the  front  door  has  some  rich  wood-carving 
in  the  style  of  Grinling  Gibbons. 

Paul's  Chain  and  the  greater  part  of  St.  Bennet's  Hill  are  now  Godliman 
Street.  The  origin  of  the  name  "Godliman"  is  unknown.  Cunningham  says  that 
the  earliest  mention  of  the  name  is  1732.  It  is  not  found  in  Ogilby  nor  in  Strype. 
It  has  been  spelt  "Godalmin." 

A  little  court  named  Paul's  Bakehouse  seems  to  have  been  asleep  while  the 
rest  of  the  world  passed  it  by.  It  is  true  the  house  immediately  fronting  the  entry 
is  covered  with  ugly  yellow  plaster,  but  it  is  by  no  means  obtrusively  modern,  and 
if  we  except  an  iron  railing  in  the  corner  over  an  area  in  the  north-east,  and  the 
house  above  it,  the  remainder  of  the  court  has  been  touched  by  time  alone  since 
it  left  the  builders'  hands  in  the  seventeenth  century.  The  houses  on  the  north  and 
south  sides  are  of  brick  ;  the  northern  ones  bulge  forward  out  of  the  perpendicular, 
and  they  have  low  wooden  doorways.  That  in  the  south-west  corner  is  supported 
by  grooved  pilasters.  The  northern  building  claims  a  better  staircase  in  the  interior 
— a  staircase  with  spiral  balusters  and  carved  woodwork,  low  and  substantial. 

Knightrider    Street. — Why    this    street    should    be    named,    as    Stow    says, 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


21  I 


"after  knights  riding"  more  than  any  other  street,  it  is  impossible  to  explain.  One 
may,  however,  suppose  that  it  was  named  after  some  branch  of  the  Armourers'  or 
Loriners'  Craft.  Dr.  Linacre  lived  here.  Knightrider  Street  now  extends  to 
Queen  Victoria  Street,  but  formerly  the  eastern  part  from  Old  Change  was  called 
Old  Fish  Street.  Do  Little  Lane,  between  Carter  Lane  and  Knightrider  Street, 
now  Knightrider  Court,  is  found  in  many  ancient  documents  called  "  Dolite," 
"  D(i  Lvttle,"  "  Doellttle"  in  deeds  of  Edwards  I.,  II.,  and  III. 


doctors'  commons,  iSoS 

From  a  drawing  by  Rowlandson  and  Pugin. 

ST.   NICHOLAS    COLE    ABBEY 

The  church  stands  in  Knightrider  Street ;  it  has  been  known  by  several  other  names,  Coldenabbey, 
Coldbey,  etc.  It  was  burnt  down  in  the  (Jreat  Fire,  and  rebuilt  from  the  designs  of  Sir  Christopher  Wren 
in  1677,  when  the  parish  of  St.  Nicholas  Olave  was  annexed.  In  1873  it  was  thoroughly  repaired.  Four 
other  parishes  were  subsequently  united.     The  earliest  date  of. an  incumbent  is  13 19. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Dean  of  St.  Martin's-le-Grand,  then  the  Abbot 
and  Convent  of  Westminster,  1532.  Henry  VIII.,  who  seized  it,  and  so  continued  in  the  Crown  till  Queen 
Elizabeth  granted  it  in  1559  to  Thomas  Reeve  and  George  Evelyn,  from  whom  it  passed  to  several  private 
persons  and  at  length  came  to  the  Hacker  family  in   1575,  one  of  whom.  Colonel  Francis  Hacker,  was 


212  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

involved  in  the  beheading  of  Charles  I.  ;  he  was  finally  executed  as  a  traitor,  his  estate  including  this 
advowson  being  forfeited  and  thus  it  came  to  the  Crown,  and  so  continued  until  St.  Nicholas  Olave  was 
annexed  after  the  Great  Fire,  when  the  patronage  was  shared  alternately  with  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of 
St.  Paul's. 

Houseling  people  in  154S  were  i3o. 

The  interior  of  the  church,  which  contains  no  aisles,  measures  63  feet  in  length,  43  feet  in  breadth, 
and  36  feet  in  height.  The  steeple,  which  rises  at  the  north-west,  consists  of  a  tower  of  four  stories 
concluded  by  a  cornice  with  urns  at  each  angle  ;  above  this  a  spire  rises,  completed  by  a  balcony,  and 
supporting  a  square  pedestal  with  a  finial,  ball,  and  vane.     The  total  height  is  about  135  feet. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  :  By  John  Sywarde  and  Thomas  Blode,  who  endowed  it  with  lands 
which  fetched  £6  in  1548,  when  Anthony  Little  was  priest  "  of  50  years  and  of  mean  learning  "  ;  by  John 
Tupley,  who  left  lands  and  tenements  valued  at  :£-i.2  :  8  :  4  in  1548,  when  Ralph  Jackson  was  priest  "of  30 
years  of  age  and  very  well  learned  "  ;  Thomas  Barnard,  John  Saunderash,  and  William  Cogshale,  who  gave 
their  lands  in  Distaff  Lane  to  endow  the  same,  which  yielded  £■]  :  6  :  8  in  1548,  when  William  Benson  was 
priest,  "46  years  of  age,  and  a  very  poor  and  sickly  man." 

The  church  contained  no  monuments  of  any  special  note.  ^Valter  Turke,  mayor  in  1349,  was 
interred  here. 

Barnard  Randolph  bequeathed  ;^goo  to  this  parish  and  St.  Mary  Magdalene  for  charities ;  he  died 
in  1583.     No  other  names  are  recorded  by  Stow. 

Herbert  Kynaston  (1809-1878),  High  Master  of  St.  Paul's  School,  was  rector  here.  But  the  most 
notable  among  the  rectors  is  the  most  recent,  Prebendary  Shuttleworth,  whose  death  in  1900  left  a  gap 
difficult  to  fill.  Among  the  most  notable  of  his  social  schemes  was  the  foundation  of  a  social  club  for 
young  men  and  women  who  work  in  the  City  (see  p.  219). 

Old  Fish  Street,  partly  wiped  out  by  Knightrider  Street,  was  a  row  of  narrow 
houses  built  alonof  the  middle  of  the  street  like  the  old  houses  at  Holborn  Bars,  or 
like  Butchers'  Row  behind  St.^  Clement  Danes  ;  or  like  Holywell  Street,  Strand. 
Stow  says  : 

"  These  houses,  now  possessed  by  fishmongers,  were  at  the  first  but  moveable 
boards  or  stalls,  set  out  on  market-days  to  show  their  fish  sold  ;  but  procuring  license 
to  set  up  sheds,  they  grew  to  shops,  and  by  little  and  little  to  tall  houses  of  three  or 
four  stories  in  height,  and  now  are  called  Fish  Street." 

St.  Mary  Magdalene,  Old  Fish  Street,  was  situated  on  the  north  side  of  Knightrider  Street 
at  the  west  corner  of  the  Old  Change.  It  was  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire,  and  subsequently  rebuilt  and 
made  the  parish  church  for  this  and  the  parish  of  St.  Gregory;  but  it  was  again  burnt  down  in  1SS6,  and 
has  not  been  rebuilt. 

In  1890  these  two  parishes  were  united  to  St.  Martin,  Ludgate.  The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent 
is  1162. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  as  a  vicarage, 
about  II 62,  but  about  131 9  it  was  a  rectory  in  the  same  patronage  and  has  so  continued. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  360. 

The  church  formerly  contained  a  considerable  number  of  monuments,  but  the  individuals  com- 
memorated were  of  comparatively  little  note.  Among  them  was  one,  Barnard  Randolph,  common 
sergeant  of  the  City  of  London,  and  benefactor  of  the  parish.     He  died  in  1583. 

Some  of  the  charitable  gifts  recorded  by  Stow  are  :  A  messuage,  leased  at  ;^28  per  annum,  the  gift 
of  Thomas  Berry;  40s.  per  annum,  the  gift  of  Justice  Randall;  ^3  :  iSs.  per  annum,  the  gift  of  the 
Company  of  Wax  Chandlers. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  213 

111  St.  Gregory's  Parish,  in  the  Ward  of  Castle  Baynard,  there  was  a  school  purchased  at  the  cost  of 
Alderman  Barber,  where  thirty  boys  and  twenty  girls  were  educated.  There  was  one  almshouse  upon 
Lambeth  Hill. 

John  Hewitt  was  rector  here;  he  was  tried  by  Cromwell's  High  Court  of  Justice  in  1658  and 
beheaded.      Also  William  Crowe  (d.  1743),  Chaplain  in  Ordinary  to  George  11. 

SeriTlOn  Lane. — According  to  Stow  this  was  originally  Sheremonier's  Lane.  The 
name  is  found  as  "  Sarmoneres,"  "  Sarmoners,"  "  Sarmouneris,"  and  "  Seremoneres  " 
Lane.  The  most  interesting  mention  of  the  Street  is  contained  in  the  Hist.  MSS. 
Comm.  Rept.  IX.,  Part  I.  26b.  (a.d.  1315): 

"  Whereas  a  house  belonging  to  the  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  at  the  north-east 
corner  of  'Sarmouneris'  Lane,  has  been  assigned  to  Sir  Nicholas  Housebonde, 
minor  canon  of  St.  Paul's,  for  his  residence,  the  said  Sir  Nicholas  has  complained  that 
it  is  inconvenient  for  the  purpose  on  account  of  the  grievous  perils  which  are  to  be 
feared  by  reason  of  its  distance  from  the  cathedral  and  the  crossing  of  dangerous 
roads  by  night,  and  the  attacks  of  robbers,  and  other  ill-disposed  persons,  which  he 
had  already  suffered,  and  also  on  account  of  the  ruinous  condition  of  the  building 
and  the  crowd  of  loose  women  who  live  around  it.  The  Chapter,  therefore, 
assigns  to  him  a  piece  of  ground  at  the  end  of  the  schools  upon  which  to  make 
a  house." 

In  Sermon  Lane  is  the  charity  school.  It  was  built  in  the  beginning  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  Two  quaint  figures  of  charity  children,  each  perhaps  a  couple  of 
feet  high,  project  from  the  first  floor.  Tlie  boy  dressed  in  the  long  lapelled  coat, 
the  girl  in  panniers,  apron,  and  cap.  The  house  is  of  brick.  The  two  lower  floors 
have  ordinary  wide  arched  windows,  but  the  two  upper  ones  have  each  a  unique 
display  of  no  less  than  nine  narrow,  circular  headed  windows  in  a  row  extending 
across  all  the  front.  These  give  a  curious  cloistral  aspect  to  the  place.  Over  the 
doorway  and  two  ground-floor  windows  are  scrolls  fixed  up,  but  on  one  only  is  there 
an  inscription,  which  is  clearly  readable,  as  follows  : 

To  the  Glory  of  God  and  for  the  benefit  of  the  poor  children  of  this  j^arish  of  Castle  Baynard  Ward 
this  house  was  purchased  at  the  sole  cost  of  John  Barber,  Esip,  Alderman  of  this  ward,  in  the  year  of 
our  Lord  1722. 

And  on  an  immense  plaster  slab  running  all  across  the  story  above  is  "  Castle 
Baynard  Ward  School,  supported  by  voluntary  contributions." 

St.  Bennet's  Hill. — Strype  :  "  Upon  Paul's  Wharf  Hill,  within  a  great  Gate, 
and  belonging  to  that  gate  next  to  the  Doctors'  Commons  are  many  fair  Tenements, 
which  in  their  Leases  made  from  the  Dean  and  Chapter  go  by  the  name  ol  Camera 
Diance,  or  Diana's  Chamber.  So  denominated  from  a  spacious  building  that  in  the 
time  of  Henry  II.  stood  where  they  now  are  standing.  In  this  Camera,  an  arched 
and  vaulted  structure,  this  Henry  II.  kept,  or  was  supposed  to  have  kept,  that 
jewel  of  his  heart,  fair   Rosamund,  whom  there  he  called   Rosa  IMundi  ;  and  hereby 


214  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

the  name  of  Diana.  To  this  day  are  remains  and  some  evident  testifications  of 
turnings  tedious  and  windings  as  also  of  a  passage  underground  from  this  House 
to  Castle  Baynard,  which  was,  no  doubt,  the  king's  way  from  thence  to  his  Camera 
Diance." 

In  1452  (Hist.  Comm.  IX.)  the  "  Inn  called  Catnera  Diance"  alias  Segrave,  in 
the  parish  of  St.  Benet  is  assigned  by  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's  to  a  Canon 
Residentiary  of  the  Cathedral.  And  in  1480  we  find  the  Camera  described  as  a 
messuage  with  a  garden  let  at  eight  marks  a  year  to  Sir  John  Clay ;  it  was  formerly 
occupied  by  Lord  Berners,  "  but  probably  belonging  to  Richard  Lichefield,  Canon 
Residentiary,  who  pays  to  the  Chapter  26s.  a  year  for  the  obit  of  Richard  Juvenis. 

ST.   BENET,   PAUL'S  WHARF 

St.  Benet,  Paul's  Wharf,  is  sometimes  called  St.  Bennet  Huda,  or  At  the  Hyth,  and  sometimes  St. 
Benet  Woodwharf.  The  date  of  the  foundation  of  the  original  church  is  unknown.  It  was  destroyed  by 
the  Great  Fire,  and  the  present  building,  the  work  of  Wren,  was  finished  in  1683.  The  neighbouring 
church  of  St.  Peter  was  not  rebuilt  and  after  the  Fire  the  parishes  were  united.  This  rectory  has  ceased 
to  be  parochial,  its  parish  having  been  united  with  that  of  St.  Nicholas  Cole  Abbey.  In  1879  the 
church  was  handed  over  to  the  Welsh  congregation  by  the  Ecclesiastical  Commissioners  ratified  by  an 
Order  in  Council.  T  he  patron  is  the  Bishop  of  London.  It  is  now  used  for  services  for  Welsh  residents 
in  London.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1150. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  had  always  been  in  the  hands  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's 
since  1150  up  to  1879. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  336. 

The  present  church  is  built  of  red  brick,  with  stone  quoins  and  festoons  over  the  windows.  It  is 
54  feet  long,  50  feet  broad,  and  36  feet  high.  There  is  one  aisle,  on  the  north  side,  separated  from  the 
nave  by  two  Corinthian  columns  on  lofty  bases.  The  steeple,  rising  at  the  north-west,  reaches  a  height 
of  115  feet  and  consists  of  a  square-based  tower,  with  a  cornice,  a  cupola  with  oval  openings,  and  a 
lantern  supporting  a  ball  and  vane. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  at  the  Altar  of  Our  Lady  for  Sir  William  de  Weyland,  to  which  John 
Love  de  Canterbury  was  admitted,  April  10,  1334. 

This  church  formerly  contained  monuments  to  :  Sir  William  Cheyne,  Chief  Justice  of  the  King's 
Bench,  who  died  in  1442  ;  Dr.  Richard  Caldwell,  President  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians,  who  died 
in  1585;  Inigo  Jones  was  buried  here  in  1652,  but  his  memorial  perished  in  the  Great  Fire;  there  is 
a  marble  tablet  to  his  memory  on  the  north-side  wall.  Many  heralds  and  dignities  of  the  Ecclesiastical 
Courts  were  buried  in  this  church  owing  to  its  contiguity  to  the  College  of  Arms  and  Doctors'  Commons, 
among  whom  are  John  Charles  Brooke,  William  Oldys,  author  of  the  Life  of  Raleigh,  who  died  in  1761, 
also  Mrs.  Manley,  author  of  the  New  Atlantis,  who  died  in  1724.  Elias  Ashmole,  the  antiquary,  was 
married  here. 

There  was  a  charity  school  here  for  twenty  poor  boys ;  also  almshouses,  consisting  of  six  tenements 
for  six  poor  widows.  Each  widow  received  7s.  4d.  per  quarter  from  Christ's  Hospital,  9s.  6d.  at  Christmas 
from  the  Embroiderers,  and  25s.  each  at  Christmas  from  the  churchwardens.  In  the  event  of  marriage, 
the  benefit  of  this  foundation  was  forfeited. 

As  this  brings  us  down  to  Thames  Street  again,  we  must  retrace  our  steps  and 
come  right  along  the  river-side  from  the  westward  limit  of  our  section. 

Puddle  Dock  was  called  Waingate  in  Stow's  time  ;  it  was  possibly  an  artificial 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  215 

port  constructed  like  Queenhithe,  in  the  mud  of  the  foreshore.      Beside  the  dock,  in 
the  sixteenth  century,  was  a  brewery,  the  first  of  the  many  river-side  breweries. 

Baynard's  Castle  has  already  been  mentioned.  There  was  no  house  in  the  City 
more  interesting  than  this.  Its  history  extends  from  the  Norman  Conquest  to  the 
Great  Fire — exactly  600  years  ;  and  during  the  whole  of  this  long  period  it  was  a 
great  palace.  First  it  was  built  by  one  Baynard,  a  follower  of  William.  It  was 
forfeited  in  a.d.  i  i  i  i,  and  given  to  Robert  Fitzwalter,  son  of  Richard,  Earl  of  Clare, 
in  whose  family  the  ofifice  of  Castellan  and  Standard-bearer  to  the  City  of  London 
became  hereditary.  His  descendant,  Robert,  in  revenge  for  private  injuries,  took 
part  with  the  barons  against  King  John,  for  which  the  King  ordered  Baynard's 
Castle  to  be  destroyed.  Fitzwalter,  however,  becoming  reconciled  to  the  King,  was 
permitted  to  rebuild  his  house.  It  was  again  destroyed,  this  time  by  fire,  in  1428. 
It  was  rebuilt  by  Humphrey,  Duke  of  Gloucester,  on  whose  attainder  it  reverted  to 
the  Crown.  During  one  of  these  rebuildings  it  was  somewhat  shifted  in  position. 
Richard,  Duke  of  York,  next  had  it,  and  lived  here  with  his  following  of  400 
gentlemen  and  men-at-arms.  It  was  in  the  hall  of  Baynard's  Castle  that 
Edward  IV.  assumed  the  title  of  king,  and  summoned  the  bishops,  peers,  and 
judges  to  meet  him  in  council.  Edward  gave  the  house  to  his  mother,  and  placed 
in  it  for  safety  his  wife  and  children  before  going  out  to  fight  the  Battle  of  Barnet. 
Here  Buckingham  offered  the  crown  to  Richard. 

Alas  !  why  would  you  heap  those  cares  on  me  ? 

I  am  unfit  for  state  and  majesty  ; 

I  do  beseech  you,  take  it  not  amiss — 

I  cannot,  nor  I  will  not,  yield  to  you. 

Henry  VIII.  lived  in  this  palace,  which  he  almost  entirely  rebuilt.  Prince 
Henry,  after  his  marriage  with  Catherine  of  Aragon,  was  conducted  in  great  state 
up  the  river,  from  Baynard's  Castle  to  Westminster,  the  mayor  and  commonalty  of 
the  City  following  in  their  barges.  In  the  time  of  Edward  VI.  the  Earl  of 
Pembroke,  whose  wife  was  sister  to  Queen  Catherine  Parr,  held  great  state  in  this 
house.  Here  he  proclaimed  Queen  Mary.  When  Mary's  first  Parliament  was  held, 
he  proceeded  to  Baynard's  Castle,  followed  by  "  2000  horsemen  in  velvet  coats,  with 
their  laces  of  gold  and  gold  chains,  besides  sixty  gentlemen  in  blue  coats  with  his 
badge  of  the  green  dragon."  This  powerful  noble  lived  to  entertain  Queen 
Elizabeth  at  Baynard's  Castle  with  a  banquet,  followed  by  fireworks.  The  last 
appearance  of  the  place  in  history  is  when  Charles  II.  took  supper  there  just  before 
the  Fire  swept  over  it  and  destroyed  it. 

Baynard's  Castle  is  mentioned  repeatedly  in  ancient  documents.  During  a 
lawsuit  heard  before  the  Justices  Itinerant  at  the  Tower  of  London  (14  Edward  II.) 
a  charter  of  Henry  I.  was  produced  granting  permission  to  the  Bishop  of  London 
to  make  a  wall  over  part  of  the  ditch  of  Baynard's  Castle,  and  referring  back  to  the 


2i6  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

possession  of  the  castle  by  Eustace,  Earl  of  Boulogne,  in  1106.  In  1307  there  were 
mills  "without"  Castle  Baynard,  which  were  removed  as  a  nuisance.  The  Brethren 
of  the  Papey  had  a  tenement  adjoining  Baynard's  Castle. 

In  1276  Gregory  Rokesley,  mayor,  gave  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  two 
lanes  or  ways  next  the  street  of  Baynard's  Castle.  In  1423  a  great  fire  destroyed 
a  part  of  the  castle.  In  1501  Henry  VII.  rebuilt  the  place  or  restored  it.  In  1463 
Cicely,  Duchess  of  York,  wrote  from  "our  place  at  Baynard's  Castle."  In  1551  the 
castle  was  in  the  hands  of  Lord  Pembroke,  whose  wife,  Anne  Parr,  sister  of  Queen 
Catherine  Parr,  died  there,  February  28,  1552,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral. 

The  house,  as  it  stood  a  little  before  the  Fire,  was  a  striking  and  picturesque 
palace.  The  river-front  was  broken  by  three  towers  of  unequal  height  and  breadth  ; 
the  spaces  between  these  were  ornamented  by  tourelles  containing  the  windows  ;  a 
gateway  with  a  portcullis  ojaened  upon  the  river  with  a  broad  stone  "bridge"  or 
pier,  and  stairs.     Within,  it  contained  two  courts. 

After  the  Fire  the  site  of  Baynard's  Castle  lay  for  a  long  time  neglected. 
Ogilby's  map  shows  an  area  not  built  upon,  approached  by  a  lane  from  Thames 
Street,  called  Dunghill  Lane.  At  the  river-edge  is  a  small  circle  denoting  a  tower. 
Strype  says  that  it  was  all  burned  down  except  a  little  tower.  Strype  also  says  that 
the  site  was  converted  into  "  Buildings  and  Wharves,"  but  his  map  shows  neither. 

Near  Baynard's  Castle,  but  not  marked  on  the  maps,  was  a  place  called 
Butchers'  Bridge,  where  the  offal  and  blood  of  the  beasts  killed  in  the  shambles, 
Newgate,  were  thrown  into  the  river.  It  was  ordered  (43  Edward  III.)  that  the 
bridge,  a  pier  or  jetty  such  as  at  New  Palace  Yard  was  called  Westminster  Bridge, 
should  be  taken  away,  and  the  offal  should  be  carried  out  of  the  City. 

Stow  speaks  of  another  tower  on  the  west  side  of  Baynard's  Castle,  built  by 
Edward  II.  "The  same  place,"  he  says,  "was  since  called  Legate's  Inn,  where  be 
now  divers  wood  wharves." 

On  the  east  side  of  the  castle  stood  "a  great  messuage"  belonging  to  the 
Abbey  of  Fecamp.  During  the  wars  Edward  III.  took  it,  and  gave  it  to  Sir  Simon 
Burley,  from  whom  it  was  called  Burley  House. 

Next  came  another  great  house,  called  Scrope's  Inn,  "  belonging  to  Scrope  in 
the  31st  of  Henry  VI." 

Paul's  Wharf,  a  "common  stair,"  was  very  ancient,  and  may  very  well  mark  the 
site  of  an  early  break  in  the  wall.  In  1354  Gilbert  de  Bruen,  Dean  of  St.  Paul's, 
bequeaths  his  "tenements  and  wharf,  commonly  called  '  Paule's  Wharf,'  to  the  Dean 
and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's  and  their  successors,  so  that  they  maintain  a  chantry  in 
the  Chapel  of  St.  Katherine  "  (in  the  cathedral)  "for  the  good  of  his  soul  and  the 
souls  of  others." 

In  1344  there  was  a  dispute  concerning  the  right  of  free  access  to  the  river  by 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  217 

Paul's  Wharf.  The  matter  was  referred  to  certain  wardsmen.  "  They  say  that 
Paul's  Wharf  used  to  be  common  to  the  whole  city  for  taking  water  there,  but  they 
say  that  Nicolas  de  Tailleur,  '  heymonger,'  tenant  by  rent  service  of  Dominus 
William  de  Hagham,  collects  the  quarterly  payments  of  those  who  take  water  there 
against  the  custom  of  the  city." 

Paul's  Wharf  was  also  called  the  Wharf  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's. 

Beyond  Paul's  Wharf  was  a  great  house,  formerly — i.e.  in  the  fourteenth 
century — called  Beaumont's  Inn,  but  given  by  Edward  IV.  to  Lord  Hastings.  In 
1598  it  was  called  Huntingdon  House,  as  belonging  to  the  Earls  of  Huntingdon. 

St.  Peter,  Paul's  Wharf,  stood  at  the  south-east  comer  of  St.  Peter's  Hill  in  Upper  Thames 
Street.  It  was  sometimes  called  St.  Peter's  Parva.  It  was  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt, 
its  parish  being  annexed  to  that  of  St.  Benet,  Paul's  Wharf.  Its  burying-ground  may  still  be  seen  amidst 
the  surrounding  warehouses.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1315. 

The  church  has  always  been  in  the  patronage  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul,  since  1181,  and 
continued  in  their  successors  up  to  1666,  when  the  church  was  burnt  down  and  the  parish  annexed  to  that 
of  St.  Benet,  Paul's  Wharf 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by :  William  Bernard  for  himself  and  Isabel  his  wife,  to  which 
James  Payne  was  admitted  January  22,  1542-43  ;  Walter  Kent. 

No  monuments  remained  in  Stow's  time  except  that  in  memory  of  Queen  Elizabeth. 

Fish  Wharf  was  near  Oueenhithe.  In  1343  Thomas  Pykeman,  fishmonger, 
bequeathed  to  his  wife  the  messuage  wherein  he  lived,  situate  upon  "  la  Fisshe- 
wharfs,"  with  shops,  for  life.  In  1347  Simon  de  Turnham,  fishmonger,  ordered  the 
sale  of  "  his  shops  and  solars "  at  "  le  Fisshewharfs  in  the  parish  of  St.  Mary 
Somerset."  In  1374  the  Fishwharfs  is  said  to  be  in  the  parish  of  St.  Magnus. 
Now,  there  are  four  parishes  between  St.  Mary  Somerset  and  St.  Magnus.  The 
latter  "  Fish  Wharf"  is  probably  "  Fresh"  Wharf  in  St.  Magnus's  parish.  In  1291 
Thomas  Pikeman  (father  of  the  above  named  [.'']),  Henry  Poteman,  and  John  Aleyn, 
fishmongers  of  Fishers'  Wharf,  pray  that  they  may  be  allowed  to  go  on  selling  fish, 
fresh  or  salted,  in  their  houses  on  the  above  wharf  by  wholesale  or  retail,  as  their 
ancestors  have  been  accustomed  to  do.  The  Fish  Wharf  of  St.  Magnus  was  also 
called  the  Fish  Wharf  at  the  Hole. 

St.  Mary  Mounthaw  was  situated  on  the  west  side,  about  the  middle  of  Old  Fish  Street  Hill, 
and  derived  its  name  "  Mounthaw  "  or  "  Mounthault  "  from  its  having  belonged  to  the  family  of  Mounthaul 
or  Monhalt  who  owned  a  house  in  the  parish.  It  was  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire  and  its  parish 
annexed  to  that  of  St.  Mary  Somerset,  its  site  being  made  into  a  burying-ground  for  the  inhabitants. 
The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1344. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  family  of  Mounthault,  who  sold  it  to  Ralph 
de  Maydenstone,  about  1234,  who  gave  it  to  his  successors  the  Bishop  of  Hereford,  in  whose  successors  it 
continued  till  i566,  when  the  church  was  burnt  down  and  the  parish  annexed  to  St.  Mary  Somerset,  who 
shared  the  alternate  patronage  of  that  church  up  to  1776. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  by  John  Gloucester,  late  citizen,  before  1345,  to  which  John  Whutewey 
was  admitted,  February  18,  1381. 


2i8  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Two  monuments  only  are  mentioned  by  Stow,  one  in  memory  of  John  Gloucester,  alderman  in  1345, 
and  John  Skip,  Bishop  of  Hereford,  1552. 

Twenty-four  boys  and  twenty  girls  were  taught  and  clothed  by  the  gentlemen  of  Queenhithe  Ward. 

The  parish,  together  with  others,  had  a  gift  of  8s.  per  annum  left  by  Randolph  Bernard,  and  40s. 
per  annum  left  by  Robert  Warner. 

Boss  Alley,  now  vanished,  preserved  the  memory  of  a  "boss"  of  water  placed 
there  by  the  executors  of  Whittington.  Beside  Boss  Alley  was  a  house  once 
belonging  to  the  Abbots  of  Chertsey  in  Surrey,  as  their  inn  when  they  came  to  town. 
It  was  afterwards  known  as  Sandie  House.  "  I  think  the  Lord  Sands  has  been 
lodged  there." 

Trig  Lane  follows,  leading  down  to  Trig  Stairs  : 

A  pair  of  stairs  they  found,  not  big  stairs, 
Just  such  another  pair  as  Trig  Stairs. 

Broken  Wharf  is  mentioned  so  far  back — e.g.  1329  and  1349 — that  one 
suspects  that  the  wall,  not  the  wharf,  was  at  this  place  broken.  In  1598  a  stone 
house  stood  beside  the  wharf,  with  arched  gates.  It  belonged  in  the  forty-third  year 
of  Henry  HI.  to  Hugh  de  Bygod  ;  in  the  eleventh  of  Edward  HI.  to  Thomas 
Brotherton,  the  King's  brother,  Earl  of  Norfolk,  Marshal  of  England  ;  and  in  the 
eleventh  of  Henry  VI.  to  John  Mowbray,  Duke  of  Norfolk. 

Within  the  gate  of  this  house  (now  belonging  to  the  city  of  London)  is  lately — to  wit,  in  the 
years  1594  and  1595 — built  one  large  house  of  great  heith  called  an  engine,  made  by  Bevis  Bulmar, 
gentleman,  for  the  conveying  and  forcing  of  Thames  water  to  serve  in  the  middle  and  west  parts  of  the 
city.  The  ancient  great  hall  of  this  messuage  is  yet  standing,  and  pertaining  to  a  great  brewhouse  for 
beer  (.Stow's  .SiiiTey). 

St.  Mary  Somerset  was  situated  on  the  north  side  of  Upper  Thames  Street,  opposite  Broken 
Wharf,  and  was  so-called  from  a  man's  name  Summer's  Hith.  It  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire, 
and  rebuilt  from  the  designs  of  Sir  Christopher  Wren  in  1695,  when  St.  Mary  Mounthaw  was  annexed 
to  it.  The  building,  with  the  exception  of  the  tower,  was  pulled  down  in  1868.  The  earliest  date  of 
an  incumbent  is  1280. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  William  de  Staundon,  who  gave  it  by  will,  dated 
November  20,  1273,  to  Arabella  de  Staundon,  his  wife;  Sir  John  de  Peyton,  1335;  Edward  III.,  1363 
(see  Braybroke,  London  Review,  146,  as  to  a  dispute  about  the  patronage  when  Thomas  de  Bradeston 
claimed  it);  Richard  II.,  as  custodian  of  Thomas  de  Bradeston,  1387  ;  Walter  de  la  Pole,  in  right  of  his 
wife,  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Thomas  de  Bradeston  ;  Thomas  de  Ingaldesthorp,  cousin  and  heir  of  Walter 
de  la  Pole ;  Henry  VI.,  1435;  William  Norris,  Knight,  married  to  Isabel,  daughter  of  Edmund  de 
Ingaldesthorp,  1478;  Edward  VI.,  1550;  Mary,  1554;  G.  Comb,  generosus,  1560;  Elizabeth,  1585; 
George  Coton,  1596;  and  several  others  until  the  Great  Fire  in  1666,  when  the  parish  was  annexed  to 
St.  Mary  Mounthaw. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  300. 

Chantries  were  founded  here:  By  and  for  John  Gildesburgh,  in  the  time  of  Edward  III.,  at  the  Altar 
of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  the  King  granted  in  mortmain  to  Richard,  son  of  W.  de  Segrave,  May  18 — 
the  endowment  fetched  ^4  :  6  :  8  in  1548,  when  John  Bordell  was  priest ;  by  Thomas  Wilforde,  who  had  a 
licence  from  Henry  IV.,  whose  endowment  fetched  £,j, :  7  : 4  in  1548,  when  John  Moryalle  was  priest. 

Most  of  the  monuments  of  the  original  church  were  defaced  by  Stow's  time,  and  those  which  he 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


219 


records  are  of  individuals  of  little  eminence.  In  later  times  the  memory  of  Gilbert  Ironside,  Bishop  of 
Hereford,  was  honoured  by  a  stone  inscription  within  the  communion  rails. 

Ralph  Bernard  left  8s.  per  annum,  and  John  Moysier  7s.  6d.  per  annum.  No  other  gifts  or 
charities  are  recorded  by  Stow. 

Twenty-four  boys  and  twenty  girls  were  clothed  and  educated  at  the  charge  of  the  gentlemen  of 
Queenhithe  Ward. 

Samuel  Croxall,  D. D.  (d.  1752),  Chancellor  of  Hereford,  was  rector  here. 

Timber  Hithe  crossed  the  narrow  lanes  parallel  to  Thames  Street.  It  is  now 
called  High  Timber  Street.  These  lanes  have  changed  their  names;  "Dunghill 
Lane,"  for  instance,  became  Gardeners'  Lane.     There  used  to  be  here  a  quaint  little 


A    RAS-RELIEF   OF   A   HARDKNEK,    CARDENERs'    LANE,    I79I 


figure  of  a  gardener,  dated  1670,  of  the  kind  to  be  found  at  one  time  in  many  parts 
of  London,  but  now  very  scarce. 

In  Fye  Foot  Lane  is  the  Shuttleworth  Club,  founded  in  1889  by  Prebendary 
Shuttleworth.  It  was  intended  to  provide  "a  comfortable  place  of  social  intercourse, 
culture  and  recreation,"  for  men  and  women  in  business  in  the  City.  The  affairs  of 
the  Club  are  managed  by  the  members  themselves,  and  no  religious  test  of  any  kind 
is  required.  The  Club  at  first  went  by  the  name  of  St.  Nicholas,  but  it  was  re- 
christened  the  Shuttleworth  Club  in  honour  of  the  founder.  Every  form  of  recreation 
is  provided — from  cricket  in  the  summer  months,  and  dancing,  to  lectures  and  chess. 
In  the  basement  there  is  a  fine  billiard  room  with  two  tables.  On  the  ground  floor 
there  is  a  refreshment  bar,  where  alcoholic  as  well  as  non-alcoholic  beverages  are 
provided,  and  also  dining-rooms,  which  look  out  at  the  back  of  the  house  on  the 


220  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

dreary  little  strip  of  ground — all  that  remains  of  St.    Mary  Somerset  Churchyard. 
The  e.xperiment  is  interesting,  as  this  is  the  first  mixed  Club  established  in  the  City. 
Of  Bread  Street  Hill  there  seems  to  be  no  recorded  history  ;  here  on  the  west 
side  once  stood 

St.  Nicholas  Olave,  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being  annexed  to  that 
of  St.  Nicholas  Cole  Abbey.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1327. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Bishop  of  London,  by  whom  it  was  given  in 
1 1 72  to  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  with  whom  it  continued  up  to  1666,  when  the  parish  was 
annexed  to  St.  Nicholas  Cole  Abbey. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  163. 

Thomas  Lewen,  sheriff  in  1537,  who  died  1555,  was  buried  here;  also  Blitheman,  organist  of  the 
Queen's  Chapel,  who  died  1591  ;  John  Widnell,  Master  of  the  .Merchant  Taylors  Company. 

Stow  says  that  the  parish  received  no  gifts  for  any  purposes. 

Hugh  Weston  (d.  1558),  Dean  of  Westminster,  was  a  rector  here.     The  churchyard  still  remains. 

Perhaps  of  all  the  many  points  of  interest  in  Thames  Street,  that  open  dock  or 
harbour  called  Oueenhithe  is  the  most  interesting.  It  originally,  as  we  have  seen, 
belonged  to  one  Edred,  a  Sa.xon,  but  fell  into  the  hands  of  King  Stephen,  as 
valuable  property  had  a  way  of  falling  into  kings'  hands  in  those  early  days.  After 
being  held  by  an  intermediate  possessor,  William  de  Ypres,  who  gave  it  to  a 
convent,  it  came  again  to  the  Crown,  and  was  given  by  King  John  to  his  mother, 
the  Dowager  Queen  Eleanor.  It  was  a  valuable  property  by  reason  of  the  dues 
collected  from  the  ships  unlading  here.      King  Henry  VIII. 

commanded  the  constables  of  the  Tower  of  London  to  arrest  the  ships  of  the  Cinque  Ports  on  the  River 
of  Thames,  and  to  compel  them  to  bring  their  corn  to  no  other  place,  but  to  the  Queen's  Hithe  only.  In 
the  eleventh  of  his  reign  he  charged  the  said  constable  to  distrain  all  fish  offered  to  be  sold  in  any  place 
of  this  city,  but  at  the  Queen  Hithe  (Stow). 

In  pursuance  of  this  order  the  larger  ships,  as  well  as  the  smaller  ones,  were 
compelled  to  come  up  beyond  London  Bridge,  and  were  admitted  by  a  drawbridge. 
In  1463  the  "slackness"  of  the  drawbridge  impeded  their  progress,  and  Oueenhithe 
suffered  accordingly.  At  Oueenhithe  were  delivered  goods  varying  in  quantity  and 
quality,  but  the  two  great  trades  were  in  fish  :  for  the  fish-market,  the  principal  one 
— Billingsgate  not  being  then  a  free  and  open  port — was  at  Old  Fish  Market ;  and 
grain,  in  memory  whereof  we  may  still  see  the  vane  on  the  top  of  St.  Michael's 
Church  in  the  form  of  a  ship  made  to  contain  exactly  a  bushel  of  corn.  It  was  in 
Henry  III.'s  reign  that  the  "farm"  of  Queenhithe  was  granted  to  the  Lord  Mayor 
and  Commonalty  of  the  City  to  be  held  by  them,  but  the  profits  were  soon  "sore 
diminished,"  partly  by  reason  of  the  competition  of  Billingsgate. 

St.  Michael,  Queenhithe,  was  situated  on  the  north  side  of  Upper  Thames  Street,  and  was 
sometimes  called  St.  Michael,  Cornhith.  It  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire,  and  rebuilt  from  the  designs 
of  Wren  in  1677,  when  the  parish  of  Trinity  Church  was  annexed.  In  1876  the  building  was  pulled  down. 
Several  portions  of  the  building  and  fittings  were  preserved  ;   the  font  has  been  removed  to  St.  Paul's,  as 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  221 

well  as  a  number  of  the  monuments,  and  the  old  oak  pulpit  to  St.  James',  Garlickhithe.  The  earliest  date 
of  an  incumbent  is  1150. 

The  church  has  always  been  in  the  patronage  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  100. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  :  By  Richard  Marlowe,  ironmonger  and  mayor  of  London,  1409 
and  141 7  ;  by  Stephen  Spelman,  who  died  in  1414  and  endowed  it  with  lands,  which  fetched  ;£ii  ;  16  :  8 
in  1548,  when  Thomas  Gilbank  was  priest ;  by  Robert  Parres,  Thomas  Eure,  and  John  Clarke,  who 
endowed  it  with  tenements,  etc.,  which  fetched  jQi  :  13  : 4,  when  Sir  Thomas  Bigge  was  priest. 

Few  monuments  are  recorded  by  Stow,  as  many  had  been  quite  defaced  by  his  time.  He  mentions 
Stephen  Spelman  as  a  benefactor  to  the  church  in  1404;  and  here  was  buried  also  Richard  Marlow,  mayor 
in  1409,  who  gave  JQ20  to  the  poor  of  the  parish,  and  Richard  Gray,  donor  of  ^40. 

The  gifts  and  benevolences  belonging  to  the  parish  were  registered  in  the  parish  book,  but  the 
details  of  them  are  not  recorded  by  Stow. 

There  was  a  school  for  forty-three  boys  and  girls. 

John  Russell  (17S7-1863),  D.D.,  headmaster  of  Charterhouse,  was  rector  here. 

Huggin  Lane  was  known  as  Hoggene  Lane  in  1329,  1373,  1429,  1430,  143 1, 
1433  (ss6  Calendar  of  Wills).  In  its  south-east  corner  stood  the  Church  of  St. 
Michael,  Oueenhithe.     The  churchyard  still  remains. 

In  Little  Trinity  Lane  is  the  Painter  Stainers'  Hall,  opposite  to  which  was 
the  Lutheran  Church.  In  Great  Trinity  Lane  was  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Trinity, 
not  rebuilt  after  the  Fire. 


THE    PAINTERS    OR    PAINTER    STAINERS    COMPANY 

This  Company  was  incorporated  by  Queen  Elizabeth,  1582,  for  a  master,  2  wardens,  19  assistants, 
and  a  livery  of  124.  The  present  livery  is  130  ;  their  Corporate  Income  is  .;^7oo;  their  Trust  Income  is 
^2300.  Their  hall  is  in  Little  Trinity  Lane.  The  history  of  the  Company  has  been  written  by  Mr.  John 
Gregory  Grace,  late  master.  It  was  an  ancient  Gild,  but  how  ancient  cannot  be  learned.  In  the  fifteenth 
century  the  Painters  sent  unto  the  mayor  and  aldermen  the  usual  petition  that  they  might  be  allowed  to 
choose  two  persons  of  their  Mystery  who  should  be  authorised  to  make  search  for  bad  and  "  false  "  work. 
This  Company  originally  included  painters  of  portraits  and  other  kinds,  as  well  as  decorators,  sign  painters, 
etc.  It  might,  in  fact,  have  become  the  City  Academy  of  Arts,  and  it  seems  a  great  pity  that  its  nobler 
side  was  lost  sight  of.  The  hall,  formerly  the  residence  of  Sir  John  Brown,  Sergeant  Painter  to  Henry 
VIII.,  was  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire  and  rebuilt  immediately  afterwards.  The  Company  can  show- 
many  distinguished  names  on  the  roll  of  members,  including  those  of  Sir  Peter  Lely,  Sir  Godfrey  Kneller, 
Antonio  Verrio,  Sir  James  Thornhill,  and  Richard  Lovelace. 

Holy  Trinity  the  Less  was  situated  in  Knightrider  Street.  In  1607  and  1629  it  was  rebuilt  and 
repaired,  but  it  was  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire  of  1666,  and  its  parish  annexed  to  that  of  St.  Michael, 
Queenhithe.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1323. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Prior  and  Convent  of  St.  Mary  Overy, 
Southwark,  before  1316;  Henry  VIII.  seized  it,  when  it  soon  came,  either  by  e.xcliange  or  grant,  to  the 
Dean  and  Chapter  of  Canterbury,  with  whose  successors  it  continued  till  1666,  when  the  church  was 
destroyed  and  the  parish  annexed  to  St.  Michael,  Queenhithe. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  170. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  :  Thomas  Cosyn  ;  John  liryan. 

John  Bryan  was  buried  in  this  church — he  was  an  alderman  in  the  reign  of  Henry  V.  and  a  great 
benefactor;  also  John  Mirsin,  auditor  of  the  E.xchequer  in  147 1. 


222  SURVEY  OF  THE   CITY  OF  LONDON 

No  legacies  or  gifts  are  recorded  by  Stow. 

There  was  a  school  for  forty-three  boys  and  girls  belonging  to  St.  Michael,  Queenhithe. 
John  Rogers,  who  was  burnt  as  a  heretic  at  Smithfield  in  1555,  was  a  rector  here;  also  Francis  Dee 
(d.  1638),  Bishop  of  Peterborough. 

Great  Trinity  Lane,  together  with  Great  St.  Thomas  Apostle  and  the  west 
hah"  of  Cloak  Lane,  formerly  counted  as  part  of  Knightrider  Street,  which  joins  the 
western  end  of  Great  Trinity  Lane. 

It  was  changed  to  the  present  style  after  the  Fire.  In  1888  the  underground 
"  Mansion  House  "  station  ousted  all  the  houses  on  the  south  side  of  the  lane  ;  but 
Jack's  Alley  was  a  right-of-way  into  Keen's  mustard  factory — its  loss  had  to  be  made 
good,  and  hence  the  iron  bridge  which  crosses  the  station  from  the  lane  to  the 
factory  :  really  it  is  an  alley  suspended  in  mid-air. 

Great  St.  Thomas  Apostle  was  an  important  street  in  old  days.  It  was  so- 
called  from  the  Church  of  St.  Thomas  the  Apostle. 

At  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  is  a  document  of  11 70  relating  to  St.  ThomaS-the-Apostle ;  that  is  the 
earliest  reference.  In  1181  the  book  of  Dean  Ralph  de  Diceto  describes  it  as  "  Ecclesia  Sancti  Thomae,"  a 
church  with  burial-ground  belonging.  The  Cathedral  canons  collated  to  it,  and  one  Stephen  was  then  priest. 
The  name  at  that  time  is  simply  written  "  St.  Thomas  " ;  it  was  the  only  church  of  the  name  in  the  City. 
A  few  years  later  the  church  dedicated  to  St.  Thomas  a  Becket  was  founded  in  Cheapside  and  styled  St. 
Thomas  of  Acres  :  after  that,  necessity  of  distinction  caused  the  earlier  church  to  be  known  as  "  St.  Thomas- 
ye-Apostle."  Of  the  building,  scant  information  exists.  Roesia  de  Burford  erected  upon  the  south  side  a 
new  chapel  shortly  before  1329.'  At  about  the  same  time  a  partial  or  complete  rebuilding  of  the  church 
took  place  :  John  Bernes,  mercer,  Lord  Mayor  1371,  wfts  a  substantial  contributor  to  the  new  work,  and  a 
coatof-arms  existing  in  the  stone  work  and  the  windows  until  Stow's  time  (1598)  was  believed  to  attest 
his  munificence.  A  Fraternity  of  St.  Eligius,  or  Eloy,  Bishop  of  Noyon,  had  quarters  here,  and  there  was 
an  altar  to  their  saint.  In  the  years  1629-1630  the  building  was  "well  repaired  and  finely  varnished"  at  a 
cost  of  nearly  ^300.  Then  in  1666  came  the  trial  by  fire,  and  the  church  succumbed.  The  parish  was 
united  to  St.  Mary  Aldermary,  and  the  Dean  and  Chapter,  as  patrons  of  St.  Thomas,  were  allotted  alternate 
presentation  to  the  united  living.  The  sites  of  the  church  and  rectory  were  thrown  into  Queen  Street,  cut 
from  Cheapside  to  Thames  Street  soon  after  the  Fire.  Some  small  portion  of  the  churchyard  remained, 
east  and  west  of  the  new  thoroughfare.  Part  of  the  western  space  was  shortly  built  upon ;  the  very  houses 
still  stand,  with  the  tree-planted  churchyard  as  a  garden  entrance  :  beneath  the  garden  are  the  vaults,  once 
used  as  a  last  resting-place  for  deceased  parishioners,  now  as  a  wine  store.  The  western  space  still 
contained  some  remains  of  the  church  until  plastered  over  in  1828.  The  ground  was  curtailed  by  the 
widening  of  Queen  Street  and  the  allotment  of  a  rectory  site  for  St.  Mary  Aldermary  in  1851.  Thus  it  has 
been  reduced  to  a  tiny  and  flagged  square.  On  the  north  wall  a  tablet  bears  this  inscription  :  "  Near 
this  spot  stood  the  church  of  St.  Thomas  the  Apostle,  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire  of  London,  September 
1666  :  the  burial  ground  belonging  to  which,  extending  55  feet  northward  of  Cloak  Lane,  and  20  feet  on 
an  average  eastward  of  Queen  Street,  was  circumscribed  to  the  space  here  enclosed  ad.  1851,  when  by 
virtue  of  an  Act  of  Parliament  10  and  11  Vict.  cap.  CCLXXX,  the  remnant  of  the  ground  was  taken  to 
widen  Queen  Street  and  Cloak  Lane.  All  remains  of  mortality  which  could  be  discovered  were  carefully 
collected  and  deposited  within  the  vault  beneath  this  stone.  H.  B.  Wilson  DD,  rector  :  Matthew  T.  Bishop  : 
John  Pollock  :  churchwardens."     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1365. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  has  always  been  in  the  hands  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's, 
and  was  given  to  them  in  the  twelfth  century  by  'Wicelonis  the  priest  and  Gervasius  his  nephew. 

1   Calendar  of  Wills  in  the  Court  of  Hustings,  Part  I.  p.  352. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  223 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  298. 

Chantries  were  founded  here:  By  Thomas  Romayn,  whose  will  was  dated  December  21,  1312,  for 
himself  and  Juliana  his  wife,  to  which  John  \\'ariner,  priest,  was  admitted  chaplain,  April  20,  1368;  by 
Roger  atte  Wine,  whose  endowment  fetched  ;£^2:i3:4  in  1548;  by  William  Champneys,  to  which 
Walter  Badewynde  de  Canterbury  dio  was  admitted  chaplain,  June  12,  1368 — the  endowment  fetched 
;^5  :  6  :  7  in  1548  (the  above  three  were  consolidated  and  united  in  January  9,  1400-1401,  when  Thomas 
Jordan  was  admitted  chaplain) ;  by  Richard  Chawry,  who  gave  to  the  Salters  Company  certain  lands,  etc., 
to  find  a  priest,  which  were  valued  at  ^6  :  13  :  4  in  1548,  when  Sir  George  Walpole  was  chaplain;  by 
William  Brampton,  who  endowed  it  with  lands,  etc.,  which  fetched  ^6:  13:4  in  1548,  when  Sir  John 
Barnes  was  chaplain. 

Very  few  monuments  of  special  interest  are  recorded  by  Stow.  John  Foy,  citizen  and  Merchant 
Taylor,  was  buried  here  in  1625  ;  he  was  a  benefactor  of  the  parish. 

The  charitable  gifts  belonging  to  this  parish  were  few  and  small :  ^13  10:4  the  gift  of  Mr.  Hinman ; 
^2  :  I2S.  the  gift  of  Mr  Beeston  ;  and  others  to  the  amount  of  ;^5. 

Two  almshouses  for  the  poor  of  the  Salters  Company  belonging  to  St.  Mary  Aldermary. 

John  Walker  (d.  1741),  Archdeacon  of  Hereford,  was  rector  here;  also  Thomas  Cartwright  (1634- 
1689),  Bishop  of  Chester. 

Just  beyond  its  eastern  end,  across  the  present  College  Hill,  stood  the  Tower 
Royal.  The  wine  merchants  of  La  Reole,  near  Bordeaux,  settled  in  and  round  the 
present  College  Hill  during  or  before  the  reign  of  Edward  I.  The  hill  and  the 
immediate  neighbourhood  became  termed  "the  Reole":  the  word  "  Royal "  is  a 
corrupted  form,  and  has  nothing  to  do  with  kings.  The  tower,  tenement,  or  inn 
situated  in  "the  Reole"  stood  on  the  north  of  Cloak  Lane,  at  College  Hill  corner; 
it  extended  eastwards  nearly  to  the  Walbrook,  northwards  perhaps  to  Budge  Row. 
It  had  a  south  gate,  and  probably  also  a  courtyard  opening  into  the  lane  ;  and  a  west 
gate  standing  on  the  hill.  Perhaps  Henry  I.  was  the  founder  :  Stow  wishes  us  to 
believe  that  Stephen  lodged  here,  "as  in  the  heart  of  the  City  for  his  more  safety," 
which  is  very  likely  true. 

The  theory  that  the  tower,  or  main  building,  was  reserved  to  the  King  finds 
support  in  1331,  when  Edward  III.  granted  "  La  Real"  to  Queen  Phillippa  for  life, 
to  serve  as  her  wardrobe.  A  few  years  later  Phillippa  repaired,  perhaps  rebuilt, 
it;  particulars  of  the  work  done  still  survive  (Cottonian  MS.).  In  1369,  a  few 
months  after  Phillippa's  death,  the  King  gave  this  "inn  (hospitum)  with  its 
appurtenances,  called  le  Reole "  to  the  canons  of  his  college  of  St.  Stephen's, 
Westminster,  the  annual  value  being  then  ^20.  By  some  means  the  place  still 
continued  at  the  royal  disposal,  both  to  dwell  in  and  to  grant  away.  When  the  Wat 
Tyler  rebellion  in  1381  drove  Johanna,  the  King's  mother,  from  the  Tower  of 
London,  she  took  refuge  here,  the  place  being  then  called  the  Queen's  Wardrobe  : 
thither  came  Richard  II.  when  he  returned  from  Smithfield,  after  the  death  of  Tyler. 
Richard  was  still  here  in  1386,  "lying  in  the  Royal,"  as  Stow  has  it,  when  he  granted 
a  charter  of  ^1000  per  annum  to  the  refugee  Leon  VI.,  King  of  Armenia.  The 
place  was  granted  by  Richard  III.  to  John  Howard,  Duke  of  Norfolk.  In  later 
times  the  Tower  became  neglected,  and  converted  into  stabling  for  the  King's  horses. 


224  SURVEY  OF  THE   CITY  OF   LONDON 

When  Stow  wrote  (1598),  it  was  divided  into  tenements  let  out  to  divers  persons. 
All  perished  in  the  Great  Fire  ;  but  at  the  rebuilding  the  south  entrance  and  court- 
yard in  Cloak  Lane  were  plainly  marked  by  Balding's  Yard  ;  the  west  gateway  by 
Tower  Royal  Court  in  what  was  then  Tower  Royal  Street,  but  is  now  the  upper  end 
of  College  Hill.  Neither  survived ;  but  a  small  lane  called  Tower  Royal,  in 
Cordwainer  Ward,  marks  the  western  boundary. 

West  of  the  Church  of  St.  Thomas  Apostle,  reaching  to  Bow  Lane,  was  the 
great  house  called  Ypres  Inn,  first  built  by  William  of  Ypres,  who  came  over 
from  Flanders  with  other  Flemings  to  aid  Stephen  against  Matilda. 

In  the  year  1377  John  of  Ypres  lived  there:  on  a  certain  day  came  John  of 
Gaunt,  Duke  of  Lancaster,  and  Lord  Henry  Percy  the  marshal  to  dine  with  him. 
Both  the  Duke  and  Percy  had  been  defending  Wyclyf  before  the  Bishop  of  London  : 
the  citizens,  enraged,  sought  the  life  of  both,  going  in  pursuit  of  them  to  the  Savoy. 
A  knight  of  the  Duke's  hastened  to  Ypres  Inn  with  the  news:  the  frightened  Duke 
"leapt  so  hastily  from  his  oysters  that  he  hurt  both  his  legs  against  a  form,"  refused 
the  consolation  of  wine,  left  the  Inn  with  Percy  by  a  back  gate,  and  taking  a  boat  at 
the  Thames  "never  stayed  rowing  "  until  he  came  to  Kennington,  where  he  was  safe. 
Thus  the  hunters  missed  the  fox  at  his  hole,  whilst  the  fox,  lying  in  hiding  at  the 
hunter's  back  door,  conveyed  himself  to  a  place  of  security.  What  eventually 
happened  to  the  Inn  is  not  recorded. 

Garlick  Hill,  or  Garlick  Hithe,  where,  one  supposes,  garlick  was  formerly  sold, 
has  at  present  in  it  nothing  remarkable  except  the  Church  of  St.  James.  "  Garleck- 
hithe"  occurs  in  a  record  of  1281.  Of  old  time.  Stow  relates,  garlic  was  sold  upon 
the  Thames  bank  near  this  hill  :  as  a  strong  flavouring  it  was  much  in  vogue  for  the 
dressing  of  food  among  the  common  folk:  and  an  ordinance  of  13 10  relating  to 
Queenhithe,  close  by,  makes  reference  to  ships  with  cargoes  of  garlic  and  onions. 
Here,  no  doubt,  the  garlic  market  was  held,  hence  this  particular  hithe,  hive,  harbour, 
or  quay  was  the  Garlickhithe,  and  the  church  on  the  hill  just  above  was  called  St. 
James-at-Garlickhithe.  At  the  north-east  corner  of  the  hill  stood  Ormond  Place,  a 
great  stone  house,  sometimes  the  residence  of  the  Earls  of  Ormond.  It  had  just 
been  demolished  when  Stow  wrote  his  Survey,  and  tenements  and  a  tavern  built  on 
the  site.  The  hill  was  "well  built  and  inhabited"  after  the  Great  Fire,  says  Strype. 
Sir  John  Coke  was  living  here  in  1625. 

ST.  JAMES,  GARLICKHITHE 

"  St.  James  verstis  vinitariam  "  occurs  in  a  document  of  about  1170;^  "  St.  James  in  Garleckhithe  " 
is  found  written  in  12S1  : '"  botli  names  were  at  that  time  used  without  distinction,  but  the  former  was 
eventually  dropped.      "  Vinitarium  "  or  Vintry  applied  to  the  general  district  of  the  wine  trade  situated 

1   Royal  Commission  on  Historical  i\ISS.,  Report  IX. 
-   Calendar  of  Willi  in  the  Court  of  Hustings,  Part  I.  p.  53. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  225 

hereabouts  ;  "Garleckhithe,"  to  the  harbour,  just  below  the  church,  where  the  garUc-monger  made  sale  of 
his  wares.     St.  James  is  the  saint  here  honoured. 

The  earliest  church  is  well-nigh  recordless  :  it  was  in  part  rebuilt  and  chiefly  restored  by  Richard  de 
Rothing,  probably  the  same  who  was  sheriff  in  1326;  here,  within  the  walls  of  his  munificence,  was  he 
buried.  He  did  not  complete  the  restorations.  John  de  Rothing,  Richard's  son,  left  by  will  in  1375 
money  towards  completing  the  repairs,  towards  the  rebuilding  of  the  old  belfry,  and  for  re-erecting  a  door- 
way in  the  north  side. 

It  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire,  and  rebuilt  from  designs  by  Wren,  1676-1683.  During  the  last 
century  the  church  was  several  times  repaired,  but  not  substantially  altered.  The  earliest  date  of  an 
incumbent  is  1259. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Abbot  and  Convent  of  Westminster,  1252  ; 
Henry  VHI.  seized  it  in  1540  and  granted  it  to  Thomas  Thirlby,  Bishop  of  Westminster,  the  same  year, 
viz.  January  20,  1540-1541  ;  the  Bishop  of  London,  by  grant  of  Edward  VL  in  1550,  confirmed  by  Mary, 
March  3,  1553-1554- 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  400. 

The  church  measures  75  feet  in  length,  45  feet  in  breadth,  and  40  feet  in  height.  There  are  two 
side-aisles  separated  from  the  nave  by  Ionic  columns,  si.x  on  either  side,  with  a  clerestory  above.  This  is 
interrupted  at  the  centre,  and  three  eastern  and  three  western  columns  each  bear  half  of  it,  thus  presenting 
a  cruciform  appearance.  The  tower,  measuring  20  feet  square  at  the  base,  rises  at  the  west,  surmounted 
by  a  dome,  lantern,  ball  finial,  and  vane;  the  total  height  is  125  feet.  The  transitions  are  softened  by 
vases  and  urns.  Above  the  door  projects  a  bracket  clock  topped  by  the  grotesque  figure  of  St.  James  in 
pilgrim's  garb,  locally  known  as  "old  Jimmy  Garlick."  Much  of  the  woodwork  in  the  interior  was  brought 
from  St.  Michael,  Queenhithe,  when  that  church  was  pulled  down. 

Chantrres  were  founded  here  :  By  John  Whitthorn,  of  three  chaplains — one  Thomas  Haverbergh, 
chaplain,  exchanges  it  with  William  Gedelston,  rector  of  Ongar  ad  Castrum,  Essex,  July  31,  1381  ;  by 
William  Hawye,  at  the  Altar  of  St  Katharine,  whose  endowment  fetched  £,\2  :  18  : 8  in  1548,  when  Thomas 
Dale  was  priest ;  by  John  de  O.xenford,  citizen  and  vintner,  which  was  augmented  by  Roger  de  Fordham, 
whose  will  is  dated  next  after  the  Feast  of  St.  Barnabas,  1349  ;  by  Thomas  Lincoln  and  Richard  Lyon 
in  1548,  when  John  Borell  was  chaplain  ;  by  Thomas  Bodynge,  whose  endowment  yielded  ^^22  :  los. 
in  1548. 

Richard  Rothing,  the  reputed  founder  of  this  church,  was  buried  here.  So  also  were  the  following  : 
Walter  Nele,  vintner,  sheriff  in  1337  ;  John  Oxenford,  vintner,  mayor  in  1341  ;  John  Wroth,  fishmonger, 
mayor  in  1360;*  John  Bromer,  fishmonger,  alderman  in  1474;  William  Venor,  grocer,  mayor  in  1389: 
William  Moor,  vintner,  mayor  in  1395;  Robert  Chichele,  grocer,  mayor  in  1421  ;  James  Spencer,  vintner, 
mayor  in  1527;  Richard  Lyons,  sheriff  in  1374,  beheaded  by  Wat  Tyler;  Richard  I'latt,  brewer, 
founder  of  a  free  school  and  almshouses  in  Hertfordshire.  There  were  tombs  of  importance  :  especially 
curious  were  those  of  Richard  Lyons  and  the  Countess  of  Worcester,  which  had  either  great  brasses  or 
recumbent  effigies ;  also  the  tombs  of  Sir  George  Stanley,  K.G.,  and  his  first  wife  ;  John  Stanley ;  Lord 
Strange,  1503  ;  and  the  Countess  of  Huntingdon.  The  church  owned  many  precious  things  :  an  inventory 
of  its  jewels  in  1449  is  still  preserved  at  Westminster  Abbey. 

There  was  a  charity  school  in  Maiden  Lane,  which  by  the  subscription  of  the  whole  ward  m.Tintained 
fifty  boys. 

Arthur  Bulkely  (died  1553),  Bishop  of  Bangor,  was  rector  here.  Also  Charles  13ooth,  Bishop  of 
Hereford,  1516. 

Adjoining  to  the  church  on  the  south  side  stood  a  house  called  "  The  Commons  "  : 
it  had  been  given  by  one  Thomas  Kente  for  keeping  his  anniversary  in  the  church. 
Here  dwelt  the  chantry  priests,  who  held  the  tenure.  When  the  chantries  were 
suppressed  by   Edward   VI.    "The  Commons"  was   valued   at    53s.  4d.  a  year:  no 


226  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

fewer  than  nine  "incumbents,"  who  had  Hfe  interests  in  the  chantry  property  of  the 
parish,  received  pensions  under  .Mary  in  1555-1556.  The  total  chantry  property 
fetched  ^^2551  :3s.  In  the  church  was  founded  a  Guild  or  Fraternity  of  St.  James 
in  1375  :  it  was  practically  a  religious  Benefit  Society  :  the  members,  men  and 
women,  were  sworn  together  for  the  amendment  of  their  lives  :  on  one  Sunday 
in  the  year  they  held  an  annual  feast :  they  paid  entrance  fees  and  periodical 
subscriptions.  A  member  of  seven  years'  standing  was  eligible  for  a  sickness 
or  old  age  allowance  of  fourteen-pence  a  week,  and  in  case  of  false  imprison- 
ment a  needy  member  would  be  granted  a  sum  of  thirteen-pence  a  week.  In  the 
year  1566  the  church  was  repaired.  The  parish  bought  the  rood-loft  which  had  been 
taken  in  Protestant  propriety  from  St.  Martin  Vintry  ;  the  woodwork  was  utilised 
for  their  new  fittings.  Edmund  Chapman,  the  Queen's  joiner,  carried  out  the  work. 
He  was  afterwards  buried  in  the  church,  and  his  monument  narrated  that : 

Fine  pews  within  this  church  he  made. 

And  with  his  Arms  support 
The  table  and  the  seats  in  choir 

He  set  in  comely  sort. 

Here  it  was  that  Sir  Richard  Steele  heard  the  Common  Prayer  read  so  dis- 
tinctly, emphatically  and  fervently  that  inattention  was  impossible.^  The  reader 
who  drew  forth  his  praise  was  the  then  rector,  Philip  Stubbs,  afterwards  Archdeacon 
of  St.  Albans.  There  is  kept  in  the  church  a  shrouded  corpse  in  a  remarkable  state 
of  preservation  ;  formerly  it  was  one  of  the  show  things  for  the  benefit  of  the  church- 
keeper,  but  though  still  above  ground  it  is  not  now  publicly  exposed.  The  parish 
registers  date  back  to  1536,  two  years  before  Thomas  Cromwell  made  a  general 
order  for  the  keeping  of  such  records.  They  are  amongst  the  oldest  in  the  City. 
Before  the  Great  Fire  there  stood  south  of  the  church,  nearly  opposite  to  Vintners' 
Hall,  a  parsonage.  In  1670  it  was  rebuilt  and  leased  to  one  Richard  Corbet  for 
forty-one  years. 

Opposite,  at  the  corner  of  Garlick  Hill,  was  Ormond  Place,  residence  of  the 
Earls  of  Ormond.  Farther  east,  on  the  same  side,  stood  Ringed  Hall.  At  the 
west  end  of  the  Church  of  St.  Thomas  was  a  lane  called  by  Stow  Wringwren  Lane, 
a  most  interesting  survival.  Of  old  not  only  were  wines  imported  into  Vintry  ward, 
but  grapes  were  grown  here.  The  Anglo-Saxon  name  for  wine-press  was 
"  winwringa  "  ;  that  word  reversed  into  "  wringa-win  "  is  undoubtedly  contained  in  the 
corrupted  form  of  "Wringwren."  Perhaps  a  wine-press  stood  in  the  lane;  the 
proximity  of  "  Ringed  "  Hall  seems  to  strengthen  the  probability. 

The  lane  called  Worcester  Place  serves  to  mark  the  site  of  Worcester  House, 
the  old  residence  of  the  Earls  of  Worcester.  One  of  them,  John  Tiptoft,  Lord 
High  Treasurer  of  England,  dwelt  here  in  the  reign  of  Edward  IV.     This  earl  was 

'   Spectator,  August  i8,  171 1. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  227 

a  patron  of  Caxton,  and  a  great  lover  of  books  ;  to  Oxford  University  he  gave 
volumes  to  the  value  of  500  marks.  He  was  beheaded  on  Tower  Hill  in  1470, 
when,  as  Fuller  puts  it,  "  the  axe  then  did  in  one  blow  cut  off  more  learning  than 
was  in  the  heads  of  all  the  surviving  nobility."  Nevertheless  he  was  known  as 
"The  Butcher  of  England."  He  had  impaled  forty  Lancastrians  at  Southampton, 
and  slain  the  infant  children  of  Desmond,  the  Irish  chief.  One  of  the  countesses  of 
Worcester  w^as  buried  in  the  old  church  of  St.  James,  Garlickhithe,  close  by.  By 
the  end  of  Elizabeth's  reign  the  premises  were  let  out  in  tenements.  In  1603 
they  were  in  possession  of  one  Matthew  Paris,  girdler,  who  left  them,  by  will  bear- 
ing that  year's  date,  to  his  mother  Katherine,  then  living  in  Aldermanbury.'  The 
Fruiterers  Company  were  then  occupying  one  or  more  of  the  tenements  as  their 
Hall,  although  they  were  not  incorporated  until  1606.  Their  choice  of  this  locality 
indicates  that  much  of  the  Iruit  trade  was  centred  here.  Worcester  House  perished 
in  the  Great  Fire.  The  Fruiterers  were  too  poor  to  establish  a  new  hall,  but  met  in 
that  of  the  Parish  Clerks. 

Maiden  Lane  appears  as  "Kymnelane"  in  1259.  Stow  writes  it  Kerion 
Lane,  "of  one  Kerion  sometime  dwelling  there,"  but  this  etymology  is  guesswork, 
as  shown  by  the  earlier  forms.  Before  the  Fire  the  lane  contained  "  divers  fair 
houses  for  merchants,"  says  Stow,  and  the  Glaziers'  Hall. 

Queen  Street  was  cut  shortly  after  the  Great  Fire  of  1666  in  common  with 
King  Street,  Cheapside,  to  connect  the  Guildhall  with  the  Thames  ;  thus  the  Lord 
Mayor  now  had  a  straight  course  for  his  procession  when  he  "took  water"  at  the 
Three  Cranes  Stairs  on  his  way  to  be  sworn  at  Westminster  Hall.  The  new 
thoroughfare  included  the  present  Queen  Street  Place,  and  was  named  New  Queen 
Street  in  honour  of  the  wife  of  Charles  II.  The  prefix  "New"  subsequently 
vanished.  Close  to  Queen  Street  in  Upper  Thames  Street  is  the  Vintners'  Hall  (see 
p.  229).  The  rectory  house  of  the  parish  stands  on  a  portion  of  St.  Thomas  the  Apostle 
Churchyard  ;  the  remainder  of  the  churchyard  on  this  side  of  the  street  consists  of  a 
small  flagged  square  enclosed  by  a  railing.  The  portion  of  the  churchyard  on  the 
west  side  of  the  road,  opposite,  contains  two  houses  ;  they  are  the  only  houses 
remaining  of  the  post-Fire  rebuilding.  In  front,  the  churchyard  serves  them  for  a 
garden  ;  its  two  fine  plane-trees  set  off  their  quaint  red  brick  walls  and  pillared  and 
pedimented  doorways.  The  southern  house  has  a  delightful  room  on  the  first  floor, 
now  used  as  the  board  room  of  the  Tredegar  Iron  Company.  The  mantel  is 
exquisite,  carved  with  all  the  beauty  of  the  Grinling  Gibbons  school ;  the  walls 
are  wainscotted  ;  the  doors  all  solid  mahogany,  over  each  a  carved  panel  ;  the 
medallion  cornice,  of  minutely  beautiful  detail,  once  carried  a  panelled  ceiling 
now  removed.  An  ante-room  has  a  second  delicately  carved  mantel,  and  a 
panelled  ceiling. 

'   Calendar  of  Wills  in  the  Court  of  Hustings,  Part  II.  p.  737. 


228  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

St.  Martin  Vintry  stood  at  the  south  corner  of  Royal  or  Queen  Street,  Upper  Thames  Street. 
Authentic  history  dates  back  to  the  Conqueror's  reign,  when  Ralph  Peverell  gave  the  Church  of  St.  Martin, 
London,  to  the  Abbey  Church  of  St.  Peter,  Gloucester.  In  a  document  at  St.  Paul's  {Hist.  MSS.  Comm. 
Rep.  IX.)  of  the  year  1257  "St.  Martin  de  Beremanes  churche "  is  met  with.  In  the  thirteenth  and 
fourteenth  centuries  "  St.  Martin  de  Barmannes-cherche "  and  St.  Martin  Vintry  are  both  used.  The 
church  was  rebuilt  in  the  beginning  of  the  fifteenth  century,  several  bequests  having  been  left  for  the  purpose. 
It  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being  annexed  to  that  of  the  church,  St. 
Michael  Royal.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1250. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of :  The  Bishop  of  Winchester  ;  Ralph  Peverell  ;  Abbot 
and  Convent  of  St.  Peter's,  Gloucester,  from  1388  ;  Henry  VIII.  ;  Bishop  of  Worcester  by  grant  of 
Edward  VI.,  in  whose  successors  it  continued  up  to  1666,  when  the  parish  was  annexed  to  St.  Michael 
Royal. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  460. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  by  John  Gisors  or  Jesores,  for  himself  and  Isabel  his  wife,  to  which 
Geoffrey  Stowe  was  admitted  chaplain,  September  5,  1368. 

Very  few  monuments  of  interest  are  recorded  by  Stow.  Sir  John  Gisors,  mayor  in  1311,  was 
buried  here ;  also  Sir  Ralph  Austrie  and  Sir  Cuthbert  Hacket,  mayors.  .\  considerable  number  of  those 
commemorated  were  "Vinetarii." 

According  to  Stow,  there  were  no  bequests  or  legacies  belonging  to  the  church,  or  for  public  uses ; 
though  there  were  a  few  for  the  poor.  The  Stationers  Company  was  donor  of  ;^2  :  los.,  for  bread  ;  the 
Dyers  Company  was  donor  of  ^4  every  two  years,  for  clothing ;  and  George  Lucas  was  donor  of  ^2. 

In  St.  Martin,  Vintry,  there  was  a  workhouse,  and  thirteen  almshouses  founded  by  Sir  Richard 
Whittington,  each  person  being  allowed  3s.  lod.  a  week. 

Bruno  Ryves  (1596-1677),  who  suffered  nmch  persecution  in  Puritan  times,  Dean  of  Chichester  and 
of  Windsor,  was  rector  here. 

The  site  became  a  burial-ground.  A  part  is  now  covered  with  buildings,  but  the 
remainder  forms  a  small  square,  planted  with  trees — three  great  elms,  two  small 
limes,  one  large  plane  :  si.x  trees  in  all  —  really  quite  a  leafy  wood  for  the  City  ! 
The  paths  and  flower-beds  are  well  tended.  ■  A  few  gravestones  impart  an 
aspect  of  sepulchral  solemnity.  Thus  the  site  of  St.  Martin  Vintry  is  not  wholly 
effaced. 

The  Vintry  stood  east  of  Oueenhithe  ;  it  was  a  wharf  on  which  "  the  merchants 
of  Bordeaux  craned  their  wine  out  of  lighters  and  other  vessels,  and  then  landed 
and  made  sale  of  them  within  forty  days  after,  until  the  28th  of  Edward  I.,  at  which 
time  the  said  merchants  complained  that  they  could  not  sell  their  wines,  paying 
poundage,  neither  hire  houses  nor  cellars  to  lay  them  in." 

This  was  remedied  by  building  storehouses  with  vaults  and  cellars  for  storage, 
where  formerly  had  stood  a  row  of  cooks'  shops. 

On  the  Vintry  wharf  were  three  cranes  standing.  They  gave  the  name  to 
Three  Cranes  Lane.  At  Three  Cranes  Stairs,  in  1552,  the  Duke  of  Somerset  was 
landed  on  his  way  to  the  Tower.  In  1554  Queen  Mary  landed  here,  when  she  paid 
a  visit  to  the  Guildhall  and  "showyd  hare  mynde  unto  the  Mayor,  aldermen,  and 
the  whole  craftes  of  London  in  hare  owne  person." 

On  the  south  side  of  Thames  Street,  just  above  the  Three  Cranes  wharf  and 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  229 

opposite  to  St.  Martin  Y'intry,  stood  a  large  house  built  of  stone  and  timber  ;  below 
it  were  vaults  for  the  stowage  of  wines,  for  it  was  a  wine  merchant's  mansion  known 
as  "The  Yintry."  John  Gisors,  vintner,  mayor  1311,  1312,  and  1314,  constable  of 
the  Tower,  dwelt  here  ;  also  Henry  Picard,  vintner,  Lord  Mayor,  1356.  In  the  year 
1363  Picard  sumptuously  feasted  in  this  house  Edward  III.  ;  John  II.  of  France,  the 
Black  Prince's  prisoner  ;  David,  King  of  Scots  ;  the  King  of  Denmark  ;  the  King 
of  Cyprus,  and  many  nobles.  Truly  an  illustrious  gathering.  It  is  said  that  the 
toast  of  "five  times  five,"  still  drunk,  owed  origin  to  this  feast  of  the  five  kings. 
Picard  kept  his  hall  for  all  comers  that  were  willing  to  play  dice  with  him  ;  his  wife, 
the  Lady  Margaret,  kept  her  chamber  to  the  same  intent  for  the  princesses  and 
ladies.  The  King  of  Cyprus  won  fifty  marks  from  Picard,  but  afterwards  lost  a 
hundred  marks  and  was  at  pains  to  conceal  his  chagrin.  "  My  Lord  and  King,"  said 
the  host,  "  be  not  agrieved,  I  covet  not  your  gold  but  your  play,  for  I  have  not  bid 
you  hither  that  I  might  grieve  you,  but  that  amongst  other  things  I  might  try  your 
play."  Thereupon  Picard  restored  the  monarch's  marks  and  good  humour  at  one 
and  the  same  time,  "  plentifully  bestowing  of  his  own  among  the  retinue."  Moreover, 
he  gave  rich  gifts  to  King  Edward  and  to  the  nobles  and  knights  who  had  that  day 
dined  with  him  "  to  the  great  glory  of  the  citizens  of  London  "  (Stow). 

THE    VINTNERS    COMPANY 

It  is  probable  that  a  fraternity  or  company  of  the  Mystery  of  Vintners,  by  the  name  of  the  Wine 
Tunners  of  (lascoigne,  has  existed  in  London  from  time  immemorial. 

The  Company  is  mentioned  in  a  Municipal  Ordinance  of  the  year  1256. 

By  letters  patent,  37  Edward  III.,  it  was  ordained  and  granted,  amongst  other  things,  that  no 
merchant  should  go  into  Gascony  for  wines,  nor  use  the  trade  of  wine  in  England,  except  those  who  in 
London  were  enfranchised  in  the  said  mystery  there,  or  who,  in  other  cities,  boroughs,  and  towns,  had 
skill  therein,  and  that  no  stranger  should  retail  wines ;  and  that  the  merchants  of  the  said  mystery  of 
Vintners  should  elect  four  persons  to  see  that  all  wines  were  sold  by  retail  in  taverns  at  a  reasonable  price 
for  such  wine,  and  of  such  conditions,  as  they  were  known,  or  named,  to  be  ;  and  that  the  taverncrs  should 
be  ruled  by  such  four  persons,  and  likewise  that  the  said  four  persons  should  correct  and  amend  all 
defaults  that  should  be  found  in  the  exercise  of  the  said  mystery,  and  inflict  punishments  by  their  good 
advice  and  consideration,  if  need  were,  without  the  mayor,  bailiff,  or  other  chief  magistrate  ;  and  the  King 
gave  licence  to  the  said  Merchant  Vintners  to  export  cloth,  fish,  and  herrings  in  exchange  for  wines ;  and 
did  ordain  that  all  wines  coming  to  London  should  be  landed  above  London  Bridge,  westward  towards 
the  \'intry,  so  that  the  King's  butler  and  gauger  and  searchers  might  have  knowledge  thereof,  and  take  the 
customs  and  prices  of  right  due.  Which  Letters  Patent  were  exemplified  and  confirmed  by  inspeximus 
by  King  Henry  the  Sixth  by  Letters  Patent,  bearing  date  the  eighth  day  of  November,  in  the  sixth  year 
of  his  reign. 

By  another  charter  of  King  Henry  VII.,  the  King  and  Queen  ordained  and  constituted  the 
mystery  of  Vintners  of  the  City  of  London  a  mystery  of  itself,  and  the  freemen  and  commonalty  thereof 
were  to  be  one  body  corporate  and  politic,  in  deed,  fact,  and  name,  by  the  name  of  the  master  and  wardens 
and  freemen  and  commonalty  of  the  mystery  of  Vintners  of  London. 

Other  charters  are  recited  from  Edward  VI.,  Queen  Mary,  Queen  Elizabeth. 

The  members  of  the  Vintners  Company,  by  patrimony  or  servitude,  and  their  widows  have,  by  its 


230  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

various  charters,  the  right  to  sell  foreign  wine  without  a  licence  ;  and  the  court  of  assistants  as  the 
governing  body,  when  a  complaint  is  made  that  the  privilege  is  abused  by  any  member,  summons  him 
to  attend,  and  after  hearing  the  evidence  on  both  sides,  adjudicates  according  to  its  discretion.  The 
utmost  penalty  is  disfranchisement. 

The  Company  exercises  control  onlv  over  its  own  members. 

The  Company  claims  to  exercise  through  its  members  the  privilege  of  selling  foreign  wine  without 
licence  throughout  England. 

It  appears  that  from  time  immemorial  this  Company  also  enjoyed  the  exclusive  right  of  loading  and 
landing,   rolling,   pitching  and  turning  all  wines  and  spirits  imported  to,  or  exported  from   the   City  of 


COUNCIL   CH.^MBER,    VIXTNERS'    H.\LL 
Vintner  Sheriff  receiving  the  Congratulations  of  his  Company. 


London,  and  all  places  within  three  miles  of  the  same.  From  this  franchise  which  was,  and  still  is 
exercised  by  its  tackle  porters,  the  Company  derived  a  very  considerable  emolument  till  in  the  years  1799, 
1800,  1804,  and  1805,  several  Acts  of  Parliament  were  passed,  by  which  this  privilege  was  in  a  great 
measure  curtailed.  The  Company  indemnifies  those  persons  employing  its  tackle  porters  against  all  losses 
of  wines  and  spirits  caused  through  their  negligence  or  accident. 

The  number  of  liverymen  called  during  ten  years  is  206.  The  Corporate  Income  is  ^9500  ;  the 
Trust  Income  is  ^1500. 

1.  A  freeman  or  his  widow  has  a  claim  to  relief.  When  admitted  by  patrimony  or  servitude,  a 
freeman,  or  his  widow,  enjoys  the  privilege  of  a  "Free  Vintner,"  and,  if  exercising  such  privilege,  is  e.xempt 
from  '•  Billeting,"  i.e.  having  soldiers  or  sailors  quartered  in  his  or  her  house. 

2.  The    average   annual    sum   distributed    amongst    the  members    of    the  court    of    assistants    has 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE   CITY  231 

amounted,  during  the  last  ten  years,  to  ^8S6:iis.,  being  about  ^50  each  per  annum  (income 
tax  free). 

Members  of  the  court  receive  no  pensions  or  donations. 

No  fees  are  paid  to  liverymen  or  freemen. 

The  average  annual  sum  paid  to  liverymen  and  freemen,  and  their  widows,  in  pensions  and 
donations  during  the  last  ten  years  has  amounted  to  ^2503. 

3.  The  qualifications  for  a  pension  are  :  being  a  member  or  widow  of  a  member  in  reduced 
circumstances,  between  the  ages  of  fifty  and  si.xty,  or,  if  younger,  being  in  ill-health.  For  a  donation  : 
membership,  or  being  the  widow  or  child  of  a  member. 

The  site  of  Vintners'  Hall  appears  in  reliable  records  of  the  fourteenth  century.  Strype  has  the 
account  of  it :  That  Sir  John  Stodeye,  who  held  it  of  Edward  III.  in  free  burgage,  gave  it  in  1329,  under 
style  of  the  Manor  of  the  Vintry,  to  John  Tuke,  parson  of  St.  Martin  Vintry,  as  a  feoffment ;  that  Tuke's 
successors  claimed  it  as  belonging  absolutely  to  the  church,  whereas  it  really  appertained  to  the  \'intners' 
Company;  that  an  inquisition  was  held  in  relation  thereto  before  Sir  Ralph  Joslyn,  in  1477  ;  that  a  trial  in 
the  Exchequer  followed;  and  that  finally  Richard  III.  decided  the  ov/nership  in  favour  of  the  Company,' 
reciting  the  above  statements  in  his  grant.  It  is  difficult  to  harmonise  this  account  with  other  known 
facts  ;  therefore,  leaving  it  on  record,  we  pass  to  better  authenticated  matter.  Now,  Edmund  de  Sutton 
owned  the  site  in  the  reign  of  Edward  III.  ;  upon  the  Thames  bank  lay  his  quay,  towards  the  high  street 
of  the  Vintry  his  houses,  cellars,  and  solars.  Upon  the  east  stood  Spital  Lane  and  the  tenements  of  the 
Abbess  of  St.  Clare  in  Aldgate ;  on  the  west,  Cressingham  Lane  and  the  tenement  of  John  Cressingham ; 
through  the  midst  ran  the  boundary  line  between  St.  Martin  Vintry  parish  and  St.  James-at-Garlick- 
hithe.  Sutton's  possession  was  disputed,  trial  followed,  and  Sutton  "  recovered  it  from  Walter  Turke  by 
Writ  of  Novel  disseisin."  Turke  was  alderman  of  the  ward,  and  mayor,  1349.  Then  in  1352  Edmund  de 
Sutton  granted  the  whole  to  John  de  Stodeye  who  was  sheriff  that  year.  The  Vintners  Company  had  as 
yet  no  licence  in  mortmain  ;  perhaps  Stodeye  was  acting  as  feoffee  for  them,  perhaps  not.  Stow  relates  that 
he  gave  Spital  Lane,  "  with  all  the  quadrant  wherein  Vintners'  Hall  now  standeth,  with  the  tenements 
round  about,  to  the  Vintners";  but  the  statement  proves  nothing  either  way.  Stodeye's  will  is  dated 
1375  ;  it  makes  no  mention  of  the  property.  His  heirs  granted  it  to  feoffees,  and  it  passed  from  one  to 
another  as  a  feoffment,  until  finally  vested  in  the  Company  by  the  wills  of  Guy  Shuldham  (1446)  and  John 
Porter  (1496).^  Shuldham's  will^  conveys  the  impression  that  of  his  own  bounty  he  added  to  the  original 
jjroperty  of  which  he  was  feoffee.  To  his  foundation  are  attributed  the  Vintners'  almshouses.  His  will 
describes  them  as  "  thirteen  little  mansions  lying  together."  He  directs  that  in  them  should  dwell  rent 
free  thirteen  poor  and  needy  men  and  women  of  the  Vintners'  craft,  each  to  have  a  penny  every  week  ; 
any  of  them  to  be  ejected  for  misconduct  after  three  warnings.  These  "  little  mansions  "  were  probably  on 
the  Sjjital  Lane  (at  that  time  Stodeye's  Lane)  side  of  the  Hall ;  after  the  Great  Fire  they  were  removed  to 
Mile  End.  Not  much  is  known  of  the  old  premises,  but  Shuldham's  will  tells  us  something.  There  was  a 
great  hall  and  a  refectory,  a  parlour  with  a  leaden  roof,  and  adjoining  it  a  counting-house  with  two  rooms 
above;  a  kitchen,  pantry  and  buttery,  a  coal-house,  and  a  "yard"  with  a  well.  No  doubt  the  yard  lay 
betwixt  hall  and  river,  and  answered  to  what  was  the  garden  in  later  years.  When  the  Vintners  "  built  for 
themselves  a  fair  hall  and  thirteen  almshouses  "  (to  quote  John  Stow),  these  miscellaneous  and  doubtless 
inconvenient  buildings  disappeared.  In  1497  the  premises  were  inspected  for  the  purpose  of  assessing 
the  fine  for  amortising  them  pursuant  to  the  act.'  Here  a  new  pair  of  stocks  was  erected  in  1609  for 
punishment  of  deserving  members  ;  here  General  Monk  was  feasted  and  entertained  by  special  music 
on   April    12,  1660,  shortly  after  the  Restoration.       Six  years  later  a   restoratidn  of  a   different  sort  was 


'   Strype,  1720,  vol.  i.  bk.  iii.  p.  2,  and  vol.  ii.  bk.  v.  p.  194. 

-  The  documents,  eighteen  in  number,  showing  the  exact  history  of  the  property  are  to  be  found  summarised 
in  John  Porter's  will  as  given  in  the  Calendar  of  Wills  in  the  Court  of  Hustings,  Part  II.  p.  596. 

•'  The  will  is  given  in  Herbert's  Lively  Companies,  vol.  ii.  p.  636,  and  is  recited  in  the  Calendar  of  Wills 
in  the  Court  of  Hustings.  ■•   Hazlitt's  IJ^'ery  Companies,  p.  324. 


232  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

required ;  the  Great   Fire  had  wrought  its  work  of  woeful  ruin,  and  the  Vintners  Company  must  needs 
rebuild.     In  1823  the  hall  was  almost  entirely  rebuilt  again. 

College  Street. — The  Walbrook  stream,  crossing  the  street,  divided  Vinlry  froni 
Dowgate  ward.  It  was  spanned  by  a  bridge  called  in  the  twelfth  century  Pont-le-Arch, 
also,  but  probably  later,  Stodum  Bridge.  The  earliest  style  of  the  lane  east  of  that 
bridge  was  "  Les  Arches  Lane,"  and  that  would  be  derived  from  the  bridge.  Later, 
just  as  St.  Mary  de  Arcabus  became  St.  Mary-Ie-Bowe,  so  this  lane  became  "  the  lane 
called  Le  Bowe"  ;  a  will  of  1307  so  styles  it.  Quite  possible  Little  College  Street 
did  not  then  exist,  or  existed  only  as  a  path  on  the  east  side  of  the  brook  ;  if  the 
latter,  there  would  thus  be  a  bow-like  passage  from  Dowgate  Hill  to  Thomas  Street, 
and  both  shape  and  name  would  be  singularly  in  accord.  West  of  the  bridge  the 
lane  was  probably,  and  in  common  with  the  present  College  Hill,  "Paternoster 
Lane";  afterwards  the  hill  became  "the  high  street  called  le  Riole,"  but  this  lane 
seems  to  have  retained  the  old  title  until  Stow  wrote  of  it.  When  Walbrook  stream 
became  arched  over,  the  strict  division  between  Paternoster  Lane  and  Le  Bowe 
Lane  disappeared.  The  course  of  Walbrook  so  divided  the  lane  that  the  north  side 
from  the  church  to  Skinners'  Hall  was  included  in  Paternoster  Lane,  and  the  south 
side  opposite  was' part  of  Bowe  Lane;  this  distinction  would  naturally  disappear  on 
the  covering  of  the  brook.  Before  that  event  Le  Bowe  Lane  would  be  all  in  the 
parish  of  Allhallows  the  Great;  in  1307  reference  is  made  to  it  in  the  parish  of  St. 
Michael's  [IViNs  in  the  Court  of  Hustings,  pt.  i.  p.  190),  so  that  the  covering  of  the 
brook  appears  already  to  have  taken  place,  at  least  in  part,  by  that  date.  By  Stow's 
time  Le  Bowe  Lane  had  become  Elbow  Lane,  and  ran  by  a  crescent  course  from 
Dowgate  Hill  to  Thames  Street ;  Paternoster  Lane  continued  as  before.  Stow 
makes  an  error  in  each  case  ;  he  misses  the  true  etymology  of  the  former,  implying 
that  its  elbow-like  bending  was  the  origin  of  its  name,  and  he  surmises  that  "  Les 
Arches  "  was  the  old  title  for  Paternoster  Lane,  which  was  not  so.  After  the  Great 
Fire  the  whole  thoroughfare  from  College  Hill  to  Dowgate  Hill  became  Elbow 
Lane,  and  later  Great  Elbow  Lane  ;  the  bend  into  Thames  Street  was  renamed 
Little  Elbow  Lane.  Subsequently  the  present  styles  were  adopted,  and,  like  College 
Hill,  commemorate  Whittington's  College.  College  Street  is  quaint :  on  the  south 
side  No.  24  has  been  rebuilt,  and  No.  27  refaced  since  the  post-Fire  rebuilding; 
otherwise  the  Vintry  portion  remains  unaltered.  The  Skinners'  Hall  and  all  the 
garden  belonging  to  it  are  close  by,  though  the  entry  is  on  Dowgate  Hill  (see  p.  238). 

In  College  Street  is  the  Innholders'  Hall. 

THE   INNHOLDERS   COMPANY 

From  the  records  of  the  Company  it  appears  that  it  was  a  Guild  or  Fraternity  by  prescription 
under  the  name  of  "  Hostiller  "  before  the  same  was  incorporated  by  charter. 

Its  earliest  known  record  is  a  petition  preferred  on  the  12th  December,  25  Henry  VI.  (1446),  by 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  233 

certain  "Men  of  the  Mistery  of  Hostillars  of  the  City,"  in  tlie  chamber  at  Guildhall  before  John  Colney, 
mayor,  and  the  aldermen  of  the  City  praying  them  to  confirm  certain  ordinances  which  were  ordered  to 
be  entered  upon  the  Record  and  observed  in  all  future  times. 

The  next  record  is  a  petition  preferred  on  28th  October,  13  Edward  IV.,  1437,  by  the  wardens  and 
certain  men  of  the  Mistery  of  Hostillers  in  the  chamber  of  Guildhall,  before  Mr.  Hampton,  mayor,  and 
the  aldermen  of  the  City,  stating  that  the  craft  or  mistery  were  called  hostillers  and  not  innholders  as  they 
were  indeed,  by  which  no  diversity  was  perceived  between  them  in  name  and  their  servants  being  hostillers 
indeed,  and  praying  that  they  might  be  called  innholders  and  in  no  wise  hostillers,  which  was  ordained 
accordingly. 

On  31st  July,  I  Richard  III.,  1483,  another  petition  was  preferred. 

The  present   number  of  liverymen   is   86;    the  Corporate   Income   is  ^1900;   the   Trust   Income 

is  ^225- 

The  Innholders  were  an  ancient  fraternity  which  grew  out  of  the  Hostelers  or  Hostillers  and  the 
Haymongers.  The  former  provided  a  bare  lodging  for  travellers  ;  the  latter  provided  stabling.  The  visitor 
or  lodger  had  to  go  to  the  tavern  for  his  food  and  drink.  The  Innholder  advanced  a  step ;  he  received 
the  traveller  with  his  horses  and  his  following.  If  the  traveller  was  a  trader,  the  inn  received  his  wagon, 
his  merchandise ;  while  the  stable  belonging  to  the  inn  received  his  horses.  The  inn  provided  food, 
wine,  and  ale.  The  old  Hosteler  became  the  servant  of  the  Innholder  and  was  at  last  restricted  to  service 
in  the  stable. 

Stow  describes  the  hall  as  a  fair  house.  After  the  Great  Fire  it  was  rebuilt  (about  1670)  by  Wren  and 
Jarman,  and  the  west  side  of  the  great  hall  facing  Little  College  Street  is  of  this  date.  The  present  College 
Street  front  was  built  in  1886  from  designs  by  Mr.  J.  Douglass  Mathews,  architect.  It  is  a  very  handsome 
three-storied  building  of  red  brick.  The  door  is  of  remarkably  fine  carving,  of  curious  form,  having  the 
appearance  of  two  doors,  the  smaller  imposed  upon  the  greater.  Above  the  door  under  a  pedimental 
canopy  are  the  Company's  arms.  The  great  hall,  which  dates  from  the  old  building,  is  a  plain  apartment, 
with  wainscotted  walls,  and  a  flat  square- panelled  ceiling.  The  fire-place  is  framed  in  a  fine  piece  of 
marble,  and  the  mantel  is  of  carved  wood. 

The  reception-room  is  remarkable  for  a  sjjlendid  ceiling,  said  to  be  Wren's.  It  has  a  handsomely 
moulded  oval  panel,  covering  the  centre,  whilst  the  four  corners  bear  respectively  :  the  date  1670,  the  arms 
of  Charles  II.,  the  City  arms,  and  the  Innholders'  arms.  The  room  is  ])anelled  and  has  a  good  oak 
overmantel. 

In  the  window  of  the  staircase  is  some  old  seventeenth-century  stained  glass,  removed  from  a  window 
of  the  great  hall.  One  piece  has  the  arms  of  Deputy  John  Knott,  "  3rd  time  master  1670  "  ;  the  other  the 
arms  of  Ca])tain  Richard  Pennar,  "once  master  1678."  The  modern  court-room  is  of  the  1886  rebuilding, 
and  has  a  good  moulded  ceiling  and  carved  overmantel.  It  contains  two  curious  old  pictures.  One  the 
arms  of  Charles  II.,  bearing  the  mark  "C.R.2,"  and  showing  Might  and  Power  crushing  down  Rebellion 
whilst  a  peacefiil  king  reigns.  The  other  is  a  representation  of  the  Nativity  in  the  Inn  at  Bethlehem,  said 
to  have  been  presented  by  Charles  II.  It  depicts  St.  Joseph  holding  a  crucifix.  'i"he  star  in  the  Inn- 
holders' arms  is  the  Star  of  Bethlehem,  which  is,  of  course,  shown  in  this  picture. 

ST.    MICHAEL  ROYAL 

St.  Michael  Royal  on  College  Hill  derived  its  name  Royal  from  the  adjacent  lane  "La  Riole "  (see 
p.  223);  it  was  sometimes  called  St.  Michael  Paternoster  from  Paternoster  Lane.  "  Paternoster-cherch "  is 
first  found  written  in  the  Calendar  of  Wills  (Court  of  Hustings,  Part  I.  p.  3)  in  1259;  "St.  Michael  de 
Paternoster-cherch  "  in  1284;  and  "  Paternostercherche  near  la  Rayole  "  in  1301.  It  was  rebuilt  by  Sir 
Richard  Whittington.  Early  in  the  fifteenth  century  the  old  church  was  small,  frail,  and  ruinous  :  it  stood 
where  it  now  stands,  but  north  and  east  lay  unbuilt  spaces,  green  with  grass,  and  possibly  tree-planted. 
Across  the  green  to  the  north  stood  "  The  Tabard,"  the  dwelling-house  of  Whittington,  who  rebuilt  the 
church  on  a  larger  scale,  granting  land  of  his  own  for  the  purpose  in  141 1.     The  site  available  measured 


234  SURVEY  OF  THE   CITY  OF   LONDON 

113  feet  long  from  east  to  west,  just  as  now  there  is  a  graveyard  26  feet  long.  The  new  building  had  a 
castellated  parapet :  the  tower  stood  at  the  west  end,  square,  embattled,  surmounted  by  a  great  cross. 
Beneath  the  tower  a  great  doorway  opened  upon  Paternoster  Lane.  It  was  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire 
and  rebuilt  by  Edward  Strong,  Wren's  master-mason,  in  1694;  the  steeple  was  added  in  1713.  The 
church  of  St.  Martin  Vintry  was  not  rebuilt  after  the  Fire,  its  parish  being  annexed  to  this.  The  parishes 
of  Allhallows  the  Great  and  Allhallows  the  Less  were  also  annexed  in  1893.  The  earliest  date  of  an 
incumbent  is  1282. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Prior  and  Convent  of  Christ  Church, 
Canterbury,  1282;  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Canterbury  from  1550  to  1666,  when  St.  Martin  Vintry 
was  annexed  and  the  patronage  was  alternate  with  the  Bishop  of  Worcester. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  213. 

The  church  is  oblong  in  shape,  67  feet  in  length,  47  feet  in  width,  and  38  feet  in  height.  The  oak 
altar-piece  is  said  to  be  the  work  of  Grinling  Gibbons,  and  above  it  there  is  a  painting  by  William 
Hilton,  R.A.,  presented  in  1820  by  the  directors  of  the  London  Institution.  The  tower  is  square  and 
contains  three  stories  terminated  by  a  cornice  and  parapet,  with  vases  at  the  angles  ;  it  is  surmounted  by 
a  shallow  dome  on  four  arches,  and  encircled  by  Ionic  columns.  Above  this  the  steeple  is  octagonal, 
crowned  by  a  pedestal  with  finial  and  vane.  The  total  height  is  128  feet  3  inches.  The  church  was 
repaired  and  the  interior  arrangements  remodelled  in  1864  :  in  1895  ''  ^^^  again  repaired  ;  at  this  date  the 
carved  woodwork  and  the  organ  case  from  Allhallows  the  Great  were  utilised  on  the  demolition  of  that 
church.  Beneath  the  tower  is  preserved  a  carving  of  the  royal  arms  (William  and  Mary) ;  this  stood  above 
the  reredos  before  the  placing  of  the  picture  there  in  1820.     The  tower  contains  one  bell. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  by  Lawrence  Duket  in  1289. 

The  church  contained  but  few  monuments  of  note.  There  was  one  in  memory  of  John  Haydon, 
mercer.  Sheriff  1582,  and  benefactor  of  the  parish.  Sir  Richard  Whittington,  the  founder  of  the  church, 
was  also  commemorated;  he  was  buried  here  with  his  wife,  and  the  traditional  site  of  the  tomb,  which  was 
destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire,  is  where  the  sanctuary  rail  and  organ  are. 

The  only  monument  of  any  interest  in  the  present  building  is  one  to  Sir  Samuel  Pennant,  who  died 
1750,  during  his  mayoralty  ;  he  died  of  gaol  fever,  caught  in  discharging  his  duty  in  visiting  Newgate.  There 
is  a  memorial  tablet  to  Jacob  Jacobsen  on  the  west  wall ;  Bishop  Wadington's  arms  can  be  seen  in  the 
south-west  window. 

Reginald  Peacock,  Bishop  of  Chichester,  1449,  was  rector  here  ;  also  William  Ive  (d.  14S5),  Vice- 
Chancellor  of  Oxford;  Humphrey  Hody  (1659-1707),  Regius  Professor  of  Greek,  Oxford;  and  Richard 
Smith  (1500-1563),  Dean  of  Douai  and  a  great  pillar  of  the  Catholic  Church. 

Under  Whittington's  will,  the  church  became  collegiate  in  1424.  A  college  of 
St.  Spirit  and  St.  Mary,  the  college  house,  the  almshouse,  also  of  Whittington's 
foundation,  and  a  parcel  of  ground  then  a  garden,  but  intended  for  consecration  as  a 
new  churchyard,  were  grouped  north  of  the  church,  between  that  and  Whittington's 
own  dwelling.  They  probably  composed  a  quadrangle.  The  almshouse  was  called 
"God's  House  or  Alms-house  or  the  hospital  of  Richard  Whittington."  It  was  for 
twelve  poor  folk,  men  and  women,  and  a  "tutor"  who  had  custody  of  the  goods,  and 
was  to  preserve  order.  He  had  a  separate  apartment — the  twelve  others  lived  more 
together  ;  all  dined  and  supped  in  common  hall.  They  were  to  pray  daily  for  their 
founder,  his  wife  and  others  ;  to  behave  seemly  ;  to  read,  work,  or  meditate  ;  to  dress 
in  dark  brown,  "not  staring  nor  blazing  in  colour."  The  college  house  was  for  the 
accommodation  of  five  fellows  or  chaplains,  two  clerks,  and  four  choristers  ;  these 
composed  the  collegiate  staff.      The  fellows  were  secular  priests,  that  is  to  say,  not 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


-OD 


regulars  or  conventual  clergy  ;  they  were  to  be  masters  of  art,  poor  men,  un- 
beneficed. One  of  them  was  to  occupy  the  position  of  master.  The  church  ceased 
as  a  rectory  when  it  became  a  collegiate.  The  then  rector  was  appointed  the  first 
master  and  he  was  to  continue  his  parochial  duties. 

Before  the  end  of  the  century  the  members  had  formed  themselves  into  a 
fraternity — Fraternitas  Scantcr  Sopluce — for  the  reading  of  a  divinity  lecture.  A  little 
later  a  divinity  reader  was  provided  by  a  bequest,  and  another  legacy  was  allotted 
to  the  fellows,  so  that  each  should  deliver  two  additional  sermons  every  year,  either 
in  the  City  or  out.  Whittington's  estates  originally  produced  ^63  per  annum  for  the 
college  and  £^0  per  annum  for  the  almshouse.  At  the  suppression  of  the  former, 
under  Edward  VL,  the  value  was  returned  at  only  ^20  :  i  :  8  per  annum  ;  the  college 
house  and  garden  were  sold  for  ^92  :  2s.  to  Armagil  Waad,  or  Wade,  Clerk  of  the 
Council,  in  154S.  The  almshouse  was  not  then  affected,  but  was  and  is  administered 
by  the  Mercers  Company.  It  was  rebuilt  after  the  Great  Fire.  In  1808  the  alms- 
house people  were  removed  to  Highgate.  The  Mercers'  School,  rebuilt  in  Old  Jewry 
in  1670,  removed  to  Budge  Row  in  1787,  and  burnt  down  and  removed  to  20  Red 
Lion  Court,  opposite  to  St.  Antholin's,  Watling  Street,  in  1804.  was  settled  in 
the  old  almshouses  on  their  becoming  empty.  In  1832  the  premises  were  rebuilt. 
Externally  they  present  a  plain  structure  of  stone,  with  a  great  projecting  cornice  ; 
the  interior  is  spacious,  the  flagged  playground  still  preserves  a  suggestion  of 
collegiate  cloisters.  Here  almsmen  walked,  here  college  fellows  paced,  here  hearty 
schoolboys  shouted — now  all  is  silent  and  untenanted.  The  Mercers'  School  is  now 
removed  to  Holborn. 

The  name  College  Hill  does  not  occur  in  Stow,  but  Newcourt's  map  of  1658  so 
styles  it  :  it  bore  reference  to  Whittington's  College.  As  the  Duke  of  Buckingham's 
"  Litany"  (1679)  has  it,  there  was  thus  "  Nought  left  of  a  College,  but  College  Hill." 
Ogilby's  post-Fire  map  (1677)  names  the  street  College  Hill  only  so  far  north  as 
Cloak  Lane  ;  above  that  it  was  Tower  Royal  Street :  both  portions  are  now  reckoned 
as  College  Hill  as  far  as  Cannon  Street.  At  the  corner  of  the  present  Maiden 
Lane  was  situated,  in  the  fourteenth  century,  the  house  and  tavern  of  Richard 
Chaucer,  vintner,  step-grandfather  to  Geoffrey  Chaucer,  the  poet.  Perhaps  the  latter 
dwelt  here. 

After  the  Great  Fire  "  a  very  large  and  graceful  building  "  with  great  courtyards 
was  erected  on  College  Hill.  Here  lived  the  second  and  last  Villiers,  Uuke  of 
Buckingham,  "  for  the  more  security  of  his  trade,  and  convenience  of  driving  it 
among  the  Londoners.  "  This  dissolute  but  clever  courtier  was  nicknamed  "Alder- 
man Buckingham"  and  satirised  by  Dryden  as  "Zimri  '  who  was  "everything  by 
starts  and  nothing  long."  The  house  was  sometime  the  residence  of  -Sir  John 
Lethieullier,  merchant  and  alderman,  sheriff  in  1674;  it  has  since  disappeared,  but 
portions  of  the  courtyard  remain.      One  of  these  is  Newcastle  Court,  on  the  west  of 


236 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


College    Hill,    now   merely  a  yard   between   backs  of  great   houses,   and  a  postern 
entrance  to  the  Cloak  Lane  Police  Station. 

Of  the  general  houses  which  Strype  (1720)  says  were  "well  built  and  inhabited 
by  merchants  and  others,"  none  remain,  except  Nos.  3  and  4  on  the  west  side,  of 
which  the  latter  has  a  quaintly  carved  tympanum  above  the  front  door:  and  Nos.  21 


WHITTINGTON  S    HOUSE 


and  22  on  the  east  side.  The  two  last  or  some  part  of  them  stand  upon  the  site  of 
"The  Tabard,"  WhittinQ-ton's  own  dwell incj-house.  Here  are  two  stories  of  cellars 
in  the  northern  house,  whose  foundation  walls  are  built  from  stones  possibly  once 
forming  the  materials  of  Whittington's  mansion.  Both  premises  have  massive 
staircases,  and  the  southernmost  possesses  some  well-carved  doorcases.  The  little 
courtyards  before  them  are  each  entered  through  a  great  porch  with  timbered  sides. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  237 

and  heavy  panelled  doors  shut  it  oft"  from  the  street.  The  arched  gateways  of  the 
porches  are  pedimented,  the  tympanums  filled  with  a  profusion  of  luxuriant  carvings 
— grotesque  heads,  drapery,  garlands  of  flowers  and  fruit.  Above  the  gateways 
stand  porch-rooms  ;  still  higher  little  latticed  dormer  windows  peep  out  of  the  quaint, 
tiled  roofs.  The  porches  are  the  pride  of  the  hill,  and  well  serve  to  mark  so 
illustrious  a  site. 

Stow  calls  Dowgate  Hill  "the  high  street  called  Downgate,"  and  by  that  he 
doubtless  includes  both  the  hill  on  the  north  side  of  Thames  Street  and  Dowgate 
Dock  on  the  south  side  of  the  same.  The  east  side  is  now  wholly  occupied  by  the 
immense  wall  of  Cannon  Street  hotel  and  station.  Only  a  portion  of  the  former  is 
in  the  ward.  Beneath  the  latter,  opening  upon  the  street,  are  several  cellars  called 
Dowgate  vaults.  Previously  to  the  erection  of  the  station  a  lane  called  Chequer 
Yard  ran  from  opposite  Dyers'  Hall  to  Bush  Lane.  Stow  terms  it  Chequer  Lane, 
or  Alley,  "of  an  inn  called  the  Chequer."  Its  former  name,  he  says,  was  Carter 
Lane,  "of  carts  and  carmen  having  stables  there."  Strype  calls  it  "a  pretty  good 
open  space."  Malcolm  (1802)  says  Chequer  Yard  then  consisted  of  a  vast  range 
of  warehouses,  many  stories  in  height,  always  filled  with  tobacco,  cotton,  coffee,  etc. 
Amongst  these  were  the  Plumbers'  Hall  warehouses.  Here  formerly  stood  Plumbers' 
Hall  (see  Appendix)  and  the  Chequer  Inn.  "The  Chequer"  is  mentioned  as  a 
brew-house  so  early  as  the  reign  of  Richard  III.,  when  it  appears  to  have  appertained 
to  the  Erber.  It  was  rebuilt  as  an  inn  after  the  Great  Fire,  and  stood  in  a  court- 
yard on  the  south  side  of  the  lane,  near  the  west  end.  It  had  a  gate  and  a  passage 
into  Dowgate  Hill.  Strype  (1720)  says  it  was  "an  inn  of  no  great  account,  being 
chiefly  for  livery  stables  and  horses."  In  Strype's  1754  edition  all  mention  of  the 
inn  is  omitted,  so  that  it  had,  presumably,  vanished  during  the  intervening  thirty-four 
years.  At  the  north-west  corner  of  Chequer  Yard  was  the  site  of  the  Erber  (p.  245). 
Previously  to  the  erection  of  the  station,  the  hill  forked  opposite  to  Skinners'  Hall 
and  turned  into  Cannon  Street  by  two  narrow  lanes.  Of  these  the  north-eastern 
was  Turnwheele  Lane,  "from  a  turnpike  in  the  middle  thereof ';  the  north-western 
retained  the  name  of  Dowgate  Hill.  They  had  between  them  at  the  fork  a  block 
of  buildings.  When  the  station  was  built,  Turnwheele  Lane  was  covered  and 
Dowgate  Hill  was  widened  by  absorbing  the  block.  Towards  "the  upper  end  of 
the  hill,  stood  the  fair  Conduit-upon-Dowgate,"  mentioned  by  Stow  as  "castellated, 
and  made  in  the  year  1568,  at  charges  of  the  citizens."  In  Ryther's  map,  1604 
(British  Museum),  it  is  shown  to  stand  in  the  middle  of  Dowgate  Hill  opposite  the 
end  of  Cloak  Lane.  It  was  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt.  Allen,  in 
his  History  of  London,  places  it  at  the  south-east  corner  of  Walbrook,  in  Walbrook 
ward  ;  evidently  he  is  mistaken.  On  the  west  side  the  ward  begins  at  the  corner 
of  Cloak  Lane,  of  which  only  a  part  of  the  southern  side  is  in  Dowgate.  Thence 
proceeding  southwards  is  Tallow  Chandlers'  Hall  (see  p.  243). 


238  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


At  8  Dowgate  Hill  is 


THE   SKINNERS   COMPANY 


It  is  probable  that,  like  other  traders  who  came  to  London  in  early  times,  men  following  the  trade 
of  Skinners  were  assigned  some  separate  locality  in  the  town  and  associated  together  for  the  purposes  of 
a  guild. 

In  course  of  time,  as  the  guild  grew  in  importance,  the  Skinners  seem  to  have  absorbed  or  affiliated 
unto  themselves  two  other  trades,  the  Upholders  and  the  Tawyers. 

It  is  clear  that  as  long  ago  as  the  reign  of  Henry  VI.  the  guild  included  among  its  members  other 
than  those  who  exercised  the  trades  of  Skinner,  Tawyer,  and  Upholder,  for  in  one  of  the  Company's  books, 
dated  25th  July,  23  Henry  VI.,  there  is  a  list  of  names  of  the  brethren  and  sistren  of  the  guild  at  that 
time.  They  amount  to  twenty  in  all,  and  include  one  doctor,  three  gentlemen,  nine  of  no  trade  or 
description,  two  butchers,  one  dyer,  one  joiner,  one  skinner,  one  grocer,  as  brethren,  and  one  sister  as 
silkwife. 

The  Company  has  a  copy  of  the  charter  of  Henry  \T.,  but  none  ot  that  of  Philip  and  Mary.  They 
are  Inspeximus  charters,  as  also  is  that  of  22nd  March,  2  Elizabeth. 

During  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth  diflerences  arose  between  the  working  "  artesans  "  of  the  guild 
and  the  rest  of  the  fraternity,  especially  the  governing  body,  which  continued  for  many  years  and  culminated 
in  a  surreptitious  application  in  1606  by  the  Artisan  Skinners  for  new  Letters  Patent  from  the  Crown 
without  the  consent  or  privity  of  the  master  and  wardens  of  the  guild,  and  in  December  1606  (4  James  I.) 
a  charter  was  issued.  Full  inquiry  was  made.  The  Lord  Mayor  and  aldermen  made  their  report  to  the 
lords  of  the  Privy  Council,  who  thereupon  ordered  (March  22,  i6o6)  that  the  privy  seal  that  had  been 
procured  by  the  Artisan  Skinners  for  this  new  charter  appertaining  to  the  Company  of  Skinners  should  be 
cancelled. 

The  charters  and  title  deeds  of  the  Skinners  Company  were  surrendered  in  1625  like  those  of  the 
other  City  Companies,  but  in  1641  their  privileges  were  restored. 

After  the  restoration  of  King  Charles  II.  the  Skinners  Company  obtained  the  charter  dated  20th  June, 
19  Charles  II.  It  grants  nothing  new,  but  merely  confirms  to  the  master  and  wardens  of  the  guild  or 
fraternity  all  they  had  under  any  of  their  previous  charters. 

Passing  to  1744,  the  Artisan  Skinners  appear  to  have  thought  that  if  they  could  only  be  more  fully 
represented  on  the  governing  body  of  the  Company,  their  trade  grievances  would  be  redressed,  and  they 
accordingly,  in  October  1744,  presented  a  remonstrance  to  the  Court. 

The  result  of  this  was  that  in  three  months  the  master  and  three  wardens  were  served  with  a  copy  of 
a  rule  for  a  mandamus  commanding  them  to  choose  a  number  of  Artisan  Skinners  to  be  wardens  and 
assistants.  The  governing  body,  in  reply,  set  out  the  whole  of  the  proceedings  of  1606,  but  the  mandamus 
was  ultimately  issued  and  a  return  made  to  the  writ.  At  the  hearing,  counsel  for  the  prosecutors,  the 
artisans,  informed  the  Court  of  King's  Bench  that  he  had  perused  the  return  and  could  not  find  any 
fault  with  it,  and  accordingly  the  judges  ordered  the  return  of  the  master  and  wardens  to  be  affirmed. 

In  December  1747  similar  hostile  proceedings  were  renewed,  and  led  finally  to  an  information  for 
a  false  return  being  filed  against  the  master  and  wardens  in  June  1748.  The  cause  came  on  for  trial  at 
the  King's  Bench  bar  on  the  24th  April  following,  and  the  jurors,  without  going  out  of  court,  brought  in 
a  verdict  of  not  guilty. 

The  number  of  liverymen  is  200;  the  Corporate  Income  is  ;£^27,5oo;  the  Trust  Income  is 
^i7>5oo- 

A  freeman  of  the  Skinners  Company  is  eligible,  as  vacancies  from  time  to  time  occur,  to  a  presentation 
for  his  child  to  Christ's  Hospital,  ten  such  presentations  being  given  to  the  Company  under  the  benefaction 
of  Mr.  William  Stoddart.  Besides  being  eligible  for  certain  almshouses  and  pensions,  poor  freemen  who 
have  fallen  into  straitened  circumstances  obtain  charitable  assistance  from  the  Company  at  the  discretion 
of  the  governing  body,  as  also  do  the  widows  and  children  of  such  poor  freemen.     Freemen  are  entitled  to 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  239 

a  preference  among  applicants  for  loans  under  trusts  administered  by  the  Company.  They  are  also  with 
their  sons  and  apprentices  eligible  under  certain  conditions  for  exhibitions  founded  by  the  Company,  and 
their  sons  will  have  a  preference  for  admission  into  the  Company's  Middle  School,  referred  to  in  another 
part  of  this  return,  if  there  should  not  be  room  for  all  the  candidates.  Liverymen  have  similar  claims. 
They  also  attend  at  dinners  given  to  the  livery  at  the  Company's  Hall,  and  have  the  privilege  of  occasionally 
introducing  friends  at  such  dinners.  The  master  and  wardens  and  other  members  of  the  court  have 
similar  rights  and  privileges.  They  also  receive  fees  as  members  of  the  governing  body  in  respect  of  their 
attendance  at  courts  and  committees  as  already  stated. 

Assistance  is  granted  by  the  Company  to  members  if  it  appears  upon  inquiry  that  from  misfortune  or 
by  reason  of  sickness,  infirmity,  or  from  other  good  cause  they  are  in  need. 

Stow  describes  Skinners'  Hall  as  "a  fair  house,  which  was  sometime  called  Copped  Hall  by 
Downgate."  Copped  Hall  was  purchased  by  the  Skinners,  together  with  several  small  tenements  adjacent, 
in  the  reign  of  Henry  HI.  (about  1260-62).  The  Company  afterwards  held  it  under  a  licence  of 
mortmain  granted  by  that  king.  It  was  subsequently  alienated,  though  by  what  means  is  uncertain,  and  in 
1326,  according  to  Stow,  it  was  possessed  by  Ralph  de  Cobham,  the  brave  Kentish  warrior,  who  made 
Edward  HI.  his  heir.  Edward  HI.  restored  the  hall  to  the  Skinners  at  about  the  time  of  the  Company's 
legal  incorporation  (1327). 

Of  Copped  Hall  no  plan  exists,  but  it  is  probable  that  four  small  tenements  occupied  the  Dowgate 
Hill  frontage  (50  feet),  and  it  is  known  that  there  was  a  court  or  quadrangle  somewhat  like  the  present 
one  with  an  entrance  from  it  direct  into  the  hall.  It  perished  in  the  Great  Fire  of  1666,  soon  after  which 
the  rubbish  and  lead  were  sold.  There  still  remain,  however,  some  of  the  old  walls,  and  the  great  stone 
fireplace  of  the  kitchen  was  discovered  when  excavating  in  the  present  cellars  about  1870.  On  October 
15,  1668,  a  committee,  of  which  Sir  George  Waterman,  Master  of  the  Skinners,  and  Sir  Thomas  Pilkington 
were  members,  was  appointed  to  carry  out  the  rebuilding,  the  Company  meanwhile  holding  their  courts 
in  various  places  as  at  Salters'  Hall,  the  Red  Bull  Inn,  Bishopsgate,  and  in  the  church  of  St.  Helen. 

In  November  1688  "the  front  houses  at  Skinners'  Hall"  were  ordered  to  be  rebuilt ;  in  the  February 
following  the  Renter  was  empowered  to  make  a  gateway  of  stone  or  timber  as  he  thought  fit ;  and  the 
quadrangle  was  ordered  to  be  40  feet  square.  By  1672  the  rebuilding  must  have  been  practically  finished, 
for  Sir  George  Waterman  kept  his  mayoralty  here  in  1672-73,  renting  the  hall  for  .;!{,i6o. 

The  Dowgate  Hill  front  was  rebuilt  under  the  Company's  surveyor  in  1777,  and  Mr.  Jupp,  afterwards 
surveyor  to  the  Company,  also  made  some  alterations.  This  front  is  somewhat  like  that  of  Old  Covent 
Garden  Theatre  in  the  time  of  Garrick.  It  is  a  regular  three-storied  building  of  the  Ionic  order.  The 
basement  part  to  the  level  of  the  first  story  is  of  stone,  and  rusticated ;  from  this  rise  six  pilasters 
supporting  an  entablature  and  pediment  all  of  the  same  material.  In  the  tympanum  are  the  Company's 
arms.  In  the  facade  are  two  doorways,  one  leading  to  the  (|uadrangle  before  the  great  hall,  the  other  to 
the  clerks'  offices.  Across  the  quadrangle  is  a  carved  doorway,  the  principal  entrance  to  the  lobby  in 
front  of  the  great  hall.  This  hall  is  a  very  handsome  apartment.  It  was  rebuilt  1849-50  under  the 
direction  of  Mr.  G.  B.  Moore,  and  was  restored  and  decorated  in  1891  at  much  expense.  VSp  to  tiiat 
time  the  walls  had  been  wainscotted ;  they  are  now  panelled  in  light  oak  to  a  higher  level,  the  panelling 
being  crowned  by  a  fine  frieze  decorated  with  raised  shields,  and  a  cornice.  The  carved  roof  is  richly 
decorated  and  contains  a  wagon-headed  skylight.  The  entrance  to  the  hall  is  at  the  north  end  through 
a  splendid  carved  oak  screen,  which  in  1891  supplanted  the  original  Ionic  screen  ordered  for  the  hall  in 
1760.  Behind  the  hall  is  a  small  Committee  room  with  a  good  fireplace,  above  which  is  a  carved  panel 
in  the  style  of  Grinling  Gibbons.  Beyond  is  the  court  room.  On  the  fioor  above  is  the  great  cedar 
parlour  or  withdrawing  room.  It  is  a  magnificent  chamber,  redolent  with  the  scent  of  the  red  cedar,  in 
which  material  the  whole  of  the  interior  is  executed.  The  cedar  wood  is  said  to  have  been  ijresented  by 
the  East  India  Company.  The  walls  are  wainscotted  up  to  the  frieze  and  cornice,  the  former  of  which  is 
carved  both  in  light  and  dark  wood,  the  whole  being  richly  gilt.  I'Vom  the  cornice  springs  the  coved 
ceiling,  which  is  panelled  and  painted,  and  which,  some  years  ago,  when  the  room  was  redecorated  under 
the  mastershii)    of   Mr.   Charles    Barry,  architect,  was   substituted  for   the    old    ceiling.     The   doors   are 


240  SURVEY  OF  THE   CITY  OF   LONDON 

handsomely  carved  and  pedimented.  Over  the  fireplace  is  a  panel  carved  in  Grinling  Gibbon's  best 
style,  displaying  the  Company's  arms  wreathed  about  with  festoons  of  dark  wood  on  the  light  cedar  panel. 

At  one  end,  in  glass  cases,  are  two  curious  coloured  statuettes,  one  representing  Edward  III.,  the 
other  Sir  Andrew  Judd,  both  neat  pieces  of  work. 

The  grand  staircase  is  well  designed,  and  displays  some  of  the  massy  carving  and  rich  ornaments  in 
vogue  just  after  the  Great  Fire.  Attached  to  the  hall  is  a  small  garden,  in  which  are  a  tree  and  several 
flower-beds,  also  a  curiously  embossed  cistern  dated  1768.  The  original  cost  of  the  Skinners'  Hall  was, 
according  to  the  A'ew  Vieza  of  London  (1708),  ;^i8,ooo,  but  much  has  since  been  spent  upon  it. 
Several  Lord  Mayors  and  sheriffs  have  kept  their  year  of  office  here,  and  in  1691  the  new  East  India 
Company,  before  their  incorporation  with  the  old  Company,  began  to  hold  their  meetings  here,  paying  an 
annual  rent  of  ^C^oo.  In  consequence  of  these  meetings  the  new  Company  afterwards  presented  to  the 
hall  a  carved  mahogany  court-table  and  silver  candlesticks. 


THE   DYERS   COMPANY 

The  Dyers  Company  was  in  existence  in  1381,  and  probably  even  earlier. 

The  first  charter  was  that  granted  by  Henry  VI.  in  147 1  ;  this  was  renewed  by  Edward  IV.  in  1472. 
The  charter  was  confirmed  or  renewed  by  Henry  VIII.,  Edward  VI.,  Elizabeth,  and  Mary.  An  Inspeximus 
charter  was  granted,  2  Elizabeth  1559  and  by  4  James  I.  1606;  James  II.  gave  the  Company  a  charter 
1688,  and  they  were  re-incorporated  by  Anne  1704. 

The  number  of  the  livery  is  now  61  ;  the  Corporate  Income  is  ;!^5ooo;  the  Trust  Income  ;£iooo. 

The  Company  has  the  right  to  keep  swans  on  the  river  Thames.  This  privilege  they  share  with  the 
vintners,  and  the  "  Barge  masters  ''  of  both  Companies  have  the  care  of  the  swans. 

Dyers'  Hall  extends  from  Skinners'  Hall  to  the  corner  of  College  Street,  and  occupies  the  site  of 
Jesus'  Commons,  which  was,  says  Stow  (1598),  "a  college  of  priests,  a  house  well  furnished  with  brass, 
pewter,  napery,  plate,  etc.,  besides  a  fair  library  well  stored  with  books,  all  which  of  old  time  was  given  to 
a  number  of  priests  that  should  keep  commons  there,  and  as  one  left  his  place,  by  death  or  otherwise, 
another  should  be  admitted  into  his  room,  but  this  order  within  this  thirty  years  being  discontinued,  the 
said  house  was  dissolved,  and  turned  to  tenements  " 

The  Dyers'  Hall  consists  of  a  plain  four-storied  building,  the  basement  being  of  stone,  the  upper 
part  of  white  brick  with  stone  facings.  Part  of  the  lower  story  is  let  out  as  business  premises,  the  corner  at 
College  Street  being  allotted  to  the  Bunch  of  Grapes  Inn.  The  great  hall  is  a  large  and  lofty  room,  but 
comparatively  plain.  It  is  relieved  by  rather  handsome  frieze  and  cornice  and  is  lighted  by  two  windows, 
one  at  either  end. 

The  Company's  Hall  in  use  prior  to  1666  stood  at  the  south  end  of  what  is  now  Dyers'  Hall  Wharf, 
Upper  Thames  Street.  It  was  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire  and  ai.iparently  rebuilt  in  a  stately  manner,  but 
again  destroyed  by  fire  in  1681.  (Malcolm,  1802.)  For  several  years  the  Company  met  in  Salters'  Hall. 
Maitland  (1739)  says  "the  Company  has  converted  one  of  their  houses  in  little  Elbow  Lane  into  a  hall  to 
transact  their  business  in."  This  fell  down  in  1768.  The  next  hall  was  erected  about  1770.  It  was  a 
tolerably  spacious  unassuming  building,  the  exterior  distinguished  by  a  double  flight  of  steps,  but  was  not 
of  any  architectural  merit.  The  present  hall  was  built  1839-40  (Charles  Dyer,  architect).  Some  additions 
and  alterations  were  made  to  it  1865-67  by  D.  A.  Corbett,  architect.  (See  Lond.  and  Mid.  Anii.  Trans. 
vol.  V.  p.  452.) 

The  Dyers'  Wharf  estate  is  now  covered  with  warehouses.  Those  on  the  riverside  are  known  as  the 
Monument  Bonded  Warehouses.     The  archives  of  the  Company  were  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire. 

The  slope  of  Dowgate  Hill  is  now  a  gradual  one,  but  Stow  speaks  of  it  as  of 
rapid  descent,  and  relates  that  in  1574  the  channels  became  so  swollen  and  swift  iit 
a  heavy  storm  of  rain,  that  a  lad  of  eighteen,  endeavouring  to  leap  over  near  the 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  241 

conduit,  was  taken  with  the  stream  and  carried  thence  against  a  cartwheel  that  stood 
in  the  Watergate,  "before  which  time  he  was  drowned  and  stark  dead."  Strype 
(1720)  mentions  that  the  hill  was  still  so  steep  that  in  great  rains  floods  arose  In  the 
lower  parts.      Ben  Jonson  speaks  of  "  Dowgate  torrents  falling  into  Thames." 

Dowgate  Wharf  or  Dock  is  supposed  to  have  gained  its  name  from  its  steep 
descent  to  the  river,  as  it  was  sometimes  called  Downgate,  but  this  derivation  sounds 
highly  improbable.  One  of  the  most  ancient  ferries  over  the  Thames  was  at 
Dowgate.  On  the  east  side  of  the  dock  is  Walbrook  Wharf,  showing  the  spot 
vi^here  the  ancient  stream,  the  Walbrook,  reached  the  Thames. 

Robert  Green  the  dramatist,  from  whom  Shakespeare  borrowed  the  plot  of  his 
Wittier s  Tale,  died  (1592)  in  an  obscure  lodging  at  the  house  of  a  shoemaker  In 
Dowgate,  Indebted  to  his  landlord  for  the  bare  necessaries  of  life. 

At  the  north  end  of  Dowgate  Hill  near  Cloak  Lane  stood  St.  John  the  Baptist's 
Church. 

St.  John  the  Baptist  was  situated  on  the  west  side  of  Dowgate  Hill  in  the  ward  of  ^Valbrook. 
Eccksia  Sancti  Jahannis  super  Walbroc,  occurs  about  1181;  eccksia  Snncti  Joins  de  /f  (?/(^/w-4  is  set  down 
in  the  "Taxatio  Ecclesiasticus  "  of  Pope  Nicholas  IV.  (1291).  The  first  mention  of  the  church  is  con- 
tained in  a  book  at  the  Cathedral  (Newcourt,  i.  p.  371)  compiled  in  the  time  of  Ralph  de  Diceto  made 
dean  1 181.  The  entry  is  as  follows  : — '■^Eccksia  Sancti Johaiinis  super  Walhroc  est  Canonicorum,  &  reddit 
eis  ii  sol.  per  manum  Vitalis  clerici,  solvit  Synodalia  ivd,  Archidiacono  .\iid.  \:  habet  in  domino  suo  quondam 
terram,  quae  reddit  ii  sol.  &  est  de  feodo  Willimi  de  la  Mare,  &  etiam  terrulam,  quae  est  inter  ecclesiam  & 
Walbroc  &  reddit  iii  soi.     non  habet  coemiterium." 

Thus  the  earliest  church  stood  upon  the  east  side  of  the  stream,  a  little  tract  of  land  intervening 
between  its  west  wall  and  the  bank.  When  the  watercourse  was  diverted  to  flow  more  eastwards,  the 
chancel  bordered  on  the  brook.  It  was  rebuilt  about  141 2,  and  again  in  162 1,  but  destroyed  by  the 
Great  Fire  in  1666,  when  its  parish  was  annexed  to  that  of  St.  Antholin.  The  earliest  date  of  an 
incumbent  is  1 150. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's  in  1150,  who 
granted  it  to  the  Prioress  and  Convent  of  St.  Helen  about  1373,  till  it  was  seized  by  Henry  VIII.  and 
so  continued  in  the  Crown  up  to  167 1,  when  it  was  annexed  to  St.  Antholin. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  375. 

Only  two  monuments  are  recorded  by  Stow  as  being  of  note — W.  Combarton,  Skinner,  who  gave 
lands  to  the  church,  buried  1410;  and  John  Stone,  Taylor,  Sheriff  1464. 

The  site  of  the  building  was  converted  Into  a  churchyard,  and  upon  the  wall  is 
a  stone  with  this  inscription  : 

"  'Before  the  dreadfuU  Fire,  anno  domini  1666,  here  stood  the  parish  church  St.  John  Baptist,  upon 
Walbrook— William  Wilkins,  James  Whitchurch,  churchwardens  this  present  year  anno  domini  1674.'  The 
above  stone  was  refaced,  and  the  letters  fresh  cut  anno  domini  1836 — Rev.  John  Gordon  M.-A..  rector, 
Edward  Jones,  Lewis  AV'illiams,  churchwardens." 

The  parsonage  was  not  rebuilt,  and  Strype  notes  (1754,  vol.  i.  p.  516)  that  neither 
its  site  nor  that  of  its  garden  was  given  in  the  1693  visitation.  Newcourt 
{Reper/oritDH,    i.    p.    371)    further    notes    that    the    same    visitation    records    great 


242  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

encroachments  having  been  made  on  the  churchyard  since  the  Fire  "to  some  of 
which  the  parish  had  consented,  and  others  have  been  done  by  the  Lord  Mayor  and 
Court  of  Aldermen,  without  the  consent  of  the  Archbishop  and  Bishop  of  London 
(as  'tis  said)  and  the  Chamberlain  of  London  receives  the  rent  for  them." 

It  was  reserved  for  the  commercial  civilisation  of  this  century  to  "  encroach  "  the 
churchyard  out  of  existence.  The  Act  of  the  Metropolitan  Railway  gave  the 
Company  power  to  construct  their  Cannon  Street  Station  (1883)  under  the  burial- 
ground,  and  to  remove  the  human  remains.  The  churchyard  is  no  more  ;  the 
greater  part  of  its  site  is  enclosed  by  a  brick  wall  which  screens  the  opening  in  the 
roof  of  the  station  below.  At  the  extreme  west  end  an  asphalted  square  has  been 
railed  in  and  reserved  as  a  home  for  gravestones,  and  a  large  ornament  bearing 
this  melancholy  and  curious  inscription  : 

Sacred  to  the  memory  of  the  dead  interred  in  the  ancient  church  and  churchyard  of  St.  John  the 
Baptist  upon  Walbrook  during  four  centuries.  The  formation  of  the  District  Railway  having  necessitated 
the  destruction  of  the  greater  part  of  the  churchyard,  all  the  human  remains  contained  therein  were 
carefully  collected  and  re-interred  in  a  vault  beneath  this  monument  a.d.  1884. — Rev.  Lewis  Borrett 
White,  D.D.,  rector;  John  R.  W.  Luck,  Edward  A\'hite,  churchwardens. 

But  why  sacred  to  the  memory  of  the  dead  during  "four  centuries"  only.'' 
Had  not  those  buried  previously  to  1484  any  right  to  commemoration?  The 
churchyard  existed  in  1378  and  the  church  in  1181.  Truly  inscription  writers  are 
marvellous  in  their  discriminating  powers.  The  vault  containing  the  remains  is 
situated  alongside  the  railway  line  beneath. 

Very  interesting  discoveries  were  made  when  excavating  for  the  station. 
Mr.  E.  P.  Seaton,  the  resident  engineer,  has  preserved  some  careful  notes,  from 
which  the  following  is  an  extract:  "At  the  west  end  of  the  churchyard  was  found 
a  subway  running  north  and  south.  The  arch  was  formed  of  stone  blocks  (Kentish 
rag)  placed  3  feet  apart,  the  space  between  being  filled  up  with  brickwork.  The 
sides  were  of  worked  red  ragstones,  8  by  1 1  inches,  and  3  feet  long  (some  i  foot 
4  inches  long),  surrounded  with  rough  rubble  masonry,  set  in  mortar  of  a  brown 
colour.  The  Hat  bottom  varied  from  2  to  4  feet  in  thickness  and  was  formed 
of  random  rubble  masonry.  The  brick  invert  was  of  much  later  date,  about  6 
inches  thick  and  almost  a  semicircle.  The  space  between  the  underside  of  that  and 
the  bottom  was  filled  with  made  earth.  A  portion  of  the  arch  had  been  broken 
in,  and  was  filled  with  human  bones.  The  other  parts  of  the  subway  or  sewer  were 
filled  with  hand-packed  stones.  This  is  supposed  to  be  the  centre  of  the  ancient 
Walbrook  (this  supposition  is  quite  correct)  and  made  earth  was  found  to  a  distance 
of  35  feet  from  the  surface.  Clay  of  a  light  grey  colour  was  then  found, 
impregnated  with  the  decayed  roots  of  water-plants.  The  foundations  (it  is  a 
matter  ot  regret  that  no  plan  of  the  foundations  was  taken  ;  the  opportunity  is  now 
lost  for  ever)  of  the  old  church  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  destroyed  1666,  and  pulled  down 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  243 

about  1677,  were  discovered  about  10  to  12  feet  from  the  surface  and  composed  of 
chalk  and  Kentish  ragstones.  They  ran  about  north-north-east  to  south-south- 
west. Piles  of  oak  were  found  which  seem  to  denote  that  the  church  was  built  on 
the  edge  of  the  brook,  which  must  have  been  filled  up  during  the  Roman  occupation, 
as  numerous  pieces  of  Roman  pottery  were  found."  The  bottom  of  the  Walbrook 
valley  was  reached  at  32  feet  below  the  present  street  level,  and  is  now  1 1  feet  below 
the  level  of  the  lines  in  the  station.  During  the  excavations  the  piles  and  sill  of 
the  Horseshoe  bridge  which  crossed  the  Walbrook  hereabouts  were  also  found  near 
the  churchyard,  together  with  the  remains  of  an  ancient  boat.  These  were 
unfortunately  too  rotten  to  preserve,  but  a  block  of  Roman  herring-bone  pavement, 
formerly  constituting  part  of  a  causeway  or  landing-place  on  the  brook,  is  now 
at  the  Guildhall  Museum.  It  was  found  beneath  the  churchyard  21  feet  below 
the  present  level  of  the  street,  and  was  presented  by  the  rector  and  church- 
wardens. Most  of  the  Samian  pottery  and  Roman  coins  found  at  this  time  were 
also  presented  to  the  Guildhall. 

THE   TALLOW   CHANDLERS   COMPANY 

The  first  charter  of  incorporation  of  this  Company  bears  date  the  Sth  of  March  1462, 
2  Edward  IV.,  wherein  the  then  members  of  the  Company  are  described  as  "  our  beloved  and  faithful 
subjects,  the  Freemen  of  the  Mystery  or  Art  of  Tallough  Chandlers  of  our  City  of  London." 

It  is  evident,  however,  that  a  company,  guild,  or  other  association  of  tallow  chandlers  existed  in 
London  before  the  date  of  the  above  charter,  seeing  that  in  the  year  1426,  or  thirty-six  years  prior 
thereto,  Letters  Patent  were  granted  by  Henry  VL  to  the  mayor  of  the  City  of  London,  and  the  master 
and  wardens  of  the  Mystery  or  Craft  of  Tallow  Chandlers  of  the  same  city  for  the  time  being,  empowering 
them  to  search  for  and  destroy  all  bad  and  adulterated  oils. 

Also  in  the  year  1456,  or  six  years  prior  to  the  said  charter,  a  grant  of  arms  and  crest  was  made  by 
John  Smert,  Garter  King -at -Arms,  to  John  Priour,  John  Thurlow,  William  Blakeman,  and  Richard 
Grenecroft,  sworn  wardens  or  keepers  (gardiens)  and  several  other  notable  men  of  the  trade  and  of  the 
Company  of  Tallow  Chandlers  (Chandeliers  de  Suif)  of  the  City  of  London,  on  behalf  of  and  in  the  name 
of  their  whole  confraternity. 

At  present  there  is  a  livery  of  102  ;  the  Corporate  Income  was  not  returned  to  the  Commissioners. 
The  Trust  Income  is  ^220.  Maitland  says  that  the  Fraternity  anciently  dealt  not  only  in  candles,  but 
also  in  oils,  vinegar,  butter,  hops,  soap,  etc. 

Stow  designates  the  hall  of  the  Tallow  Chandlers  "  a  proper  house."  After  the  Great  Fire  it  was 
rebuilt  (1672).  In  1884  a  large  red  brick  and  terra-cotta  building  of  five  stories,  standing  upon  a 
granite  base,  was  erected  on  Dowgate  Hill  instead,  and  upon  the  site  of  the  old  house  of  the  Company's 
clerk  and  beadle,  and  tlie  hall  is  now  approached  by  a  vestibule  running  under  this  building. 
The  vestibule  leads  into  an  open  quadrangle,  which  was  diminished  when  the  above-mentioned 
house  was  built.  It  is  surrounded  by  a  Tuscan  piazza  of  ten  arcades.  This  piazza  in  part  belongs 
to  the  1672  building.  It  was  restored  in  187 1.  The  building  itself  is  of  red  brick.  On  the  first  floor  is 
the  great  hall,  a  handsome  apartment  50  feet  long  by  27  feet  wide,  having  a  decorated  ceiling,  and  walls 
wainscotted  with  oak  panelling  and  looking-glass  to  a  height  of  30  feet.  On  the  south  wall  are  three 
great  mirrors  ;  in  a  broken  pediment  over  the  central  one  are  the  arms  of  Charles  II.  At  the  north  end  is 
a  carved  oak  screen,  in  the  centre  of  which  are  tlie  entrance  doors,  of  handsome  carved  work  filled  with 
stained  glass,  erected  in  1894.      The  screen  itself  is  of  the  1672  building.      A  heavy  carved  frieze  and 


244  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

cornice  passes  round  the  hall  above  the  long  windows.  The  pictures  include  two  by  Sir  Godfrey  Kneller. 
The  court  parlour  is  the  handsomest  room.  It  is  wainscotted  to  the  ceiling,  which  is  magnificently  panelled 
in  oak,  and  richly  gilt,  having  in  the  centre  an  oval  compartment  enclosed  by  an  exquisitely  moulded  wreath 
of  flowers.     The  rest  is  divided  into  squares  and  oblongs,  filled  with  groups  of  flowers  and  fruit. 

An  inscription  tells  us  : 

"This  parlour  was  wainscotted  at  the  expense  of  Sir  Joseph  Sheldon,  Knt.,  a  member  of  this 
Company  and  Lord  Mayor  of  this  City  a.d.  1675.  Who  also  gave  this  Company  a  barge  with  all 
its  furniture." 

On  the  second  floor  is  the  court-room,  which  is  also  wainscotted  to  the  ceiling. 

Dowgate,  the  Steelyard,  and  Cold  Harbour  were  all  very  near  together.  The 
Steelyard  was  so  called  from  the  beam  of  steel  by  which  goods  imported  into 
London  were  weighed.  It  stood  just  where  Cannon  Street  Station  now  is.  It  had 
a  fine  hall  and  courtyard,  and  was  for  300  years  held  by  the  members  of  the 
Hanseatic  League,  a  community  of  foreigners  who  enjoyed  the  monopoly  of 
importing  hemp,  corn,  wax,  linen  and  many  other  things  into  England,  to  the  great 
loss  of  our  own  traders.     (See  London  in  the  time  of  the  Tndors,  p.  82.) 

Beyond  the  station  is  the  City  of  London  Brewery.  The  archway  spanning 
the  central  entrance  to  this  occupies  the  site  of  an  earlier  arch  which  once  carried 
the  choir  and  steeple  of  Allhallows  the  Less,  and  led  to  what  Stow  speaks  of  as 
"the  great  house  called  Cold  Harbrough."  Its  site  is  now  covered  by  the  brewery. 
The  name  of  the  house  is  conjectured  to  be  a  corruption  of  the  German  words 
Coiner  Herberg  (Cologne  Inn),  which  passed  into  Coin  Harbrough,  Cole  Harbrough, 
Cold  Harbrough,  and  Cold  Harbour.  Cologne  being  one  of  the  principal  of  the 
Hanse  towns,  the  proximity  of  the  steelyard  makes  this  derivation  appear  likely. 
There  are  several  Cold  Harbours  in  England,  none  of  them  remarkable  for  bleak 
situations,  but  most  of  them  existing  in  places  where  commerce  once  greatly  throve. 
The  house  stood  at  the  water's  edge.  It  was  a  large  building,  with  steps  leading 
down  to  the  river  through  an  arched  door.  About  the  year  1600  it  is  represented 
with  five  gables  facing  the  water,  and  rows  of  mullioned  diamond-pane  windows — 
a  beautiful  building.  It  had  the  right  of  sanctuary,  though  how  or  when  gained  is 
not  known. 

Until  1607  Cold  Harbour  had  been  outside  the  City  jurisdiction,  for  it  is 
one  of  the  places  added  to  the  City's  rule  by  the  charter  of  James  I.  to  the 
mayor,  commonalty,  and  citizens  of  London  in  that  year.  It  must  have  been 
deserted  by  its  original  inhabitants,  the  Cologne  merchants,  before  the  reign  of 
Edward  II.  It  belonged  to  the  Poultney  family,  and  was  for  some  time  called 
Poultney's  Inn. 

"In  the  year  1397,  21  Richard  II.,  John  Holland,  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  was 
lodged  there,  and  Richard  II.,  his  brother,  dined  with  him.  It  was  then  counted  a 
right  fair  and  stately   house :    but    in    the   next   year  following   Edmond,    Earl  of 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  245 

Cambridge,  was  there  lodged,  notwithstanding  the  said  house  still  retained  the  name 
of  Poultney's  Inn  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VI.,  the  26th  of  his  reign  "  (Stow). 

In  1410  Henry  IV.  gave  it  to  Henry,  Prince  of  Wales,  for  life.  Margaret, 
Countess  of  Richmond,  mother  of  Henry  VII.,  lodged  here  temporarily;  in  the 
reign  of  Henry  VIII.,  the  Bishop  of  Durham's  house,  already  mentioned,  "being 
taken  into  the  King's  hands,"  Cuthbert  Tunstall,  Bishop  of  Durham,  was  lodged  in 
"the  Cold  Harbrough."  This  Bishop  of  Durham  remained  here  until  1553,  when 
he  was  deposed  from  his  bishopric  and  Cold  Harbour  was  taken  from  him.  It  was 
granted  by  Edward  VI.,  together  with  its  appurtenances  and  six  houses  or  tenements 
in  the  parish  of  St.  Dunstan's-in-the-East,  and  certain  lands  in  Yorkshire,  to  the 
Earl  of  Shrewsbury  and  his  heirs.  Edward  VI.  is  said  to  have  given  it  to  the  Earl 
at  the  instance  of  the  Duke  of  Northumberland,  "  who  practised  to  gain  as  many  of 
the  nobility  as  he  could  to  his  purpose.  "  It  then  became  known  as  Shrewsbury 
House.  Francis,  fifth  Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  who  died  in  1560,  and  his  son,  the  sixth 
Earl,  the  guardian  for  fifteen  years  of  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  took  it  down,  "and  in 
place  thereof  built  a  great  number  of  small  tenements,  now  letten  out  for  great  rents 
to  people  of  all  sorts"  (Stow).  The  Earl  died  in  1590.  The  tenements  were 
destroyed  in  the  Fire  of  1666.  No  remains  of  the  building  exist  unless  Wren 
utilised  some  of  the  stones  in  rebuilding  Allhallows  the  Great.  Hubbard,  writing 
in  1843,  says  that  a  foundation  wall  of  the  house  and  the  ancient  stairs  still  survived 
in  his  time. 

Stow  calls  The  Erber  a  "great  old  house"  and  says  that  Geoffrey  Scroope  held 
it  by  gift  of  Edward  III.  in  1341.  It  subsequently  belonged  to  John  Nevil,  Earl  of 
Raby,  who  appears  to  have  died  some  years  prior  to  1 396.  The  last  of  the 
honourable  family  of  the  Scroopes  to  possess  it  was  William  de  Scroope,  Knt., 
who  lived  in  the  reign  of  Henry  IV.  He  gave  it  for  life  to  his  brother  Ralph  Nevil, 
Earl  of  Westmoreland,  who  married,  as  his  second  wife,  Joan,  daughter  of  the  Duke 
of  Lancaster.  Ralph  Nevil  died,  seised  of  the  Erber,  in  1426,  and  his  wife  in  1441. 
Their  son  Richard  Nevil,  Earl  of  Salisbury,  was  lodged  here  in  1547.  He  died 
in  1460,  and  the  Erber  passed  to  his  son  Richard,  Earl  of  Warwick  and  Salisbury, 
"the  king-maker,"  who  was  slain  at  the  battle  of  Barnet  Field  in  1471.  In  1474, 
George,  Duke  of  Clarence,  who  had  married  Isabel,  daughter  of  "the  king-maker," 
then  received  it  from  Edward  IV.  who  gave  it  to  him  and  his  heirs  so  long  as  there  was 
living  male  issue  of  the  Marquis  Montacute.  If  the  said  male  issue  should  die  during 
the  duke's  life,  then  the  duke  to  remain  seised  for  life,  taking  precedence  of  the  rights 
of  all  others  than  the  marquis  and  his  issue.  The  Duke  of  Clarence  died  in  1479. 
After  his  death,  Edward,  his  son,  was  seised  of  the  Erber,  and  George,  Duke  of  Bed- 
ford, son  of  John  Nevil,  Marquis  Montacute,  dying  without  male  issue  in  1483,  the  lands 
remained  in  the  hands  of  Edward  till  1500,  when  he  was  attainted  and  the  lands  thus 
came  to  the  Crown.      Here  they  remained  until  1512,  when  Henry  VIII.  gave  them 


246  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

to  John,  Earl  of  Oxford,  and  his  heirs  male.  In  1513  the  King  gave  the  reversion 
to  Sir  Thomas  Bulleyn,  Knt.,  and  his  male  heirs.  In  15  14  he  restored  Margaret, 
daughter  and  heir  to  George,  Duke  of  Clarence,  and  to  all  the  lands  of  Richard, 
Earl  of  Salisbury,  "who  by  colour  of  restitution  entered,  and  was  attainted  in  1540. 
So  the  lands  came  back  to  the  Crown,  and  were  given  in  the  next  year  to  Sir  Philip 
Hoby,  who  in  1545  sold  the  Erber  to  one  Doulphin,  a  draper,  who  in  1553  sold  it 
to  the  Drapers  Company.  Strype,  who  gives  these  particulars,  says  that  notwith- 
standing this  account  "by  some  lawyers  and  historians  in  those  days,"  it  appears  by 
the  Rolls  (1405)  that  there  was  a  surrender  of  the  Erber  from  Ralph,  Earl  of 
Westmoreland,  to  the  King  for  the  use  of  John  Darrel,  and  Walter  de  Arkham  ;  that 
Richard  III.  possessed  it  under  the  name  of  "  The  King's  Palace,"  and  that  one 
Ralph  Dowel,  a  yeoman  of  the  Crown,  was  keeper  of  this  place.  Dowel  seems  to 
have  repaired  not  only  the  Erber,  but  also  other  houses  belonging  to  it,  "particularly 
a  brewhouse  called  the  Chequer,"  as  appears  by  a  ledger-book  of  the  King's  in 
which  the  accounts  of  Dowel  are  said  to  be  examined  by  John  Hewyk,  one  of  the 
King's  auditors.  Orders  were  given  to  Lethington,  bailiff  of  the  lordship  of  the 
Clavering  in  Essex,  "to  content  him,"  but  ^14  :  18  :  3  still  remained  in  arrears  due 
to  him  for  the  repairs.  Stow  says  that  the  Erber  had  been  lately  rebuilt  by  Sir 
Thomas  Pullison,  and  that  it  was  afterwards  inhabited  by  Sir  Thomas  Drake. 

St.  Mary  Bothaw  was  situated  on  the  east  side  of  Turnwheele  Lane,  Cannon  Street.  The  date  of 
foundation  is  unknown.  Newcourt  mentions  Adam  Lambyn  as  a  rector,  who  died  1279.  In  the  Taxation 
Book  of  Pope  Nicholas  IV.,  1291,  the  church  occurs  as  Sancte  Marie  de  Bothaw.  It  was  destroyed  by 
the  Great  Fire,  but  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being  annexed  to  that  of  St.  Swithin.  Stow  supposes,  for  want 
of  a  better  theory,  that  "  this  church  being  near  unto  the  Down-Gate  in  the  river  of  Thames,  hath  the 
addition  of  Bothaw,  or  Boat  Haw,  of  near  adjoining  to  a  haw  or  yard,  wherein  of  old  time  boats  were 
made,  and  landed  from  Downgate  to  be  mended."  Strype  mentions  that  it  seems  "  of  old  to  be  called 
St.  Mary  de  Bothache,"  and  Mr.  Loftie  in  his  London  City  (1891)  says  that  the  name  is  "most  likely  from 
'la  board  hatch,'  a  wooden  gate-lock  called  also  in  some  ancient  documents  'Board-Hatch.'"  The  map 
by  Agas  c.  1560,  and  Hollar's  view  of  London,  call  the  church  St.  Mary  Buttolph  Lane.  It  is  somewhat 
remarkable  that  Dowgate  is  almost  the  only  one  of  the  older  City  gates  which  has  no  Church  of  St.  Botolph 
near  by,  as  at  Billingsgate,  Aldgate,  Bishopsgate,  and  Aldersgate.  The  term  St.  Mary  Bothol  occurs  more 
than  once  in  records  of  the  sixteenth  century.  Can  it  be  that  the  name  bears  witness  to  the  existence  of  a 
St.  Botolph's  Church  here,  which  was  dedicated  to  the  Virgin,  with  the  name  Botolph  attached  as  a 
remembrance  of  the  former  appellation?     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1281. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Prior  and  Convent  of  Christ  Church, 
Canterbury,  before  1281  ;  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Canterbury  from  1552  up  to  the  time  it  was  annexed 
to  St.  Swithin  in  1666. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  182. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  :  By  Lady  Joan  Fastolf,  to  which  Robert  Kirke  was  instituted.  May  10, 
1445  j  by  and  for  John,  son  of  Adam  de  Salusbury,  who  endowed  it  with  a  tenement  called  the  "Key"  in 
Coleman  Street,  which  fetched  £,1  in  1548;  by  and  for  John  Hamond,  before  1387  ;  by  James  le  Butler; 
by  Hugh  Fostall. 

Many  noble  persons  were  buried  here,  as  appeared  from  the  arms  in  the  windows,  the  defaced  tombs, 
and  print  of  plates  torn  up  and  carried  away.  The  most  remarkable,  perhaps,  was  that  of  Sir  Henry 
Fitz-Alwine,  draper,  the  first  Lord  Mayor  of  London,  who  continued  in  his  position  for  twenty-four  years. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  247 

Here,  too,  Robert  Chicheley,  grocer  and  mayor  of  London  in  1422,  was  buried  ;  he  appointed  by  his  will 
that  2400  poor  men  should  each  have  a  good  dinner  on  his  birthday,  and  he  also  gave  a  plot  of  land  for 
the  building  of  the  parish  church,  called  St.  Stephen's,  Walbrook. 
No  charitable  gifts  are  recorded  by  Stow 

At  the  construction  of  Cannon  Street  station  and  hotel,  in  1 866-68,  the  churchyard 
was  buik  over.  Its  site  is  now  immediately  under  the  steps  leading  from  the  hotel 
to  the  forecourt,  and  is  occupied  by  part  of  a  corridor,  a  carpenter's  shop,  a  knife- 
cleaning  room,  and  a  coal  cellar,  all  of  which  belong  to  the  hotel  basement. 

The  north-western  side  of  the  station  forecourt  stands  upon  the  site  of 
Turnwheele  Lane,  a  narrow  turning  which  formerly  led  from  Cannon  Street  by 
a  westerly  slope  into  Dowgate  Hill,  which  it  joined  opposite  the  northern  boundary 
of  Skinners'  Hall.  Stow  calls  it  "a  little  lane  with  a  turnjaike  in  the  middle 
thereof."  Strype  (1720)  terms  it  Turnwheele  Lane,  but  the  New  Remarks  of  London 
(1732)  style  it  Turnmill  Lane.  By  the  eastern  side  of  the  station  runs  Allhallows 
Lane  leading  northward  into  Bush  Lane.  The  church  of  Allhallows  the  Great  stood 
here  until  1898,  and  east  of  it  was  Allhallows  the  Less. 

Allhallows  the  Great  was  situated  on  the  south  side  of  Thames  Street.  This  church  has  been 
known,  at  various  times,  as  All  Saints,  AUhallows-ad-foenum,  AUhallows-in-the-Hay,  AUhallows-in-the-Ropery 
("because,"  says  Stow,  "of  hay  sold  thereunto  at  Hay  Wharf,  and  ropes  of  old  time  made  and  sold  in  the 
high  street"),  Allhallows  the  More  ("for  a  difTerence  from  Allhallows  the  Less"),  Allhallows  the  Great,  which 
has  been  the  name  at  least  since  the  Fire.  Of  its  first  foundation  there  is  no  record,  but  from  the  fact 
that  the  riverside  is  the  oldest  inhabited  part  of  the  City  it  may  be  nearly  coeval  with  the  establishment  of 
Christianity  in  London.  The  first  actual  mention  of  it  is  in  1361  when,  according  to  Newcourt,  one 
Thomas  de  Wodeford  was  rector.  In  1627  and  1629  it  was  repaired  and  redecorated,  and  a  gallery  built 
at  the  west  end,  but  the  whole  was  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire.  In  1683  it  was  rebuilt,  the  architect  being 
Wren,  and  Allhallows  the  Less,  its  neighbour,  united  with  it  by  Act  of  Parliament.  In  1877  the  tower  and 
north  aisle  were  taken  down  to  widen  Thames  Street.  The  church  was  taken  down  in  1898  The 
earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1279. 

The  patronage  was  in  the  hands  of  the  family  of  Le  Despensers  before  1314;  Richard  Beauchamp  ; 
Richard  Nevil,  Earl  of  Warwick  and  Salisbury,  1465;  George,  Duke  of  Clarence,  before  1480;  Edward, 
eldest  son  of  Isabel,  Duchess  of  Clarence,  1480;  Edward  IV.;  Henry  VII.,  as  a  gift  from  Anne,  widow 
of  Richard  Nevil,  Earl  of  Warwick  and  Salisbury;  Henry  VIII.;  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  by 
exchange,  1569,  in  whose  successors  it  continues 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  550. 

There  was  a  large  cloister  originally  on  the  south  side  of  the  church,  but  it  was  in  a  considerable 
state  of  ruin  in  1627.- 

The  plan  was  nominally  an  oblong  square,  but,  owing  probably  to  the  desire  of  Wren  to  make  use 
of  the  old  foundations,  its  walls  were  neither  built  parallel  nor  four-square.  The  length  was  87  feet,  the 
height  33  feet,  and  the  width  60  feet,  of  which  the  nave  was  made  48  feet  wide  and  a  north  aisle  1 2  feet 
wide.  To  the  north  aisle  was  also  attached  a  heavy  square  tower,  occupying  a  portion  of  the  aisle.  The 
elevation  was  finished  with  a  cornice  and  parapet.  The  tower  rose  above  the  second  division  from  the 
east  to  a  height  of  86  feet.  The  church  was  celebrated  for  its  beautiful  woodwork,  which,  on  its  demoli- 
tion, was  removed  to  St.  Michael  Royal. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by :  Richard  de  Preston,  citizen  and  grocer,  at  the  Altar  of 
St.  Katherine,  for  himself  and  Agnes  his  wife,  and  to  which  Alfred  Lyndon  was  admitted  chaplain  in  1396; 
Peter  Cosin   whose  will  is  dated  1291  (Fat.  43  Edward  III.  p.  2  m.  12);  Sir  Nicholas  Lovin  for  himself 


248  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

and  dame  Margaret  liis  wife ;  William  Lichfield,  augmented  by  Thomas  Westhowe,  both  of  which 
endowments  fetched  jCS  :  i6  :  8  in  1548 ;  and  William  Peston. 

The  church  formerly  contained  monuments  to  :  William  Lichfield,  Doctor  of  Divinity  ;  John  Brickies, 
a  great  benefactor.     Queen  Elizabeth's  monument,  "  If  Royal  \'ertues,  etc.,"  was  also  in  this  church. 

Two  charity  schools  were  erected  in  1715,  consisting  of  thirty  boys  and  twenty  girls  supported  by 
voluntary  subscriptions  from  the  inhabitants  of  the  ward. 

Among  the  notable  rectors  of  this  church  are  :  Thomas  White  (1628-98),  Bishop  of  Peterborough; 
Hon.  James  York,  Bishop  of  Ely,  1781;  Robert  Richardson,  D.D.  (1732-81),  Dean  of  Lincoln; 
Edward  Waddington  (d.  1731),  Bishop  of  Chichester  ;  William  Vincent  (1739-1815),  Dean  of  Westminster; 
William  Cave,  author  (1637-17 13). 

In  1877  a  new  vestry  was  built  on  the  south  side  of  the  church.  It  is  approached 
from  Allhallows  Lane  by  steps,  through  an  arched  doorway,  above  which  stands 
what  is  called  "  the  tower,"  a  mean  erection  and  a  mere  apology  for  a  tower.  Its 
height  does  not  e.xtend  beyond  the  church  roof.  The  vestry  is  fitted  with  the 
panelling  and  the  pedimented  doorway  brought  from  the  old  north  aisle,  from  w^hich 
also  come  the  two  fantastically  and  beautifully  carved  wooden  shields,  now  placed 
respectively  over  the  fireplace  and  the  door.  The  ceiling  is  a  neat  piece  of  panelling. 
The  room  is  used  for  the  holding  of  the  Dowgate  wardmotes.  The  churchyard 
(south  of  the  church)  is  much  higher  than  the  lane  at  its  side.  It  contains  one  tree, 
several  tombs,  and  in  the  north-west  corner  the  vestry-room.  The  enclosure 
remains  an  open  space  even  after  the  demolition  of  the  church. 

Allhallows  Church  was  dismantled  in  1894.  The  screen,  the  pulpit,  the  altar 
rails,  the  brass  candelabra,  and  some  of  the  woodwork  went  to  St.  Margaret, 
Lothbury  ;  the  organ  case,  the  font  rails,  the  statues  of  Moses  and  Aaron,  most  of 
the  carved  woodwork,  the  monuments,  and  the  stained-glass  arms  of  Bishop 
Waddington  went  to  St.  Michael,  Paternoster  Royal.  The  carved- wood  altar  was 
allotted  to  the  new  Church  of  Allhallows,  North  St.  Pancras,  which  was  to  be 
erected  partially  from  the  funds  arising  out  of  the  sale.  The  clock  by  Ericke  was 
bought  by  a  gentleman  connected  with  the  City  of  London  Brewery,  where  it  now 
stands.  The  site  and  the  materials  of  the  fabric  were  sold  by  auction  on  July  31, 
1894,  for  ^31,100. 

ALLHALLOWS    THE    LESS 

Allhallows  the  Less  was  situated  on  the  south  side  of  Thames  Street,  to  the  east  of  Allhallows 
the  Great ;  it  was  called  by  some  Allhallows-on-the-Cellars,  from  its  standing  on  vaults.  It  is  said  to 
have  been  built  by  Sir  John  Poultney.  After  the  Great  Fire  the  church  was  not  rebuilt  and  the  parish 
was  annexed  to  Allhallows  the  Great.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1242. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Bishops  of  Winchester  in  1242  ;  master  and 
chaplains  of  Corpus  Christi  College,  Candlewick  Street. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  200. 

The  steeple  and  choir  of  this  church  stood  on  an  arched  gate,  which  was  the  entry  to  a  great  house 
called  Cold  Harbour.  Dormers  were  made  on  the  south  side  of  the  church  in  1613  to  lighten  it,  and 
several  galleries  subsequently  added. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  249 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  by  James  Andrew,  the  endowment  of  which  fetched  ;^8  :  9  : 4  in  1548. 

The  donors  of  charities  to  this  church  were  :  Elizabeth  Bannister,  ^5  ;  Anne  Hope,  ;^5  ;  Roger 
Daniel,  ;^8  ;  and  Samuel  Goldsmith  ;^6,  paid  by  the  Company  of  Dyers. 

Two  charity  schools  were  erected  in  17 15  consisting  of  thirty  boys  and  twenty-eight  girls  supported 
by  voluntary  contributions  from  the  inhabitants  of  the  ward. 

Cannon  Street  was  formerly  Candlewick  Street.  It  was  part  of  the  ancient 
Roman  highway  that  ran  through  the  City  and  was  once  called  Watling  Street 
throughout  its  whole  length.      Many  deeds  are  extant  relating  to  Candlewick  Street. 

Roman  remains  have  been  found  in  Cannon  Street  including  tessellated 
pavements  and  a  bronze  statuette  of  Hercules. 

In  1369  mention  is  made  of  the  "  Yeldehalle  "  in  Candlewick  Street,  probably 
the  "  Hula  Dacorum,"  Hall  of  the  Danes  mentioned  in  the  Liber  Albus,  where  we 
learn  that  it  was  occupied  by  the  Cologne  merchants  and  perhaps  by  those  of  Dinant 
also.  The  building  was  probably  the  "Great  stone  Binn "  called  "  Olde  Hall" 
mentioned  by  Stow. 

One  of  the  Caxton  family,  of  whom  there  were  so  many  in  the  City,  named 
William  de  Caxton,  lived  here  in  1342,  and  left  to  the  Rector  of  St.  Swithin  his 
mansion  in  this  street  for  the  maintenance  of  a  chantry. 

The  Calendar  of  Wills  proves  that  we  are  in  the  most  populous  and  ancient 
part  of  London.  Between  1259  and  1350  there  are  more  than  fifty  references  to 
Candlewyke  Street.  The  place  is  famous  for  its  weavers,  and  especially  for  the 
coarse  cloth  they  made  here  called  "  burel."  There  was  a  fraternity  of  the 
"  Burellers  "  working  here.  In  1334  one  hundred  foot-soldiers  were  provided  with 
"gowns"  of  cloth  made  in  Candlewyke  Street.  There  was  also  a  petition  drawn 
up  by  the  "good-folk"  of  this  street  and  Clement's  Lane  against  the  melting  of 
lead  in  their  midst. 

From  Eastcheap  to  Walbrook,  the  title  was  for  many  centuries  Candlewick, 
Candlewright,  or  Canewyke  .Street.  "  Candelwykestrete  "  is  mentioned  in  the  City 
Records  as  early  as  1308;  "  Canewykestrete "  appears  1376-99,  and  again  as 
"  Cainwicke  St."  in  the  map  of  Ralph  Agas  c.  1560.  Stow  gives  three  possible 
derivations  :  (1)  From  Candlewright,  a  maker  of  candles  ;  (2)  from  the  yarn  or  cotton 
candle-wick  ;  (3)  from  candle-wike,  a  "  wike  "  being  a  place  where  things  are  made. 
The  proximity  of  Tallow  Chandlers'  Hall  in  Dowgate  Hill  points  to  this  as  the 
candlemakers'  quarter  of  the  City,  and  favours  the  first  and  third  theories  rather 
than  the  second.  In  Ryther's  map  of  London,  1604,  it  is  styled  "Conning  Streete," 
(probably  a  misprint  for  Canning  Street),  and  Newcourt  in  his  1658  map  of  London 
calls  it  "  Cannon  Street,"  so  that  the  change  from  Candlewick  to  Canwyke,  Conning, 
and  Cannon  appears  to  have  taken  place  within  a  comparatively  short  space  of  time. 

The  weavers  of  woollen  cloths,  brought  from  Flanders  by  Edward  HI.,  probably 
dwelt  here:  "cloth  of  Candelwykestrete"    is  mentioned  in  City  records  in    1334; 


250  SURVEY  OF  THE   CITY  OE   LONDON 

and  Stow  says  that  these  weavers  obtained  permission  in  1371  to  meet  in  the 
churchyard  of  St.  Lawrence  Pountney  close  by.  They  appear  not  to  have  remained 
long  in  the  neighbourhood,  but  their  advent  led  to  a  settlement  of  many  drapers  in 
this  part  of  the  City  and  ultimately  to  the  founding  of  the  Drapers'  Hall  in  St. 
Swithin's  Lane.  In  Stow's  time  the  street  was  "possessed  by  rich  drapers,  sellers 
of  woollen  cloth,  etc."  After  the  Great  Fire  the  street,  Strype  says,  was  "  well 
built  and  inhabited  by  good  tradesmen." 

There  are  two  churches  in  the  street,  which  is  now  extended  to  the  south-east 
corner  of  St.  Paul's,  sweeping  away  Distaff  Lane,  Basing  Lane,  Little  St.  Thomas 
Apostle,  and  a  bit  of  Budge  Row.  London  Stone  is  in  this  street.  Beside  London 
Stone  Henry  Fitz  Ailwyn  or  Alwyne,  first  mayor  of  London,  had  his  residence. 
Here  lived  the  Earl  of  Oxford,  who,  about  the  year  1540,  according  to  Stow,  rode  to 
his  house  with  eighty  gentlemen  in  "  livery  of  Reading  tawny,"  and  chains  of  gold 
about  their  necks  and  "  one  hundred  tall  yeomen  in  the  like  livery  to  follow  him 
without  chains,  but  all  having  his  cognizance  of  the  blue  boar  introduced  on  their 
left  shoulders."  This  retinue  was  discountenanced  by  the  Tudors  and  fell  into  disuse. 
Perhaps  this  earl  was  the  last  to  maintain  so  great  a  following. 

London  Stone  was  probably  the  pillar  set  up  in  the  Roman  fort  to  mark  the 
milliarmm,  the  beginning  of  mile. 

Some  have  supposed  this  stone  to  be  the  remains  of  a  British  druidical  circle 
or  religious  monument.  Strype  quotes  Owen  of  Shrewsbury  as  giving  rise  to 
this  view  by  his  assertion  that  "the  Druids  had  pillars  of  stone  in  veneration, 
which  custom  they  borrowed  from  the  Greeks,  who,  as  Pausanius  writeth, 
adored  rude  and  unpolished  stones."  Malcolm  suggests  that,  if  it  is  of  British 
origin,  "policy  may  have  induced  the  Romans  to  preserve  it,  as  a  relic  highly 
valued  by  the  Londoners,  or  as  the  monument  of  some  great  event."  The  general 
opinion,  since  Camden's  time,  seems  to  be  that  the  stone  is  of  Roman  origin,  but  its 
first  purpose  still  remains  uncertain.  Stow  notes  that  some  considered  it  to  have 
been  set  "as  a  mark  in  the  middle  of  the  City  within  the  wall  ;  but,  in  truth,  it 
standeth  far  nearer  to  the  river  of  Thames  than  to  the  wall  of  the  City."  He  says, 
also,  that  others  thought  it  was  set  for  the  payment  of  debts,  on  appointed  days, 
"  till,  of  later  times,  payments  were  most  usually  made  at  the  font  in  Font's  Church 
(St.  Paul's),  and  now  most  commonly  at  the  Royal  Exchange." 

Sir  Christopher  Wren  was  of  opinion  that  "by  reason  of  its  large  foundation,  it 
was  rather  some  more  considerable  monument  in  the  Forum  ;  for,  in  the  adjoining 
ground  to  the  south,  upon  digging  for  cellars  after  the  Great  Fire,  were  discovered 
some  tessellated  pavements,  and  other  extensive  remains  of  Roman  workmanship 
and  buildings."  Originally,  no  doubt,  the  erection  was  of  considerable  proportions, 
and  a  suggestion  is  made  in  the  Parentalia  that  this  milliarium  was  not  in  the 
form  of  a  pillar  as  at  Rome,  but  probably  resembled  that  at  Constantinople,  which 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  251 

must  have  been  a  large  building  "for  under  its  roof,  according  to  Cedrenus,  and 
Seidas,  stood  statues  of  Constantine  and  Helena,  Trajan,  an  equestrian  statue  of 
Hadrian,  a  statue  of  Fortune,  and  many  other  figures  and  decorations." 

Strype  considers  it  likely  that  this  stone  was,  in  after  days,  the  place  from  which 
proclamations  and  public  notices  were  made.  This  is  confirmed  in  Pasquill  and 
Marforius  (1589):  "Setup  this  bill  at  London  Stone.  Let  it  be  done  solemnly 
with  drom  and  trumpet."  Malcolm  considers  that  it  was  certainly  regarded  for  some 
ages  as  "a  rallying  point  for  the  citizens  in  times  of  insurrection,  as  Guildhall  would 
now  be."  At  any  rate,  when  in  1540  Jack  Cade,  ''the  Kentish  rebel,  who  feigned 
himself  to  be  Lord  Mortimer,"  forced  his  way  into  the  City  from  Southwark,  he 
marched  to  London  Stone,  where  he  found  a  great  concourse  of  citizens,  the  Lord 
Mayor  being  among  them.  Here,  according  to  Holinshed's  account,  he  struck  his 
sword  upon  the  stone,  exclaiming,  "  Now  is  Mortimer  Lord  of  this  City,"  as  if. 
Pennant  remarks,  "that  had  been  a  customary  ceremony  of  taking  possession." 
This  scene  occurs  in  the  second  part  oi  Henry  II'.,  Act  iv.  Sc.  6,  where  Shakespeare 
makes  Cade  enter  Cannon  Street  with  his  followers,  and  strike  the  stone  with  his 
siaff  'msi&2Ld  of  his  siuord.  To  quote  Fabian,  "  Rome,  Carthage,  and  Jerusalem  have 
been  caste  downe  "  with  many  other  "  cytyes,"  yet 

Thys,  so  oldely  founded. 
Is  so  surely  grounded, 
•     That  no  man  may  confounde  yt, 

It  is  so  sure  a  stone 
That  yt  is  upon  sette, 
For  though  some  have  it  thrette 
With  Manasses  grym  and  great, 

Yt  hurt  hath  it  none  : 
Chryste  is  the  very  stone 
That  the  Citie  is  set  upon  : 
Which  from  all  his  foon 

Hath  ever  preserved  it. 
By  means  of  dyvyne  servyce 
That  incontinuall  wyse 
Is  kept  in  devout  guyse 
Within  the  mure  of  it. 

However  great  the  stone  may  have  been  in  the  beginning,  the  ravages  and 
fires  of  London  could  have  left  but  little  of  the  original  remaining  in  the  sixteenth 
century. 

After  the  Fire  its  foundations  were  disclosed  by  Wren  :  no  doubt  a  certain 
part  of  its  upper  end  had  been  destroyed  in  the  llames  and  possibly  damaged 
in  clearing  away  debris,  but  at  all  events  a  small  portion  of  it,  in  shape  somewhat 
like  a  cannon  ball,  was  saved,  says  Strype,  and  placed  within  "  a  new  stone 
handsomely  wrought,  cut  hollow  underneath,  so  as  the  old  stone  may  be  seen,  the 
new  stone  being  over  it  to  shelter  and  deface  the  venerable  one."     Strype's  map 


252  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

shows  that  the  stone,  in  its  new  case,  was  at  first  re-erected  on  the  old  site  on 
the  south  side  of  the  street.  On  December  13,  1742,  it  was  complained  of  as  an 
obstruction,  and  was  removed  by  order  of  the  churchwardens  of  St.  Swithin,  at 
a  cost  of  I2S.,  to  the  opposite  of  the  "kerbstone"  on  the  north  side  of  the  street. 
By  kerbstone  is  here  meant  the  stone  protecting  the  foot  of  the  buildings  and  not 
(as  now)  a  stone  protecting  a  pavement.  At  the  beginning  of  1798  the  church 
was  about  to  undergo  a  complete  repair,  and  the  historic  stone  was  actually  doomed 
to  be  removed  as  a  nuisance.  Fortunately  Mr.  Thomas  Maiden,  a  printer  of 
Sherborne  Lane,  championed  the  cause,  and  prevailed  on  one  of  the  parish  officers 
to  preserve  it  and  to  have  it  replaced  against  the  church  wall.  The  enclosing  stone, 
"somewhat  like  a  Roman  altar,"  had  formerly  a  curved  bar  of  iron  projecting 
across  the  elliptical  aperture  through  which  the  relic  is  seen  ;  but  the  present  grill 
was  placed  over  the  front  of  the  case  in  1869,  when  the  present  inscription,  in 
English  and  Latin,  was  cut  in  the  wall  of  the  church  over  the  stone  at  the  instance 
of  a  Committee  consisting  of  members  of  the  London  and  Middlesex  Archaeological 
Society,  and  the  parish  officers.  At  the  same  time  a  careful  examination  of  the 
stone  itself  was  made.  It  was  found  to  measure  about  a  foot  cube,  and  that  instead 
of  being  basaltic,  Capable  of  giving  off  sparks  when  struck  by  steel,  it  was  in  reality 
an  oolite,  such  as  the  Romans  used  extensively  in  their  buildings,  and  sometimes 
for  coffins  and  sepulchral  monuments,  thus  corroborating  the  idea  of  its  Roman 
origin. 

In  Cannon  Street  is  the  Cordwainers'  Hall. 

THE   CORDWAINERS   COMPANY 

The  AUutarii  or  Cordwainers  appear  to  have  been  voluntarily  associated  together  as  a  craft  or 
mystery  from  very  remote  times,  probably  as  early  as  the  Conquest,  in  close  connection  with  the 
municipality  of  London.  Its  object  was  to  encourage  and  regulate  the  trades  connected  with  the 
leather  industry,  and  included  the  flaying,  tanning,  and  currying  of  hides,  and  also  the  manufacture  and 
sale  of  shoes,  boots,  goloshes,  and  other  articles  of  leather.  In  the  thirteenth  and  following  centuries 
several  branches  separated  and  formed  distinct  communities,  such  as  the  girdlers,  tanners,  curriers, 
and  leather  sellers. 

The  first  existing  Ordinance  of  the  Cordwainers  (AUutarii)  is  found  in  Liber  Horn,  folio  339, 
and  was  made  in  the  56th  year  of  King  Henry  III.,  Anno  Domini  1272. 

The  Company  was  originally  called  the  "AUutarii,"  and  became  first  connected  with  the  "  Coblers  " 
in  the  14th  century.  Maitland  explains  that  the  Cobler  was  not  only  the  maker  but  the  vendor  of  boots 
and  shoes.  As  people  in  cold  countries  always  wanted  shoes,  the  Guild  or  Fraternity  of  shoemakers 
was  certainly  ancient.  In  1375  the  "reputable"  Cordwainers  submitted  their  ordinances  to  the  mayor. 
In  1378  we  learn  that  "  discreet  "  men  of  the  trade  had  authority  to  seize  hides  badly  tanned.  In 
1395  the  Cordwainers  and  the  Coblers — i.e.  the  workers  in  new  and  old  shoes — adjusted  their  differences, 
but  that  in  1409  the  dissensions  between  them  broke  out  again  and  were  once  more  composed.  In 
1387  three  journeymen  cordwainers  were  haled  before  the  mayor,  charged  with  illegally  forming  a  Fraternity 
of  themselves  excluding  the  masters.  Another  indication  of  the  existence  of  an  ancient  Fraternity  is 
that  of  the  brawling  and  fighting  in  1304  of  the  cordwainers  and  the  tailors. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  253 

The  first  charter  of  incorporation  was  granted  by  King  Henry  VI.  1439,  whereby,  in  consideration 
of  the  payment  of  fifty  marks,  he  granted  to  the  freemen  of  the  Mysterie  of  Cordwainers  (Allutariorum) 
of  the  City  of  London  that  they  should  be  one  body  or  commonalty  for  ever,  that  they  should  every 
year  elect  and  make  of  themselves  one  master  and  four  wardens  to  rule  and  govern  the  said  mysterie, 
and  all  men  and  workers  of  the  mysterie  and  commonalty,  and  all  workmen  and  workers  whatsoever  of 
tanned  leather  relating  to  the  said  mysterie,  to  search  and  try  black  and  red  tanned  leather  and  all  new 
shoes  which  should  be  sold  or  exposed  for  sale,  as  well  within  the  said  City  as  without,  within  two 
miles  thereof. 

The  above  charter  was  exemplified  and  confirmed  by  the  charter  4  and  5  Philip  and  Mary 
(June  17,  1557). 

The  charter  or  Letters  Patent  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  dated  August  24,  in  the  fourth  year  of  Her 
Majesty's  reign  (a.d.  1562),  exemplifies  and  confirms  the  exemplification  of  Philip  and  Mary. 

The  charter  further  grants  to  them  the  government  of  all  persons  exercising  the  said  trade  within 
the  City  of  London  and  three  miles  round  about  the  said  City  and  suburbs,  the  privilege  having  previously 
run  only  to  two  miles.  Also  the  power  of  making  bylaws  for  such  purpose  is  thereby  given  to  the 
master,  wardens,  assistants,  and  commonalty. 

King  James  L,  in  the  tenth  year  of  his  reign,  granted  another  charter  to  the  Company. 

A  new  charter  was  granted  by  King  James  H.  in  the  first  year  of  his  reign,  but  it  would  appear 
that  this  charter  was  afterwards  annulled  by  Act  2  William  and  Mary,  cap.  9  ;  but  this  same  Act 
restored  and  confirmed  all  previous  charters. 

The  first  Hall  was  burned  in  the  Great  Fire  :  it  stood  in  Great  Distaff  Street ;  since  this  street 
was  swallowed  up  by  Cannon  Street,  the  Hall,  rebuilt  after  the  Fire,  and  again  in  178S,  and  greatly 
altered  since  then,  has  now  a  frontage  in  Cannon  Street. 

The  livery  is  now  100  ;  the  Corporate  Income  is  ^7700  i  the  Trust  Income  ;^i6oo. 

Of  the  cordwainers.  Stow  speaks  as  follows  : 

"  In  this  Distar  Lane,  on  the  north  side  thereof,  is  the  Cordwainers',  or  Shoemakers'  hall,  which 
company  were  made  a  brotherhood  or  fraternity,  in  the  iith  of  Henry  IV.  Of  these  cordwainers  I  read, 
that  since  the  5th  of  Richard  II.  (when  he  took  to  wife  Anne,  daughter  of  Vesalaus,  King  of  Boheme),  by 
her  example,  the  English  people  had  used  piked  shoes,  tied  to  their  knees  with  silken  laces,  or  chains 
of  silver  or  gilt,  wherefore  in  the  4th  of  Edward  IV.  it  was  ordained  and  proclaimed,  that  beaks  of 
shoone  and  boots  should  not  pass  the  length  of  two  inches,  upon  pain  of  cursing  by  the  clergy,  and 
by  parliament  to  pay  twenty  shillings  for  every  pair.  And  every  cordwainer  that  shod  any  man  or 
woman  on  the  Sunday  to  pay  thirty  shillings." 

Suffolk  House,  in  Suffolk  Lane,  stands  upon  the  site  of  the  old  Merchant 
Taylors'  School,  and  hence  also  upon  the  site  of  the  Manor  of  the  Rose. 

This  was  a  famous  mansion  once  called  Poultney's  Inn,  from  Sir  John  Poultney, 
who  dwelt  here  after  his  removal  from  Cold  Harbour.  This  was  probably  in  1348, 
for  in  that  year  (the  year  after  he  founded  his  college  of  Corpus  Christi,  by  the 
church  of  St.  Lawrence  Poultney  (or  Pountney)  on  Lawrence  Poultney  Hill)  he  gave 
the  Cold  Harbour  to  the  Earl  of  Hereford  and  Essex,  for  "one  Rose  at  Midsummer, 
to  him  and  his  heirs  for  all  services,  if  the  same  were  demanded"  (Stow).  It  seems 
most  probable  that  this  light  "service"  is  accountable  for  the  name  of  the  Manor  of 
the  Rose.  Subsequently  the  Manor  belonged  to  John  Holland,  Duke  of  Exeter, 
then  to  William  de  la  Pole,  Duke  of  Suffolk,  attainted  and  beheaded  1450.  His  son 
John,  made  Duke  of  Suffolk  in  1463,  does  not  appear  to  have  possessed  it,  but  his  son 
John,  Earl  of  Lincoln,  owned  it  at  the  time  of  his  attainder  in   1487.      It  remained 


254  SURVEY  OF  THE   CITY  OF  LONDON 

with  the  Crown  until  1495,  when  it  was  restored  to  Edmund  de  la  Pole,  Duke  of 
Suffolk,  on  whose  forfeiture  of  it  by  treason  it  was  granted  in  1506  to  Edward 
Stafford,  Duke  of  Buckingham,  who  kept  possession  of  it  until  he  was  attainted  and 
beheaded  in  1521.  Shakespeare  {Henry  VIII.,  Act  i.  Sc.  2)  alludes  to  "The 
Rose  within  the  parish  of  St.  Lawrence  Poultney,"  in  connection  with  the  Duke  of 
Buckingham.     After  remaining  wMth  the  Crown  for  about  four  years  it  was  granted 


OLD   MERCHANT   TAYLORS'   SCHOOL,    SUFFOLK    LANE,    CANNON   STREET 

in  1526  to  Henry  Courtenay,  Earl  of  Devon,  who  had  recently  been  created  Marquis 
of  Exeter.  He  was  beheaded  in  1539,  when  the  property  again  fell  to  the  Crown. 
In  1540  it  was  granted  to  Robert  Radcliffe,  Lord  Fitzwalter,  Earl  of  Sussex,  whose 
son  and  grandson  held  it  in  turn.  In  1560-61  it  was  sold  and  shortly  after  divided 
into  moieties,  of  which  one  part  was  afterwards  sold  for  the  use  of  the  Merchant 
Taylors'  School.  All  that  remained  intact  of  the  mansion  perished  in  the  Fire  of 
1666,  except  a  few  portions  of  which  the  chief  were  a  wall  in  Ducksfoot  Lane,  and 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  255 

a  crypt  extending  from  Suffolk  Lane  to  Lawrence  Poultney  Hill.  At  the  rebuilding 
of  the  City,  No.  3  Lawrence  Poultney  Hill  stood  over  this  crypt,  which  remained 
until  that  house  was  pulled  down  in  1894,  when,  despite  the  protests  of  the 
antiquarians,  the  crypt  was  ruthlessly  destroyed. 

After  the  Fire  the  school  was  rebuilt  on  the  old  site,  in  1675,  the  head-master's 
house  being  erected  adjoining  it. 

The  school  premises  were  enlarged  at  various  times,  especially  in  1829.  In 
1875  they  became  too  small  for  the  requirements  of  the  school,  and  the  old  Charter- 
house School  having  been  removed  to  Godalming,  the  Charterhouse  site  was  bought 
by  the  Merchant  Taylors  Company  for  ;^90,ooo,  and  Merchant  Taylors'  School  was 
moved  to  its  present  quarters.  The  old  premises  were  taken  down,  and  Suffolk 
House  was  erected  in  part  upon  their  site  in  1882. 

The  pious  Robert  Nelson,  author  of  the  Fasts  and  Festivals,  was  born  in 
Suffolk  Lane,  June  22,  1656.  His  father,  John  Nelson,  was  a  wealthy  trader  to  the 
Levant. 

Strype  calls  Ducksfoot  Lane  Duxford.  The  name  is,  perhaps,  a  corruption  of 
Duke's  Footmen's  Lane,  tradition  asserting  that  this  lane  contained  the  servants' 
entrance  to  the  Duke  of  Suffolk's  house,  the  Manor  of  the  Rose.  In  that  case 
"  footmen  "  is  equivalent  to  retainers,  or  men-at-arms,  whose  quarters  would  probably 
be  at  the  back  of  the  mansion.  Wilson  {History  0/  St.  Lazvrence  Poultney)  thinks 
it  was  once  called  Duke's-foot-lane,  meaning  a  narrow  way  to  the  mansion. 

The  only  old  house  in  the  Lane  is  No.  2,  which  possesses  a  very  interesting 
interior.  The  building  is  now  used  for  offices,  but  was  originally  a  merchant's 
residence.  The  old  dining-room  is  a  fine  chamber,  having  panelled  walls  profusely 
decorated  with  florid  designs  in  raised  composition.  The  panel  over  the 
chimney-piece  is  particularly  good.  The  entablature  of  the  handsome  mantel  is 
supported  by  fluted  Ionic  pilasters,  the  frieze  filled  with  flowers  and  fruit,  and  the 
keystone  embellished  with  a  curious  rural  scene.  There  are  several  other  quaint 
mantels  in  the  house,  one  being  of  coloured  marbles  exquisitely  painted  with  figures 
and  scenes.  The  great  staircase  with  its  wainscotted  walls  and  fine  balusters  is  a 
good  piece  of  work.  The  cellars  are  very  extensive,  and  there  are  traces  of  a 
subterranean  passage  which  formerly  led  to  the  Thames.  The  staircase  and  the 
old  dining-room  were  copied  by  Mr.  John  Hare,  and  staged  at  the  Garrick  Theatre 
for  Mr.  Pinero's  play  The  Profligate,  first  performed  in  1889. 

Laurence  Pountney  Hill. — Stow  calls  this  hill  St.  Laurence  Hill.  The  part 
from  Cannon  Street  to  Suflblk  Lane  was  formerly  Green  Lettice  Lane,  but  was  re- 
named under  the  present  title  only,  on  the  widening  of  Cannon  Street,  1853-54. 
The  two  houses  at  the  corner  of  Suffolk  Lane  are  splendid  specimens  of  early 
eighteenth-century  architecture.  Both  are  finished  with  a  handsome  cornice.  The 
doorways  of  both   are  side   by  side  and  have  lintels  and  architraves  of   such   rich 


256  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

carving  as  to  be  unsurpassed  in  tlie  City  by  any  doorways  of  similar  size  and  style. 
The  lintels  are  both  concave  :  that  on  the  southern  house  contains  garlands  of 
flowers,  a  cherub's  head,  and  the  date  1703,  that  on  the  northern  consists  of  a  large 
scallop  shell  having  in  it  two  naked  children.  The  staircase  in  the  northern  house, 
with  its  fine  twisted  balusters,  is  one  of  the  best  original  staircases  left  in  the  City. 
The  southern  house  has  been  modernised  for  business  premises  and  spoiled.  Next 
below  is  a  plot  recently  bared,  where  was  the  vault  alluded  to  under  Suffolk  Lane. 

At  the  north-east  corner  of  Ducksfoot  Lane  is  an  old  house,  a  good  specimen 
of  the  domestic  architecture  after  the  Fire.  Next  to  it  eastwards  is  the  southern 
half  of  St.  Lawrence  Pountney  Churchyard  now  disused.  It  contains  three  trees 
and  several  tombs.  In  summer  a  large-leafed  plant  covers  almost  the  whole  area. 
Across  the  enclosure  is  another  fine  old  house,  now  used  for  offices,  containing 
handsome  rooms  and  a  fine  balustered  well-staircase. 

Dr.  William  Harvey,  the  discoverer  of  the  circulation  of  the  blood,  came  to  live 
with  his  brother  Eliab  opposite  St.  Lawrence  Pountney  Church,  after  the  surrender 
of  Oxford.  Both  Eliab  and  another  brother  Daniel  were  rich  and  distinguished 
merchants  on  the  hill.  Richard  Glover,  the  author  of  Leonidas,  was  also  an 
eminent  merchant  on  this  hill. 

The  character  of  Laurence  Pountney  Lane  on  both  sides  (except  the  modern 
warehouses  on  the  east  side  at  the  corner  of  Upper  Thames  Street)  is  that  of  the 
rebuilding  after  the  Fire.  Perhaps  as  a  whole  this  lane  preserves  this  character 
better  than  any  other  thoroughfare  in  the  ward.  At  the  Upper  Thames  Street  end, 
on  the  west  side,  is  a  house  which,  though  rebuilt  on  the  Upper  Thames  Street  front, 
retains  the  old  side  wall.  This  is  still  pierced  with  narrow  windows  filled  with 
little  squares  of  glass  in  lead-work.  On  the  same  side  of  the  lane  are  several 
carved  lintels,  and  well-panelled  deeply  recessed  doorways.  Near  the  lower  end  is 
an  old  house  beneath  which  is  an  archway  leading  to  a  courtyard,  cellars,  and  offices. 
The  house  is  partly  tenanted  by  Messrs.  Cooper,  Box  &  Co.,  who  fir^t  made  beaver 
hats  here  in  1830  or  thereabouts.  The  back  part  at  the  end  of  the  yard,  and  the 
front  windows  were  added  about  1855.  The  cellars  at  the  rear  of  the  yard  used  to 
contain  the  vats  in  which  the  beaver  hats  were  dyed.  The  lease  of  the  house  dating 
from  shortly  after  the  Fire  is  still  in  existence.  In  the  yard  is  an  arched  doorway  of 
stone,  and  solid  arches  of  the  same  material  support  the  walls  of  the  house  in  the 
basement  cellars.  The  stone  no  doubt  came  out  of  the  ruins  of  buildings  destroyed 
in  the  Fire  ;  possibly  some  of  it  from  the  Manor  oi  the  Rose. 

At  the  beginning  of  1543  Master  Arundel  kept  a  house  of  entertainment  in  this 
lane,  much  resorted  to  by  the  gay  young  men  of  that  time.  Henry,  Earl  of  Surrey, 
the  poet,  was  summoned  before  the  Privy  Council  to  answer  certain  charges,  when 
Mistress  Arundel,  being  examined,  said  that  the  Earl  of  Surrey  and  other  young 
noblemen  frequented    her  house.      They  ate   meat   in    Lent   and  committed   other 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  257 

improprieties.  At  Candlemas  they  went  out  at  9  o'clock  at  night,  with  stone  bows,  and 
did  not  return  till  past  midnight ;  and  next  day  there  was  a  great  clamour  of  breaking 
of  windows,  both  of  houses  and  churches,  and  shouting  at  men  in  the  street,  and  the 
voice  was  that  those  hurts  were  done  by  my  lord  and  his  company.  Again  at  night, 
rowing  on  the  Thames,  they  used  these  stone  bows  to  shoot,  as  she  was  told,  "at  the 
queens  on  the  Bankside  "  (MS.  quoted  by  Froude,  vol.  iv.  p.  253). 

St.  Lawrence  Poultney  or  Pountney  was  situated  on  the  west  side  of  Laurence  Pountney  Lane, 
between  Cannon  Street  and  Thames  Street  in  the  Ward  of  Candlewick  Street.  Thomas  Cole  added  to  it  a 
chapel  of  Jesus,  for  a  master  and  a  chaplain,  and  this  together  with  the  parish  church  was  made  into  a 
college  by  John  Poultney  and  confirmed  by  Edward  IIL  At  the  suppression  of  the  religious  houses  it 
was  valued  at  ^^97  :  17  :  11  and  surrendered  in  the  reign  of  Edward  VL  The  church  was  burnt  down 
by  the  Great  Fire  and  its  parish  annexed  to  that  of  St.  IVLiry  Abchurch.  The  earliest  date  of  an  incum- 
bent is  13 1 8. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  chaplains  of  this  college;  Henry  VIIL,  who 
seized  it  and  so  continued  in  the  Crown  till  Queen  Elizabeth  granted  it  to  Edward  Dorening  and  Roger 
Rant  as  an  appendage  of  the  manor  of  East  Greenwich. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  270. 

No  benefactors  are  recorded  by  Stow.  There  are  few  monuments  recorded,  and  those  of  little  note : 
John  Oliffe,  alderman,  was  buried  in  the  church  in  1577;  also  Robert  and  Henry  Radcliffe,  Earls  of  Sussex. 

William  Latymer  was  master  of  this  college ;  he  was  prosecuted  for  complaining  with  John  Hooper, 
of  Edmund  Bonner,  Bishop  of  London. 

In  Martin's  Lane  a  high  tower  resembling  the  steeple  of  a  church  projects  at 
the  end  of  a  block  of  modern  buildings.  The  old  clock,  which  is  attached  and  hangs 
out  over  the  street,  makes  the  resemblance  to  a  church  more  noticeable.  The 
building  was  erected  on  the  site  of  the  old  church  of  St.  Martin  Orgar.  The 
churchyard  below  is  comparatively  large  and  includes  a  row  of  trees.  It  is  consider- 
ably above  the  level  of  the  street.  At  the  east  end  are  some  old  seventeenth  or 
eighteenth  century  houses  with  rusticated  woodwork  beneath  their  gables.  On  the 
west  side  of  the  lane  No.  7  is  an  old  eighteenth-century  house,  a  fine  specimen, 
with  brick  courses  across  its  frontage. 

St.  Martin  Org"ar  was  situated  in  St.  Martin's  Lane,  near  Candlewick  Street.  It  was  burnt 
down  in  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being  annexed  to  St.  Clement's,  Eastcheap.  The 
earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1348. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  w-as  in  the  hands  of:  Orgarus,  who  gave  it  about  1 181  to  the  Dean 
and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  who  held  it  up  to  1666,  when  the  church  was  burnt  down. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  280. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by:  William  Cromer,  whose  endowment  fetched  ^30:  15  : 4  in  1548, 
when  John  Carre  was  priest  ;  John  Weston,  who  gave  to  the  Augmentation  of  Our  Lady's  Mass  to  be 
"son"e  by  note"  ^12  :  18  :8  a  year  in  1548  ;  William  Oreswicke,  whose  endowment  for  two  chaplains 
fetched  ^13:  5:01"  1548. 

The  church  contained  monuments  to  :  \Villiam  Crowmer,  mayor,  who  built  a  chapel  on  the  south 
side  of  the  church,  and  who  was  buried  there  in  1433;  Sir  Humphrey  Browne,  Lord  Chief  Justice 
(d.  1562) ;  Sir  Allen  Cotton,  lord  mayor  (d.  1628).     There  was  also  a  monument  to  Queen  Elizabeth. 

According  to  Stow  the  parish  enjoyed  the  benefits  of  many  benefactors.     Among  others,  Benedict 

17 


258  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Barnham  was  donor  of  ^lo  yearly;  Thomas  Nicolson  of  ^£^5  ;  Sir  Humphrey  Wahvyn  of  ;^5  ;  and  James 
Hall  of  three  tenements  to  the  value  of  ;^i8  :  10  :  o. 

Brien  Walton  (d.  1661),  Bishop  of  Chester,  was  rector  here. 

Crooked  Lane  has  been  partly  destroyed  to  make  way  for  the  approach  to 
London  Bridge,  which  has  also  swallowed  up  St.  Michael's  Lane  and  Great  Eastcheap. 
In  Crooked  Lane  stood  a  house  before  the  Fire  called  "  the  Leaden  Porch,"  which 
belonged  to  one  Sir  John  Sherston  in  the  fifteenth  century.  The  lane  also  con- 
tained St.  Michael's  Church,  the  burial-place  of  William  Walworth. 

St.  Michael,  Crooked  Lane,  was  situated  on  the  east  side  of  Miles's  Lane,  Great  Eastcheap, 
and  was  one  of  the  thirteen  "Peculiars"  in  the  City,  subject  to  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury.  It  was 
repaired  and  redecorated  in  16 10,  but  burnt  down  by  the  Great  Fire  and  rebuilt  from  Wren's  designs  in 
1687;  the  steeple  was  not  built  till  1698.  In  1831  the  building  was  pulled  down,  its  parish  being 
united  with  those  of  St.  Magnus  and  St.  Margaret.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1286. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Prior  and  Convent  of  Christ  Church, 
Canterbury,  before  1286;  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  who  presented  in  1408,  in  whose  successors  it 
continued  up  to  1848,  when  the  church  was  annexed  to  St.  Magnus  the  Martyr. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  354. 

The  church  built  by  Wren,  which  was  without  aisles,  measured  78  feet  in  length  and  46  feet  in 
breadth.  The  tower  was  surmounted  by  a  circular  lantern  in  three  stages,  supporting  a  cupola  with  a  lofty 
vane  and  cross,  and  reached  a  height  of  about  100  feet. 

Chantries  were  founded  here :  By  William  Walworth  (mayor  1 380)  of  five  chaplains  ;  he  endowed 
it  with  lands,  etc.,  which  fetched  ^20  :  13  :  4  in  1548,  when  the  priests  were  William  Berte,  Thomas  Harper, 
William  Hale,  William  Clayton,  and  John  Nesehame  ;  by  John  Rothinge,  who  left  £6  yearly,  which 
is  appropriated  to  finding  a  Walworth  chaplain;  by  Walter  Morden,  who  endowed  it  with  the  "bores 
hedde"  in  Eastcheap,  valued  at  ^4  a  year;  by  William  de  Burgo,  who  had  the  King's  licence  June  21, 
1318,  whose  endowment  fetched  £():i^:^  in  154S;  by  Pentecost  Russel  and  Gerard  de  Staundon 
at  the  altar  of  St  Thomas  Martyr  and  St.  Edmund;  the  King  granted  his  licence  July  14,  132 1,  for  himself, 
his  father  and  mother,  and  G.  de  Staundon,  late  parson  of  Stevenage,  Herts ;  by  Henry  Grubbe,  for  which 
the  King  granted  his  licence  April  20,  137 1  ;  by  Roger  Steere,  who  endowed  it  with  tenements  valued 
at  ;i^8  :  8  :  o  yearly,  which  is  spent  towards  finding  the  Walworth  chaplains  ;  by  William  Jordan,  who  left 
^5  :  16  :  8  to  find  a  priest,  but  this  was  also  appropriated  to  the  Walworth  chaplains ;  by  Robert  Brocket, 
who  endowed  it  with  £•;  a  year  ;  by  John  Longe,  who  left  los.  per  annum  ;  March  10,  1380-S1 — the  King 
granted  his  licence  to  William  ^Valworth,  citizen  and  merchant  of  London,  to  unite  diverse  chantries  in 
this  church,  founded  by  Pentecost  Russell ;  Matilda  and  Roger  Steere ;  John  Harewe  ;  John  Abell  ; 
W.  Burgh  ;  Henry  Grubbe ;  William  Jordan ;  Walter  Mordon ;  and  Thomas  atte  Leye,  which  by  changes 
of  time  are  insufficient  to  maintain  these  chantries,  and  he  was  further  empowered  to  found  a  college  of 
one  master  and  nine  chaplains  there. 

The  church  formerly  contained  monuments  to  :  John  Lovekin,  fishmonger,  four  times  Lord  Mayor, 
through  whom  the  church,  1348,  1358,  1365,  and  1366,  was  rebuilt ;  also  Sir  ^^■illiam  Walworth,  the  mayor 
who  overthrew  Wat  Tyler — he  enlarged  the  church  with  a  new  choir  and  side-chapels  and  founded 
a  college  in  connection  with  it;  Sir  John  Brug,  mayor  1520,  donor  oi  £^0. 

No  legacies  or  charitable  gifts  are  recorded  by  Stow. 

John  Poynet  (d.  1556),  Bishop  of  Rochester  and  of  Winchester,  was  rector  here;  also  Adam  Molens 
or  Molyneux  (d.  1450),  Bishop  of  Chichester,  who  was  slain  at  Portsmouth  by  the  Marines,  incited 
by  Richard,  Duke  of  York ;  Giovanni  Giglii  (d.  1498),  Bishop  of  Worcester. 

At  the  end  of  Swan  Lane  is  Old  Swan  Pier,  beneath  which  are  the  famous  Old 
Swan  Stairs  ;  these  now  consist  of  stone  steps  followed  by  a  flight  of  wooden  ones, 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  -  259 

descending  straight  into  the  water.  Stow  calls  them  "a  common  stair  on  the 
Thames."  In  1441,  when  the  Duchess  of  Gloucester  did  penance  at  Christchurch- 
by-Aldgate,  she  landed  here,  and  walked  the  rest  of  the  way.  When  persons  did 
not  care  to  risk  "shooting  London  Bridge,"  it  was  customary  for  them  to  land  at 
these  stairs,  walk  to  the  other  side  of  the  bridge,  and  then  take  to  the  water  again. 
Pepys  in  his  Diary  (1661)  mentions  taking  Mr.  Salisbury  to  Whitehall:  "But  he 
could  not  by  any  means  be  moved  to  go  through  the  bridge,  and  we  were  fain  to  go 
round  by  the  Old  Swan  Pier";  and  Boswell  says  that  he  and  Johnson  "landed  at 
the  Old  Swan  and  walked  to  Billingsgate,"  where  they  took  oars  for  Greenwich. 

The  race  for  Doggett's  Coat  and  Badge,  open  to  watermen,  is  rowed  between 
the  Old  Swan  and  the  White  Swan  at  Chelsea.  Near  these  stairs  was  John  Hard- 
castle's  counting-house,  where  were  first  brought  forth  the  Hibernian  Society,  the 
London  Missionary  Society,  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society,  and  the  Religious 
Tract  Society. 

At  the  end  of  Swan  Lane  (west  side)  is  the  entrance  to  the  subway  called 
W^aterside.  It  passes  beneath  Tennants',  Commercial,  and  Dyers'  Hall  wharves, 
in  front  of  Red  Bull  Wharf  (the  only  place  where  it  emerges  into  the  open),  and 
ultimately  runs  under  the  City  of  London  Brewery  into  All  Hallows  Lane.  In 
Strype's  1754  map  the  whole  of  the  riverside  from  Swan  to  All  Hallows  Lane  is 
shown  as  a  broad  path  (40  feet  wide)  open  to  the  water,  and  called  New  Key,  upon 
which  debouch  all  the  lanes  leading  from  Thames  Street  to  the  shore.  It  was  part 
of  a  design  of  Wren  for  improving  the  river-bank  after  the  Great  Fire.  In  a  map 
of  1819  the  "key,"  though  mostly  open,  is  shown  to  be  a  subway  under  a  portion  of 
the  brewery.  It  is  marked  as  a  "  Public  Way."  It  has  been  gradually  covered  over 
by  the  extension  of  the  brewery  and  the  wharves,  so  that  now  what  was  once  a 
riverside  walk  has  become  a  subway,  from  which  the  water  is  nowhere  visible,  unless 
one  of  the  wharf  doors  happens  to  be  open. 

The  Fishmongers'  Hail  rises  squarely  beside  London  Bridge,  and  not  far 
off  is  the  Monument,  with  an  absurd  ckevaux-de-fi-ise  of  spikes  rising  from  its  golden 
ball,  and  representing  flames,  very  much  as  they  are  represented  in  the  contemporary 
illustrations  of  the  Fire.     St.  Magnus's  white  steeple  makes  a  good  foreground. 

THE   FISHMONGERS   COMPANY 

The  origin  of  the  Fishmongers  Company  is  lost  in  remote  antiquity  ;  it  is  unquestionable  that  it 
existed  prior  to  the  reign  of  Henry  II.,  and  originated  in  an  association  or  brotherhood. 

The  Fishmongers  Company  lost  the  greater  part  of  its  earlier  records,  books,  and  muniments  in  the 
Creat  Fire  of  London  ;  the  earliest  existing  record  in  the  possession  of  the  Company  being  a  court  book 
dating  from  1592. 

The  privileges  of  the  Company  were  confirmed  by  royal  charters  in  the  reign  of  Edward  I.,  1272, 
Edward  XL,  1307,  and  Edward  III.,  1327. 

The  first  extant  charter  is  in  Norman  French,  dated  July  10,  1364,  37  Edward  III. 


2  6o 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


It  recites  that  from  ancient  times,  whereof  memory  runs  not,  it  was  a  custom  that  no  fish  should  be 
sold  in  the  City  of  London  but  by  fishmongers,  except  stockfish,  which  belongs  to  the  mistery  of  stock- 
fishmongers  (subsequently  incorporated  with  the  fishmongers),  and  further  recites  that  the  mistery  of  fish- 
mongers had  grants  from  the  King's  progenitors  in  ancient  times,  that  the  fishmongers  should  choose  yearly 
certain  persons  of  the  mistery  to  well  and  lawfully  rule  the  same. 

The  foregoing  charter  was  confirmed  by  a  proclamation  of  the  following  year,  July  12,  1365,  38 
Edward  III.,  which  granted  further  power  and  privileges  to  the  mistery  of  fishmongers  of  the  City  of  London. 

By  a  further  mandate  of  King  Edward  III.,  dated  July  24  in  the  same  year,  the  King  granted  to 
the  fishmongers  of  the  said  city,  and  of  the  liberty  of  the  halmote  of  the  same  mistery,  that  no  person, 
stranger  or  inhabitant,  should  in  any  manner  occupy  the  mistery  of  fishmongers  in  the  said  city,  or  inter- 
meddle therewith,  unless  he  were  of  the  same  mistery  ;  and  that  the  fishmongers  of  the  same  liberty  should 


FISHMO.N'GERS'    H.A.I.L,    PRESENT    D.\Y 


be  able  in  every  year  to  elect  four  persons  (to  be  sworn)  to  oversee  the  buying  and  selling  of  fish  in  the 
said  city,  and  well  and  faithfully  to  rule  the  said  mistery  "  for  the  common  commodity  of  our  people." 

In  the  twenty-second  year  of  King  Richard  II.,  May  g,  1399,  another  charter  was  granted. 

By  an  Inspe.ximus  of  6  Henry  VL,  July  10,  1427,  the  charter  of  King  Richard  IL  was  confirmed. 

By  charter  of  23  Henry  VII.,  dated  July  3,  1508,  the  Letters  Patent  of  11  Henry  VI.,  1433,  are  set 
forth  and  ratified  and  confirmed. 

By  a  charter  of  24  King  Henry  VII.,  dated  September  20,  1508,  the  stockfishmongers  of  the  City 
of  London  were  incorporated  by  the  name  of  "  The  Wardens  and  Commonalty  of  the  Mistery  of  Stockfish- 
mongers  of  the  City  of  London,"  with  perpetual  succession  and  a  common  seal. 

In  the  twenty-seventh  year  of  King  Henry  VIII.,  1537,  a  charter  was  granted  by  which  the  two  corpora- 
tions of  the  Fishmongers  Company  and  Stockfishmongers  Company  were  incorporated  as  one  company, 
and  in  the  same  year  a  deed  was  executed  between  the  two  companies  regulating  the  terms  of  such  union. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


261 


The  rest  of  the  brief  history  furnished  by  the  Company  is  a  recital  of  the  later  charters,  which  do  not 
seem  of  very  great  importance.  The  number  of  liverymen  in  1898  was  344;  the  Corporate  Income  was 
;£^46,053  ;  the  Trust  Income  was  ;^7235. 

Freemen,  the  widows  of  freemen,  and  freewomen,  being  in  poor  circumstances,  are  eligible  for 
pecuniary  relief  by  way  of  grant  or  pension,  or  for  election  to  the  Company's  almshouses.  The  children  of 
freemen  are  eligible  for  weekly  pensions  or  pecuniary  relief. 

Loans  are  also  made  by  the  Company  in  special  cases  in  aid  of  freemen  in  necessitous  circumstances. 

The  Company  has  established  a  number  of  educational  exhibitions  for  the  children  of  deserving 
freemen,  and  subscribe  liberally  to  the  City  of  London  Institute. 


FISHMO.NGERS'    HALL   IN    iSlI 

The  children  of  freemen  are  also  eligible  for  the  nominations  to  Christ's  Hospital  in  the  gift  of  the 

Company. 

Liverymen  have  the  usual  privileges,  and  receive  invitations  in  turn  to  dine  at  livery  dinners  in  the 

Company's  hall. 

The  Company's  first  hall  was  the  house  of  Lord  Fanhope  given  to  the  Fishmongers  by  him  in  the 
reign  of  Henry  VIII.  It  was  rebuilt  after  the  Fire  by  Jarman.  It  stood  on  the  north  foot  of  the  present 
bridge.     The  present  hall  was  erected  when  New  London  Bridge  swallowed  up  its  predecessor. 


ST.    MAGNUS,    LONDON   BRIDGE 

St.  Magnus  stands  on  the  south  side  of  Thames  Street  at  the  bottom  of  Fish  Street  Hill ;   it  was 
called  the  "Martyr"  from  its  dedicatory  saint,  who  suffered  martyrdom  in  Ccesarea  in  the  time  of  Aurelian 


262 


SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


the  Emperor.  It  was  burnt  down  by  the  Great  Fire,  and  rebuilt  by  Wren,  who  completed  it  in  1676, 
with  the  exception  of  the  steeple,  which  was  not  added  till  1705.  The  parish  of  St.  Margaret,  New  Fish 
Street,  was  annexed  to  this  after  the  Fire.  In  1831  that  of  St.  Michael,  Crooked  Lane,  was  also  annexed. 
The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1247. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of :  The  Prior  and  Convent  of  Bermondsey  before  1252, 
and  the  Abbot  and  Convent  of  Westminster  alternately,  since  1252  ;  Henry  VIII.  seized  it,  and  granted 


^ 


I  f-y  <'.  Shf^htrJ, 


ST.    MAGNUS 


it  to  the  Bishop  of  ^Vestmi^ster,  January  20,  1540-41  ;  Bishop  of  London  by  grant  of  Edward  M.  in  1550, 
confirmed  by  Queen  Mary,  March  3,  1553-54,  in  whose  successors  it  continued. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  535. 

The  building  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  ot  all  the  City  churches ;  it  measures  90  feet  in  length, 
59  feet  in  breadth,  and  41  feet  in  height.  It  contains  a  nave  and  side-aisles  separated  by  slender  Ionic 
columns  standing  a  considerable  distance  from  each  other.  The  steeple  rising  near  London  Bridge 
is  seen  to  great  advantage,  and  is  considered  one  of  the  best  of  Wren's  works.  It  consists  of  a  tower 
with  a  cornice,   parapet,  and  vases,  surmounted  by  an   octagonal  lantern  with   a   cupola,  which,  in  its 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  263 

turn,    is    surmounted    by  a   slender   lantern    and    spire,   with   a    finial   and    vane.     The    total    height    is 
185  feet. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  :  Andrew  Hunt,  whose  endowment  fetched  £C) :  13  :  4  in  1548,  when 
Gilbert  Smythe  was  chaplain;  Thomas  Makinge,  whose  endowment  yielded  jQid  in  1548,  when  Thomas 
Parker  was  chaplain;  Sir  John  Deepdene,  Knt.,  for  himself  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  at  the  Altar  of  Blessed  Virgin 
Mary,  and  also  at  the  same  altar  by  Robert  Ramsey,  for  himself  and  Jane  his  wife,  for  which  the  King 
granted  his  licence,  February  5,  r4o4-i405^the  endowments  fetched  ^^16:13:4  in  1548,  when  Joseph 
Stepneth  was  chaplain;  Ralph  de  Gray,  whose  endowment  fetched  £4  in  1548;  Hugh  Pourt,  who  was 
sheriff  of  London  1303,  for  himself  and  IMargaret  his  wife,  at  the  Altar  of  Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  to  which  Hugo 
de  Waltham  was  admitted  chaplain,  October  10,  1322— this  chantry  was  augmented  by  Roger  Clovill,  and 
the  King  granted  his  licence  in  mortmain,  June  10,  1370  ;  John  Bever,  for  the  support  of  two  priests, 
whose  endowment  fetched  £,zo:(i  ;8  in  1548,  but  no  priests  have  been  found  since  Henry  IV.'s  time — 
the  King  granted  his  licence,  May  26,  1448,  to  constitute  the  Guild  of  S.  Maxentius  and  S.  Thomas; 
Andrew  Hunt  and  several  others  founded  and  endowed  the  Brotherhood  of  Salve  Regina,  whose  gifts 
fetched  ^49  :  o  :  4  in  1548,  when  John  Swanne  and  William  Bunting  were  the  chaplains. 

The  old  church  was  the  place  of  sepulture  of  several  persons  of  note  in  their  day,  amongst  whom  may 
be  mentioned  Henry  Yeuele,  master-mason  to  Edward  HI.,  Richard  H.,  and  Henry  IV.  ;  Sir  W.  Gerrard, 
mayor  in  1555;  and  Sir  John  Gerrard,  mayor  in  1601  ;  and  Thomas  Collet,  for  twenty  years  deputy  of 
this  ward,  who  died  in  1703.  On  the  demolition  of  St.  Bartholomew  by  the  Exchange,  the  remains  of 
Miles  Coverdale  were  brought  here,  as  he  had  been  rector  of  the  church  1563-66.  His  monument  is  on 
the  east  wall,  south  of  the  communion  table. 

Sixty  boys  and  forty  girls  were  maintained  in  the  Candlewick  and  Bridge  Wards. 

The  parish  did  not  possess  many  large  charitable  gifts  :  Samuel  Petty  was  donor  of  jQdoo,  of  which 
only  ;^25o  was  received,  owing  to  the  bonds  not  being  good ;  Susanna  Chambers,  ^17  ;  Thomas  Arnold, 
£,2  :  i2s. ;  John  Jennings,  ^^13. 

Besides  Miles  Coverdale,  other  rectors  of  note  w^ere  :  Richard  de  Medford  or  Mitford,  Bishop  of 
Chichester  in  1389;  Maurice  Griffith  (d.  1558),  Bishop  of  Rochester. 

Great  Eastcheap,  now  destroyed,  was  in  Stow's  time  a  marl<et-place  for 
butchers  :  it  had  also  cooks  mixed  among  the  butchers  and  such  others  as  sold 
victuals  ready  dressed  of  all  sorts.  "  For  of  old  time  when  friends  did  meet  and 
were  disposed  to  be  merry,  they  went  not  to  dine  and  sup  at  taverns  but  to  the  cooks, 
where  they  called  for  meat  what  they  liked  which  they  found  ready  dressed  and  at 
a  reasonable  rate."  In  Great  Eastcheap  was  the  immortal  tavern  of  the  Boar's  Head, 
already  mentioned  p.  106. 

There  was  apparently  another  Boar's  Head  in  this  ward.  Maitland  men- 
tions it : 

"In  this  Ward  there  was  a  house  called  The  Boar's  Head,  i-nhabited  by  William 
Sanderson,  which  came  to  King  Edward  VI.  by  the  Statute  about  Chantries  ;  which, 
with  the  shops,  cellars,  solars,  and  other  Commodities  and  easements,  he  sold  in  the 
second  of  his  reign,  together  with  other  lands  and  tenements,  to  John  Sicklemore 
and  Walter  Williams  for  two  thousand  si.x  hundred  and  sixty-eight  pounds,  and 
upwards"  (Maitland,  vol.  ii.  p.  793). 

Fish  Street  Hill,  or  New  Fish  Street,  formerly  Bridge  Street,  led  to  Old 
London  Bridge  past  St.  Magnus's  Church.  It  contained  an  ancient  stone  house 
which  had  once  been  occupied  by  the  Black  Prince,  and  was  afterwards  converted 


264  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF   LONDON 

into  an  inn  called  the  Black  Bell.  Very  frequent  mention  is  made  of  Bridge  Street. 
Here  lived  Andrew  Home,  fishmonger,  City  Chamberlain,  author  of  the  Liber 
Home.  A  note  which  concerns  him  may  be  found  in  Riley's  Meviorials,  a.d.  1315 
Among  the  signs  of  the  street  were  the  "  King's  Head  "  ;  the  "  Harrow  "  ;  the  "  Swan 
and  Bridge  "  ;  the  "  Star  "  ;  the  "  Mitre  "  ;  the  "  Golden  Cup  "  ;  the  "  Salmon  "  ;  the 
"Black  Raven";  the  "Crown";  the  "Maiden  Head";  the  "White  Lion";  the 
"  Swan,"  etc.  Foundations  of  Roman  buildings  have  been  found  here.  Riley  has 
notices  of  the  street  between  131 1  and  1340.  Notices  are  found  in  the  Calendar  of 
Wills  from  1273.  In  the  Guildhall  MSS.  the  earliest  mention  of  the  street  is  1189. 
In  this  street  stood  the  Church  of  St.  Margaret,  not  rebuilt  after  the  Fire.  This 
church  was  on  the  west  above  Crooked  Lane. 

St.  Margaret,  New  Fish  Street,  sometimes  called  St.  Margaret,  Bridge  Street,  stood  on  the 
east  side  of  Fish  Street  Hill,  where  the  Monument  now  stands  ;  it  was  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire,  and 
its  parish  united  to  that  of  St.  Magnus  the  Martyr.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1 283. 

The  patronage  of  the  church,  before  1283,  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Abbot  and  Convent  of  West- 
minster, i?83-84;  Henry  VHL,  who  granted  it  to  the  Bishop  of  Westminster,  January  20,  1540-41  ;  the 
Bishop  of  London,  by  grant  of  Edward  VI.  in  1550,  confirmed  by  Queen  Mary,  March  3,  1553-54,  in 
whose  successors  it  continued  up  to  1666,  when  the  parish  was  annexed  to  St.  Magnus. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  200. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by:  Roger  de  Bury,  for  which  the  King  granted  his  licence  in  1318; 
John  Coggeshall,  at  the  Altar  of  St.  Peter — his  endowment  fetched  ^^13  :  los.  in  1548,  when  Richard  Bee 
was  chaplain;  Thomas  Dursley,  whose  endowment  yielded  ;^4  in  1548;  John  Rous,  whose  endowment 
fetched  £,1  in  1548;  Robert  Whaplode,  whose  endowment  yielded  40s.  in  1548. 

Only  one  monument  of  note  is  recorded  by  Stow,  that  of  John  Coggeshall,  1384,  and  the  reason  of 
his  eminence  is  not  stated. 

Some  of  the  chantries  belonging  to  this  parish  were:  £,2  :  los.,  the  gift  of  John  Wybert  ;  ^£2,  the 
gift  of  Katherine  Parry;  ;£i  :  los.,  the  gift  of  Mr.  Mosyer. 

Candlewick  and  Bridge  Wards  maintained  sixty  boys  and  forty  girls. 

John  Seton  (d.  1568),  Prebendary  of  York,  author  of  Dialatica ;  William  Cotton  (d.  1621), 
Bishop  of  Exeter  ;  Samuel  Hasnet,  Archbishop  of  York  1629,  are  among  the  notable  rectors. 

On  the  east  side,  higher  up,  stood  the  Church  and  burial-ground  of  St. 
Leonard's  Milk  Church,  also  destroyed  by  the  Fire  and  not  rebuilt  (see  p.  266). 
The  most  important  building  in  Fish  Street  is,  of  course,  the  Monument. 

For  The  Monument  we  quote  the  account  taken  by  Maitland  from  the  life  of 
Sir  Christopher  Wren  : 

"  In  the  year  1671,  the  Surveyor  began  the  building  of  the  great  fluted  column 
of  Portland  Stone,  and  of  the  Dorick  Order  (commonly  called  the  Monument  of 
London,  in  memory  of  the  burning  and  rebuilding  of  the  City),  and  finished  it  in 
1677.  The  Artificers  were  obliged  to  wait  sometimes  for  Stones  of  proper  scantlings  ; 
which  occasioned  the  work  to  be  longer  in  execution  than  otherwise  it  would  have 
been.  The  altitude  from  the  pavement  is  two  hundred  and  two  feet,  the  diameter 
of  the  shaft  or  body  of  the  column  is  fifteen  feet,  the  ground  bounded  by  the  Plinth 
or  lowest  part  of  the  pedestal  is  twenty-eight  feet  square,  and  the  pedestal  in  height 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


265 


is  forty  feet.  Within  is  a  large  staircase  of  black  marble,  containing  three  hundred 
and  forty-five  steps,  ten  inches  and  an  half  broad,  and  six  inches  rising.  Over  the 
Capital  is  an  Iron  Balcony,  encompassing  a  Cippus  or  Meta,  thirty-two  feet  high, 
supporting  a  blazing  urn  of  brass  gilt.  Prior  to  this,  the  Surveyor  (as  it  appears  by 
an  original  drawing)  had  made  a  design  of  a  pillar  of  somewhat  less  proportion,  viz.  : 
fourteen  feet  in  diameter,  and  after  a  peculiar  device  :  For,  as  the  Romans  expressed 
by  Relievo,  on  the  pedestals,  and  round  the  shafts  of  their  Columns,  the  history  of 
such  actions  and  incidents  as  were  intended  to  be  thereby  commemorated  ;  so  this 
Monument  of  the  conflagration  and  resurrection  of  the  City  of  London  was  represented 
by  a  pillar  in  flames ;  the  flames,  blazing  from  the  loopholes  of  the  shaft  (which  were 


THK   .MO.NUMLM    I.N    I752 
From  a  dniwing  by  Signor  Can.'ilhti. 

to  give  light  to  the  stairs  within),  were  figured  in  brasswork  gilt,  and  on  the  top  was 
a  Phoenix  rising  from  her  ashes,  of  brass  gilt  likewise."  The  total  expense  was 
about  _;^  14,500. 

The  height  (202  feet)  is  supposed  to  be  equal  to  its  distance  eastward  from  the 
house  in  Pudding  Lane  in  which  the  Fire  broke  out.  Inside  are  345  steps,  by  which 
any  one  after  paying  3d.  may  ascend  to  the  caged-in  platform  near  the  top.  The 
pedestal  has  Latin  inscriptions  on  the  north,  south,  and  east  panels.  In  1681  a 
further  inscription,  running  round  the  base  of  the  pedestal,  was  added  as  follows  : 

This  pillar  was  set  up  in  perpetual  remembrance  of  that  most  dreadful  burning  of  this  Protestant 
City  begun  and  carried  on  by  y"  treachery  and  malice  of  y''  Popish  factio,  in  y"  beginning  of  Septem  in 
y'  year  of  our  Lord  1666  in  order  to  y*-'  carrying  on  their  horrid  plott  for  extirpating  the  Protestant  religion 
and  old  English  liberty,  and  the  introducing  Popery  and  slavery. 


266  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

This  was  obliterated  in  the  reign  of  James  II.,  but  recut  in  that  of  his  successor, 
causing  Pope's  comment : 

Where  London's  column,  pointing  to  the  skies, 
Like  a  tall  bully  rears  its  head  and  lies. 

The  obnoxious  inscription  was  not  erased  until  1831. 

On  the  west  panel  of  the  pedestal  is  a  bas-relief  representing  Charles  II.  in 
Roman  dress  attended  by  Liberty,  Genius,  and  Science. 

In  the  background  the  City  is  being  rebuilt,  and  at  the  King's  feet  Envy  tries  to 
rekindle  the  flames. 

ST.   LEONARD,    EASTCHEAP 

This  church  stood  at  the  corner  of  Eastcheap  on  Fish  Street  Hill ;  it  was  sometimes  called  St. 
Leonard  IMilk  Church,  from  one  Am.  Milker,  who  built  it.  It  suffered  considerably  from  a  fire  in  1618, 
but  was  subsequently  well  repaired.  The  building  was  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire,  and  its  parish  annexed 
to  that  of  St.  Benet,  Gracechurch  Street.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1348. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Prior  and  Convent  of  Christ  Church,  Canter- 
bury, 1353;  Henry  VHL,  who  seized  it  in  1540,  and  soon  after  gave  it  to  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of 
Canterbury. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  260. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  by  :  Reginald  de  Canterbury,  citizen,  at  the  Altar  of  St.  Thomas  the 
Archbishop  in  1329,  when  John  de  Lacelbrigge  was  admitted  chaplain  ;  William  Ivorye,  whose  endow- 
ment yielded  ;^8:6:8  in  1548;  John  Bromesburye  and  John  Wasselbye,  whose  endowments  fetched 
£10  in  1548;  Margery  Bedyn,  whose  endowment  yielded  ;^io  :  8s.  in  1548;  Hugo  Browne,  whose  en- 
dowment fetched  ;^i8:  iis.  in  1548;  John  Doggett,  whose  endowment  yielded  ;^io  in  1548;  Robert 
Boydon. 

A  considerable  number  of  monuments  were  recorded  by  Stow  to  have  been  well  preserved.  That 
of  the  greatest  antiquity  was  one  in  memory  of  John  Johnson,  who  died  1280.  Several  were  erected  to 
various  members  of  the  Doggett  family,  of  whom  Walter  Doggett  was  sheriff  in  1380,  John  Doggett,  a  citizen 
of  eminence  in  his  day,  buried  1456  {circa)  ;  Robert  Fitzhugh  (d.  1436),  Bishop  of  London,  was  rector  here. 

Pudding  Lane  was  formerly  Rother  Lane,  or  Red  Rose  Lane.  It  was  called, 
according  to  Stow,  "  Pudding  Lane,  because  the  butchers  of  Eastcheap  have  their 
scalding  houses  for  hogs  there,  and  their  puddings  with  other  filth  of  beasts  are 
voided  down  that  way  to  their  dung  boats  on  the  Thames.  This  lane  stretcheth 
from  Thames  Street  to  Little  East  Cheap,  chiefly  inhabited  by  basket  makers,  turners 
and  butchers,  and  is  all  of  Billingsgate  Ward  "  (Cunningham).  But  the  lane  has 
its  chief  claim  to  remembrance  in  the  fact  that  here  originated  the  Great  Fire. 

In  Stow's  time  it  was  occupied  by  basket-makers,  turners,  and  butchers.  On 
the  north-east  of  the  lane  stood  Butchers'  Hall,  destroyed  by  the  Fire,  and  rebuilt ; 
burned  again  in  1829  ;  rebuilt  in  1831  ;  removed  to  Bartholomew  Close  in  1884. 

ST.    GEORGES   CHURCH 

St.  George's  Church  was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire,  rebuilt  by  Wren  in  1674,  and  became  the 
parish  church  for  St.  Botolph's,  Billingsgate,  which  had  been  also  destroyed  but  not  re-erected.     In  1895 


THE   ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE   CITY  267 

the  building  was  closed  on  account  of  its  dilapidated  state.  The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1321. 
[Since  pulled  down.] 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of :  The  Prior  and  Convent  of  St.  Saviour, 
Bermondsey,  in  1321  ;  then  the  Crown,  since  1541  up  to  1666,  when  it  was  annexed  to  St.  Botolph, 
Billingsgate,  and  with  it  to  St.  Mary-at-Hill. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  123. 

The  present  church  measures  54  feet  in  length,  36  feet  in  breadth,  and  36  feet  in  height.  It 
has  two  side-aisles,  each  separated  from  the  nave  by  two  composite  columns,  placed  far  apart.  The  tower, 
which  rises  at  the  north-west,  consists  of  three  stories,  concluded  by  a  cornice  and  parapet,  the  angles  of 
which  are  adorned  with  vases.     The  total  height  is  about  84  feet. 

Stow  records  a  chantry  founded  by  Roger  Delakere. 

The  monuments  of  the  original  church  were  well  preserved.  Stow  says.  Those  commemorated, 
however,  were  of  comparatively  little  eminence  ;  amongst  them  were  William  Combes,  donor  of  ^40 ; 
James  Mountford,  another  benefactor  to  the  church,  who  died  1544.  Among  the  more  recent  ones 
was  one  in  memory  of  George  Clint,  parish  clerk  for  thirty  years,  who  died  in  1605. 

Monument  Street  was  only  opened  about  ten  years  ago,  and  cost  half  a  million 
of  money  ;  this  was  spent  partly  in  compensation  to  the  dispossessed  leaseholders. 
It  was  designed  to  afford  a  wide  and  direct  route  to  the  City  for  the  fish  brought 
from  Billingsgate.  A  row  of  new  red  brick  buildings  lines  part  of  the  way  on  the 
right;  at  the  corner  of  St.  Mary-at-Hill  is  a  post-office.  Beyond  these  buildings  is 
the  ancient  graveyard  of  St.  Botolph,  Billingsgate,  which  church  was  burnt  in  the 
Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt.  The  graveyard  is  now  used  as  a  public  recreation 
ground,  and  is  fronted  by  a  neat  wall  with  a  parapet,  and  on  either  side  of  the  gate 
is  a  high  brick  pier  with  a  lamp  on  the  summit.  On  the  south  side  of  Monument 
Street  fragments  of  waste  ground  remain  still  unbuilt  on,  and  form  receptacles  for 
decayed  fish  and  garbage. 

For  the  Coal  Exchange  see  p.  270. 


THE    WATERMEN 

In  the  sixth  year  of  the  reign  of  Henry  VHI.  an  Act  was  passed  regulating  the  traffic  of  watermen, 
ferrymen,  and  bargemen  on  the  Thames,  and  settling  the  fares  to  be  charged  by  them.  In  1555  a  court 
was  held  by  the  "  Company,"  and  in  1648  a  proclamation  compelled  certain  "  dirtboats  and  bumboats" 
to  submit  to  the  regulations  of  "the  Company."  The  Lightermens  Company  was  united  to  the 
Watermens  in  1667.  But  the  first  charter  of  incorporation  was  not  granted  until  7  and  8  George  IV., 
1827  ;  and  this  was  amended  by  two  acts  of  Victoria  in  1859  and  1864. 

After  the  Great  Fire  the  Watermen's  Hall  was  erected  on  the  south-west  corner  of  the  Cold  Harbour 
quay,  where  Strype's  map  shows  it.  It  was  a  handsome  brick  building,  and  was  in  use  by  the  Company 
until  1780,  when,  their  premises  being  required  for  an  extension  of  the  brewery,  they  vacated  them, 
afterwards  removing  to  their  present  hall  in  St.  Mary-at-Hill.  The  old  hall  faced  the  Thames  upon  New 
Key,  and  in  front  to  the  river  there  was  a  large  flight  of  stone  stairs,  open  at  all  times  to  watermen  and  the 
public.  They  had  been  in  uninterrupted  use  for  a  long  period  since  the  Great  Fire,  and  had  neither  gate 
nor  other  obstruction.  They  became  at  length  much  dilapidated,  and  were  "  altogether  removed  and  the 
wharf  closed  up"  says  Wilkinson,  a  few  years  prior  to  1825.  The  hall,  wharf,  and  stairs  are  shown  in  an 
engraving  published  by  S.  and  N.  Buck  in  1749. 


268  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

Love  Lane  was  formerly  Rope  Lane,  afterwards  Lucas  Lane,  and  then  corruptly 
Love  Lane. 

It  is  a  crooked  winding  thoroughfare  paved  by  flags,  and  the  houses  are  mainly 
inhabited  by  fish  salesmen  who  work  at  Billingsgate.  Beyond  the  church  are  large 
warehouses,  and  business  houses  in  the  usual  style. 

The  back  of  a  famous  old  house  now  used  as  a  ward  school  is  in  Love  Lane, 
but  its  front  faces  on  to  a  cobble-stone  yard  connected  with  Botolph  Lane  by  a 
covered  entry.  Within  the  house  everything  points  to  its  having  been  the  residence 
of  some  one  of  wealth  and  taste.  The  hall  is  paved  with  alternate  slabs  of  black  and 
white  marble.  The  staircase  is  wide  and  beautifully  proportioned  and  decorated. 
The  date  1670  is  on  the  ceiling  ;  on  the  first  floor  four  doors  with  rich  wood  carving 
on  the  pediments  and  lintels  attract  attention.  Ceilings  and  fireplaces  alike  bespeak 
careful  work.  One  of  the  latter  is  inlaid  in  different  coloured  marbles  with  a  white 
marble  plaque  of  a  sleeping  child.  But  downstairs,  in  a  small  room  on  the  ground 
f^oor,  is  the  chief  feature  of  interest.  The  walls  and  panels  are  literally  covered  with 
oil-paintings  with  the  artist's  name  and  the  date  "  R.  Robinson,  1696."  The  subject 
seems  to  be  life  in  different  parts  of  the  globe.  The  ceiling  is  of  oak  heavily  carved, 
though,  alas !  whitewashed. 

The  house  is  now  a  ward  school,  and  though  in  repair  shows  inevitable  signs  of 
wear  and  tear.  The  hall  pavement  is  stained  and  broken,  the  carved  woodwork 
thickly  covered  with  paint  and  varnish,  yet  in  spite  of  all  this  is  a  place  well  worth 
seeing,  probably  the  oldest  dwelling-house  in  the  City. 

St.  Andrew  Hubbard,  sometimes  called  St.  Andrew,  Eastcheap,  formerly  stood  in  Love  Lane.  It 
was  burnt  down  in  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt.  The  parish  was  then  annexed  to  St.  Mary-at-Hill.  The 
earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1366. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  Earl  of  Pembroke  in  1323;  John,  Lord 
Talbot,  cousin  and  heir  of  the  above,  1427  ;  Edward  IV.,  who  restored  it,  1463,  to  the  Earl  of  Shrews- 
bury, who  presented  it  in  1470;  the  Earl  of  Northumberland  up  to  1666,  when  it  was  annexed  to  St.  Mary- 
at-Hill,  after  which  the  alternate  patronage  was  shared  with  the  Duke  of  Somerset. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  282. 

The  charitable  gifts  recorded  of  this  parish  are  very  few ;  the  donors  of  them  were  :  Margaret  Dean, 
3s.  4d.  per  annum  ;  Mr.  Jacobs,  jQi  :  6  :  4  ;  Mr.  Green,  jTi.     All  were  for  the  use  of  the  poor. 

The  most  notable  rector  was  John  Randall  (1570-1622),  Fellow  of  Lincoln  College,  Oxford. 

In  Little  Eastcheap  was  the  weigh-house,  built  on  the  site  of  St.  Andrew 
Hubbard,  and  rebuilt  after  the  Fire. 

"Which  said  Weighhouse  was  before  in  Cornhill.  In  this  House  are  weighed 
merchandizes  brought  from  beyond  seas  to  the  King's  Beam,  to  which  doth  belong 
a  Master,  and  under  him  four  Master  Porters,  with  labouring  Porters  under  them. 
They  have  Carts  and  Horses  to  fetch  the  goods  from  the  Merchants'  Warehouses 
to  the  Beam,  and  to  carry  them  back.  The  house  belongeth  to  the  Company  of 
Grocers,  in  whose  gifts  the  several  Porters',  etc.,  places  are.      But  of  late  years  little 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  269 

is  done  in  this  office,  as  wanting  a  compulsive  power  to  constrain  the  merchants  to 
have  their  goods  weighed ;  they  alleging  it  to  be  an  unnecessary  trouble  and 
charge  "  (Cunningham). 

Philpot  Lane  was  named  after  Sir  John  Philpot,  mayor. 

At  the  south  -  east  end  of  Rood  Lane  is  the  Church  of  St.  Margaret  Pattens, 
so  called,  according  to  Stow,  because  pattens  were  sold  there.  Formerly  the  lane 
was  called  St.  Margaret  Pattens,  but  when  about  1536-38  the  church  was  rebuilt, 
a  rood  was  set  up  in  the  churchyard  and  oblations  made  to  the  rood  were  employed 
in  building  the  church.  But  in  1538  the  rood  was  discovered  to  be  broken, 
together  with  the  "  tabernacle  "  wherein  it  had  been  placed.  There  was  then  a 
colony  or  settlement  of  basket-makers  in  the  parish,  among  whose  houses  a  fire 
broke  out  in  the  same  month,  which  destroyed  twelve  houses  and  took  the  lives 
of  nine  persons. 

ST.   MARGARET  PATTENS 

This  church  was  rebuilt,  as  Stow  records,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.;  thoroughly  repaired  in  1614 
and  1632,  but  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire.  The  present  church  was  completed  by  Wren  in  1687.  The 
parish  of  St.  Gabriel's,  Fenchurch,  was  annexed  to  it  after  1666.    The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent  is  1305. 

The  derivation  of  the  name  is  obscure  ;   Stow's  conjecture  has  already  been  given. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of:  The  family  of  the  Nevils  in  1281  ;  Robert  Ricken- 
den  and  Margaret  his  wife,  who  confirmed  it  to  Richard  Whittington,  who  bestowed  it  on  the  Mayor  and 
Commonalty  of  London  in  141 1,  with  whom  it  continued  up  to  1666  when  St.  Gabriel's  was  annexed,  and 
it  was  therefore  shared  alternately  with  the  Crown. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  223. 

The  church  measures  66  feet  in  length,  52  feet  in  breadth,  and  32  feet  in  height,  and  consists  of  a 
nave,  chancel,  and  north  aisle.  The  steeple  consists  of  a  tower,  terminated  by  a  cornice  and  balustrade, 
with  four  pinnacles  at  the  corners,  above  which  a  spire  rises,  culminating  in  a  ball  and  vane.  The  spire, 
which  is  200  feet,  is  taller  than  any  other  of  Wren's  similar  ones,  and  the  steeple  comes  third  in  order  of 
height  of  those  of  his  churches.  There  is  a  picture  on  the  north  side  of  the  church  which  is  said  to  be 
the  work  of  Carlo  Maratti  (1625-1713),  a  Roman  painter.  The  church  is  famous  for  its  canopied  pews,  the 
only  ones  in  the  city ;  in  one  of  these  the  initials  C.  W.,  supposed  to  be  those  of  Sir  Christopher  Wren,  and 
the  date  1686,  are  inlaid. 

A  chantry  was  founded  here  by  :  Peter  at  Vyne,  at  the  .Altar  of  Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  to  which  John 
Skelton  was  admitted  chaplain  1472-73. 

The  original  church  does  not  seem  to  have  possessed  any  monuments  of  note.  Of  the  later  ones,  the 
most  interesting  are  those  of:  Giles  Vandeput,  erected  by  his  son.  Sir  Peter  Vandeput,  who  was  sheriff  in 
1684,  and  donor  of  ;^ioo  to  the  parish  ;  Sir  Peter  Delme,  Lord  Mayor  in  1723,  whose  monument  is  the  work 
of  Johan  Michael  Rysbrack,  or  Rysbrach,  of  Antwerp  ;  Dr.  Thomas  Birch,  Secretary  of  the  Royal  Society, 
and  author,  who  was  rector  here  for  nearly  nineteen  years,  was  buried  in  the  chancel,  1766.  The  side  altar 
of  the  north  aisle  contains  a  Delia  Robbia  plaque  representing  the  Virgin  and  Child,  in  memory  of  Thomas 
Wagstaffe,  the  ablest  of  the  non-jurors,  appointed  rector  here  in  1684  and  deprived  in  1690. 

Sir  Peter  Vandejjut  was  donor  of  ^^  100  to  the  parish  ;  CoUyer  of  ^5  ;  Thomas  Salter  of  j^20  ; 

Richard  Camden  of  ^20.     The  other  charitable  gifts  recorded  amounted  to  jC6  per  annum. 

John  Milward  (1556-1609),  chaplain  to  James  I.,  was  rector  here;  also  Thomas  Birch  {1705-66), 
Secretary  to  the  Royal  Society;  and  Peter  Whalley  (1722-91),  head-master  of  Christ's  Hospital,  and  author 
of  various  works. 


270  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 


ST.   MARY-AT-HILL 

We  pass  on  to  St.  Mary-at-Hill ;  a  church  well  known  on  account  of  the  energetic  work  of  its 
rector,  Rev.  W.  Carlile,  founder  of  the  Church  Army,  who  popularises  church  work  among  his  poor 
parishioners  by  lantern  services  and  other  devices.  The  date  of  the  foundation  of  the  original  church 
is  not  known,  but  there  is  evidence  of  its  existence  in  the  middle  of  the  fourteenth  century.  In 
1616  it  was  thoroughly  repaired,  but  the  body  of  it  was  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire  and  rebuilt  by 
Wren,  1672-77.  The  stone  tower  remained  standing  till  1780,  when  it  was  considered  insecure  and 
pulled  down,  when  it  was  replaced  by  the  present  one.  In  1892  the  church  was  closed  for  two  years, 
while  3000  bodies  were  removed  from  beneath  the  flooring  to  Norwood  Cemetery.  The  parish  of 
St.  Andrew  Hubbard  was  not  rebuilt  after  the  Fire,  and  was  annexed  to  this.  The  earliest  date  of  an 
incumbent  is  1337. 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  Richard  Hackney,  sheriff  of  London,  who 
presented  to  it  in  1337,  and  so  on;  it  remained  in  private  persons  up  to  1640,  when  the  parishioners 
presented  to  it,  up  to  1666,  when  the  parish  of  St.  Andrew  Hubbard  was  anne.xed  to  it,  the  patronage 
now  being  alternate,  Sir  Henry  Peek  having  presented  last  in  right  of  St.  Andrew  Hubbard  in  1891. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  400. 

The  church  measures  96  feet  in  length  and  60  feet  in  breadth,  and  is  crowned  by  a  cupola  which 
rises  to  the  height  of  38  feet.  The  cupola  is  divided  into  panels  and  is  sui)ported  by  four  Doric  columns, 
forming  two  side  aisles.  The  ceiling  to  the  east  and  west  of  this  is  arched,  as  well  as  that  of  the  side  aisles 
between  the  columns,  so  that  the  appearance  of  the  roof  is  thus  rendered  cruciform.  There  is  a  great 
quantity  of  carving  in  the  church,  but  of  a  late  date,  being  the  work  of  Mr  W.  Gibbs  Rogers,  who  executed 
it  in  1848-49  when  the  church  was  remodelled. 

Chantries  were  founded  here:  By  Rose  Wrytell,  at  the  Altar  of  St.  Edmund  the  King,  before  1336. 
She  left  six  marks  for  an  endowment,  and  Michael  de  Leek  was  licensed  as  chaplain,  November  5,  1365. 
The  value  was  ^8  :  2  :  6  in  1548,  when  Christopher  Burley  was  priest  at  the  age  of  43  years,  "a  good 
singer  and  well  learned."  By  John  Weston,  whose  endowment  fetched  ^8:13:4  in  1548.  By  John 
Nasing,  at  the  Altar  of  St.  Katherine.  Harry  Vorkflete  the  chaplain  exchanged  it  with  John  atte  Welle, 
February  20,  1395-96;  Thomas  Lewes  was  priest  in  154S,  "of  the  age  of  42  years,  a  good  singer  and 
player  on  the  organ  and  prettily  learned."  By  William  Cambridge,  whose  endowment  fetched  ^10  :  6  :  8 
in  1548,  when  Matthew  Berye  was  priest,  "of  the  age  of  40  years,  a  good  singer  and  indifferently 
well  learned."  By  John  Cawston,  whose  endowment  yielded  ^20:  17  :  8  in  1548,  when  Edmond  Alston 
was  priest,  "of  36  years,  a  good  singer  and  handsomely  learned."  By  Richard  Gosselinge,  whose 
endowment  produced  ^9  in  1548,  when  John  Sherpyn  was  priest,  "of  the  age  of  44  years,  a  teacher  of 
children."     By  John  Bodman,  whose  endowment  fetched  ^14  :  6  :  8  in  1548. 

The  church  formerly  contained  a  considerable  number  of  monuments,  but  the  persons  com- 
memorated are  of  comparatively  little  eminence.  Sir  John  Hampson,  Knight  and  alderman,  was  buried 
here  in  1607.  Within  the  communion  rails  of  the  present  building  the  body  of  the  Rev.  John  Brand 
lies  interred,  who  died  in  1806  ;  he  was  Fellow  and  Secretary  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  and  rector  here 
for  some  years.     Edward  Young,  the  poet,  was  married  here  to  Lady  Elizabeth  Lee,  in  1731. 

£^°  or  ^11  per  annum  were  given  to  the  poor  by  several  benefactors,  to  be  expended  on  bread. 
Other  gifts  recorded  by  Stow  are  :  ^1^40,  from  Sir  William  Leman,  for  the  maintenance  of  a  Divinity 
Lecture;  ;^5  from  Jane  Revel;  ^4:  los.  to  be  paid  every  tenth  year,  from  Bernard  Hyde. 

Andrew  Snape,  D.D.,  Master  of  Eton  College,  Vice-Chancellor  of  Cambridge  1721-23,  was 
rector  here. 

At  the  south-eastern  corner  of  St.  Mary-at-Hill  stands  the  mighty  building  of 
the  Coal  Exchange.  The  material  used  is  Portland  stone,  and  the  great  tower  and 
cupola  which  rises  above  the  street  still  retains  its  whiteness.     The  Exchange  was 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY 


271 


opened  in  1849.  Monday  is  the  principal  market  day,  but  markets  are  also  held  on 
Wednesdays  and  Fridays.  Under  the  Exchange  are  the  remains  of  an  old  Roman 
bath,  which  was  discovered  when  the  foundations  were  being  made.  Strype  says 
that  above  the  stairs  at  Billingsgate  "the  coalmen  and  woodmongers  meet  every 
morning  about  eight  or  nine  o'clock,  this  place  being  their  Exchange,  for  the  coal 
trade  which  brings  a  great  resort  of   people    and    occasions  a  great    trade    to  the 


rllF.   COAI.    EXCHANGE 


Pictorial  A^tttcy. 


inhabitants.  And  this  place  is  now  more  frequented  than  in  ancient  time,  when 
Greenhithe  was  made  use  of  for  the  same  purpose,  this  being  more  commodious. 
And  therefore  it  was  ordained  to  be  the  only  port  for  all  such  sorts  of 
merchandise." 

Up  to  1846  Billingsgate  Fish-market  contained  only  sheds  and  squalid  buildings 
in  which  the  fish  trade  was  carried  on.  But  in  that  year  J.  B.  Bunning,  the  City 
architect,  was  employed  to  build  a  regular  market.  In  1872  the  great  increase  of 
the  trade  and  the  necessity  for  further  accommodation  induced  the  Corporation  to 


272  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

pull  down  this  building  and  rebuild  on  a  larger  scale.  Old  Darkhouse  Lane  and 
Billingsgate  Stairs  were  utilised  to  gain  an  increased  site  as  the  great  bulk  of  the 
Custom  House  prevented  any  expansion  eastward. 

Sir  Horace  Jones  was  the  architect.  The  building  is  of  an  Italian  design 
and  is  of  Portland  stone  with  facings  of  yellow  brick  and  polished  grey  granite 
plinths  and  wall  linings.  A  long  arcade  faces  Thames  Street,  and  at  each 
end  there  are  pavilion  buildings.  Within,  the  basement  has  an  area  of  about 
20,000  superficial  feet.  On  the  ground  floor  the  area  is  39,000  square  feet.  The 
roof  is  on  the  Louvre  glass  principle  carried  on  lattice  girders  of  60  feet  span. 
There  is  a  gallery  with  an  area  of  4000  feet ;  this  is  utilised  for  the  sale  of  haddocks 
and  dried  fish. 

St.  Botolph,  Billing'Sg'ate,  stood  against  St.  Botolph's  Lane,  on  the  south  side  of  Thames  Street. 
It  was  repaired  in  1624,  but  burnt  down  by  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt,  its  parish  being  annexed  to  St. 
George,  Botolph  Lane.  It  stood  against  the  Bridge  Gate  of  the  first  London  Bridge,  just  as  the  other  three 
churches  of  St.  Botolph  stood  at  Aldgate,  Aldersgate,  and  Bishopsgate.     The  earliest  date  of  an  incumbent 

is  1343- 

The  patronage  of  the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  who  received 

it  from  Orgarus  about  1181. 

Houseling  people  in  1548  were  300. 

Chantries  were  founded  here  :  By  and  for  Thomas  Snodyland,  late  rector,  who  died  1349,  in  the 
chapel  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  of  which  Nicholas  de  \\"ansyngdon  was  chaplain,  and  e.xchanged  it 
April  II,  1 163 — the  King  granted  a  licence  for  it  December  15,  1371;  by  John  Pickman,  at  the  Altar 
of  Our  Lady,  whose  endowment  fetched  ;£^io  in  1548,  when  Thomas  Serle  was  priest,  "of  the  age  of 
50  years,  of  good  consideration  and  learning  touching  ordinary  things " ;  by  Thomas  Aubrey,  whose 
endowment  fetched  ^^8  :  6  :  8  in  1548,  when  Thomas  Baynton  was  priest,  "  of  the  age  of  60  years,  of  good 
consideration  and  learning " ;  by  Roger  Smallwood.  Here  was  founded  the  Fraternity  of  Our  Lady  and 
St.  John  the  Baptist.  The  endowment  fetched  ^14  in  1548,  when  William  Lucay  was  priest,  "of  the  age 
of  50  years,  a  man  of  good  conversation  and  small  learning." 

The  church  originally  contained  many  monuments,  but  most  of  them  had  disappeared  by  1633. 
John  Rainwell,  mayor,  1426,  had  been  buried  in  it;  also  Stephen  Forster,  mayor  in  1454. 

Some  of  the  donors  of  charitable  gifts  to  the  parish  were :  Robert  Fellows,  of  ^25  ;  William 
Fellows,  of  p^25  ;  Thomas  Barber,  of  £,(> :  18  :  6,  and  others  of  small  amounts. 

The  parishes  of  St.  George,  Botolph  Lane,  and  St.  Botolph,  Billingsgate,  in  conjunction  with  the 
other  part  of  Billingsgate  ward,  maintained  forty  boys  by  subscription. 

Laurence  Bothe,  rector  here,  became  Bishop  of  Durham,  1457  ;  of  York,  1476-80  (died) :  also  ^Villiam 
Sherlock  (d.  1707),  Dean  of  St.  Paul's. 

Billingsgate,  like  Queenhithe,  is  an  artificial  port,  constructed  with  great  ease 
by  digging  out  the  foreshore  of  mud  and  shingle,  and  protecting  the  square  harbour 
thus  formed  by  piles  of  timber,  on  which  beams  were  laid  to  form  a  quay,  and  sheds 
were  built  up  for  the  protection  of  the  merchandise. 

The  port  was  close  to  the  north  end  of  the  first  bridge,  so  that  goods  landed 
here  might  be  easily  carried  into  the  Roman  fort,  while  the  port  itself  was  protected 
by  the  fort.  After  the  desertion  of  London  by  the  Romans,  the  occupation  by  the 
Saxons,  and  the  revival  of  trade.  Billingsgate  remained  the  principal  port,  though 


•J 

r. 


THE  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  CITY  273 

a  largfe  share  of  the  trade  went  to  Oueenhithe.  The  mouth  of  the  Walbrook  seems 
to  have  ceased  very  early  in  the  history  of  London  to  be  a  port.  Billingsgate 
robbed  Oueenhithe  of  its  trade  in  spite  of  all  injunctions  of  restraint. 

The  fish-market  has  long  since  overwhelmed  every  other  kind  of  merchandise. 
The  language  and  manners,  the  rough  customs,  and  the  drinking  habits  of  the 
Billingsgate  fish  -  wives  are  proverbial.  They  have  now,  however,  all  vanished, 
and  the  market  is  as  quiet  and  decorous  as  any  other.  A  curious  custom  is  noted 
by  Cunningham.  The  porters  who  plied  at  Billingsgate  used  to  invite  the 
passengers  to  stop  and  salute  a  certain  post.  If  one  complied,  and  paid  down 
sixpence,  they  gave  him  a  name,  and  pretended  to  be  his  sponsors.  If  one  refused, 
they  laid  hold  of  him  and  bumped  him  against  the  post.  The  custom  reminds 
one  of  the  same  bumping  practised  in  walking  the  bounds  of  the  parish  ;  it  had 
probably  the  same  origin,  in  keeping  alive  the  memory  of  something  by  the 
infliction  of  pain.  The  custom  remained  when  the  cause  and  reason  had  long 
been  forgotten. 

This  end  of  Thames  Street  was  called  Petty  Wales.  Stow  has  an  interesting 
note  on  this  subject  : 

"  Towards  the  east  end  thereof,  namely,  over  against  Galley  key,  Wool  key, 
and  the  Custom  House,  there  have  been  of  old  time  some  large  buildings  of  stone, 
the  ruins  thereof  do  yet  remain,  but  the  first  builders  and  owners  of  them  are 
worn  out  of  memory,  wherefore  the  common  people  affirm  Julius  Ceesar  to  be  the 
builder  thereof,  as  also  of  the  Tower  itself.  But  thereof  I  have  spoken  already. 
Some  are  of  another  opinion,  and  that  a  more  likely,  that  this  great  stone  building 
was  sometime  the  lodging  appointed  for  princes  of  Wales,  when  they  repaired  to 
this  city,  and  that,  therefore,  the  street  in  that  part  is  called  Petty  Wales,  which 
name  remaineth  there  most  commonly  until  this  day,  even  as  where  the  kings  of 
Scotland  were  used  to  be  lodged  betwixt  Charing  Cross  and  White  Hall,  it  is 
likewise  called  Scotland,  and  where  the  earls  of  Britons  were  lodged  without 
Aldersgate,  the  street  is  called  Britain  Street,  etc. 

"  The  said  building  might  of  old  time  pertain  to  the  princes  of  Wales,  as  is 
aforesaid,  but  is  since  turned  to  other  use." 

The  Custom   House  itself,  with  its  magnificent  frontage  and  fine  quay,  is  the 

fifth  built   upon  the  same  spot.     The  first  was  built  in    1385.     The  second,   third, 

and   fourth  were  all  destroyed   by  fire.      No   doubt  the  Custom   officers  could  tell 

fine  tales  of  exciting  adventure,  of  ruin  or  fortune,  of  clever  evasions  and  despicable 

tricks ;  but  these  things   are  secret.     The    House   itself,   with   the  ships,  the   busy 

wharfingers,  the  boatmen,  and  the  general  liveliness  of  the  scene,  are  all  that  are 

apparent.      Yet   it   requires   little   imagination  to  see  the   enormous   importance  of 

the  business  done  in  this  solid  building  of  Smirke's.     A  great  source  of  our  national 

income,  a  large  part  of  the  nation's  wealth,  comes  from  this  house.      Tons  of  goods 

18 


274  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  LONDON 

— ranging  from  hemp,  honey,  leeches,  tobacco,  to  manufactured  goods,  marble, 
sugar,  and  spirits — are  daily  surveyed  by  the  Customs  officers.  Our  total  imports 
for  1 90 1  were  worth  nearly  ^522,000,000. 

Beyond  the  Custom  House  is  Wool  Wharf,  then  several  small  quays,  of  which 
one.  Galley  Quay,  carries  a  history  in  its  name.  It  was  so  called  because  the 
Venetian  and  Genoese  galleys  here  discharged  their  cargoes.  There  is  a  tradition 
of  some  religious  house  having  stood  here  also.     Hear  what  Stow  says  : 

"In  this  Lane  of  old  time  dwelt  divers  strangers,  born  of  Genoa  and  those 
parts  ;  these  were  commonly  called  galley  men,  as  men  that  came  up  in  the  galleys 
brought  up  wines  and  other  merchandises,  which  they  landed-  in  Thames  Street,  at  a 
place  called  Galley  key  ;  they  had  a  certain  coin  of  silver  amongst  themselves,  which 
were  halfpence  of  Genoa,  and  were  called  Galley  halfpence  ;  these  halfpence  were 
forbidden  in  the  13th  of  Henry  IV.,  and  again  by  parliament  in  the  4th  of  Henry  \^ 
And  it  was  enacted  that  if  any  person  bring  into  this  realm  Galley  halfpence, 
suskins,  or  dodkins,  he  should  be  punished  as  a  thief;  and  he  that  taketh  or  payeth 
such  money  shall  lose  a  hundred  shillings,  whereof  the  king  shall  have  the  one  half, 
and  he  that  will  sue  the  other  half  Notwithstanding,  in  my  youth,  I  have  seen 
them  pass  current,  but  with  some  difficulty,  for  that  the  English  halfpence  were 
then,  though  not  so  broad,  somewhat  thicker  and  stronger." 

THE   BAKERS   COMPANY 

The  Guild  or  Fraternity  of  Bakers  would  seem  to  have  been  in  existence  as  early  as  any  other, 
seeing  that  the  craft  or  mystery  of  baking  is  the  most  ancient  in  existence.  In  the  reign  of  Henry 
II.,  A.D.  1 155,  the  Fraternity  was  charged  in  the  Great  Roll  of  the  Exchequer  with  one  mark  of  gold 
for  their  Guild. 

The  Bakers  Company,  as  the  united  Company  of  White  and  Brown  bakers,  was  first  incorporated  by 
charter  of  Henry